Tin Roof Alley Poets

Social Cafe - Alley Cats Personal Boards => Alley Cats Personal Boards => A-Friends Cafe => Topic started by: witt on February 09, 2005, 01:06 PM

Title: Black History
Post by: witt on February 09, 2005, 01:06 PM
Edward Sawyer Cooper, native of Columbia, SC, became the first African-American elected president of the American Heart Association. He has waged a campaign against strokes and heart disease. He has acquired many, many awards and honors.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 08, 2005, 07:16 PM
Witt, you pulled one out the hat on me.
Dr. Matilda Evans was decades ahead of her time, and I thank you for the lesson.
I thought some more details would be interesting, so here's a linhref="http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/1547/Matilda_Evans_healed_much_of_South_Carolina" target="_blank">http://www.aaregistry.com/african....arolina (http://www.aaregistry.com/african....arolina)[/url]</font>
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on February 16, 2005, 05:24 PM
I found this while looking around. I believe it was written by a British Abolitionists prior to the Civil War here in America, indicating the horrors of slavery and a movement to abolish it..

The is a bit long but worth every emotional word...

William Cowper
From Charity, (1782)

Again the band of commerce was designed
To associate all the branches of mankind;
And if a boundless plenty be the robe,
Trade is the golden girdle of the globe.
Wise to promote whatever end he means,
God opens fruitful Nature's various scenes:
Each climate needs what other climes produce,
And offers something to the general use;
No land but listens to the common call,
And in return receives supply from all.
This genial intercourse, and mutual aid,
Cheers what were else a universal shade,
Calls nature from her ivy-mantled den,
And softens human rock-work into men.
Ingenious Art, with her expressive face,
Steps forth to fashion and refine the race;
Not only fills necessity's demand,
But overcharges her capacious hand:
Capricious taste itself can crave no more
Than she supplies from her abounding store:
She strikes out all that luxury can ask,
And gains new vigour at her endless task.
Hers is the spacious arch, the shapely spire,
The painter's pencil, and the poets lyre;
From her the canvas borrows light and shade,
And verse, more lasting, hues that never fade.
She guides the finger o'er the dancing keys,
Gives difficulty all the grace of ease,
And pours a torrent of sweet notes around
Fast as the thirsting ear can drink the sound.
These are the gifts of art; and art thrives most
Where Commerce has enriched the busy coast;
He catches all improvements in his flight,
Spreads foreign wonders in his country's sight,
Imports what others have invented well,
And stirs his own to match them, or excel.
'Tis thus, reciprocating each with each,
Alternately the nations learn and teach;
While Providence enjoins to every soul
A union with the vast terraqueous whole.
Heaven speed the canvas gallantly unfurled
To furnish and accommodate a world,
To give the pole the produce of the sun,
And knit the unsocial climates into one.
Soft airs and gentle heavings of the wave
Impel the fleet, whose errand is to save,
To succor wasted regions, and replace
The smile of opulence in sorrow's face.
Let nothing adverse, nothing unforeseen,
Impede the bark that ploughs the deep serene,
Charged with a freight transcending in its worth
The gems of India, Natures rarest birth,
That flies, like Gabriel on his Lord's commands,
A herald of God's love to pagan lands!
But ah! what wish can prosper, or what prayer,
For merchants rich in cargoes of despair,
Who drive a loathsome traffic, gauge, and span,
And buy the muscles and the bones of man?
The tender ties of father, husband, friend,
All bonds of nature in that moment end;
And each endures, while yet he draws his breath,
A stroke as fatal as the scythe of death.
The sable warrior, frantic with regret
Of her he loves, and never can forget,
Loses in tears the far-receding shore,
But not the thought that they must meet no more;
Deprived of her and freedom at a blow,
What has he left that he can yet forego?
Yes, to deep sadness sullenly resigned,
He feels his body's bondage in his mind;
Puts off his generous nature, and to suit
His manners with his fate, puts on the brute.
Oh most degrading of all ills that wait
On man, a mourner in his best estate!
All other sorrows virtue may endure,
And find submission more than half a cure;
Grief is itself a medicine, and bestowed
To improve the fortitude that bears the load;
To teach the wanderer, as his woes increase,
The path of wisdom, all whose paths are peace;
But slavery! Virtue dreads it as her grave:
Patience itself is meanness in a slave;
Or, if the will and sovereignty of God
Bid suffer it a while, and kiss the rod,
Wait for the dawning of a brighter day,
And snap the chain the moment when you may.
Nature imprints upon whatever we see,
That has a heart and life in it, Be free!
The beasts are chartered neither age nor force
Can quell the love of freedom in a horse:
He breaks the cord that held him at the rack;
And, conscious of an unencumbered back,
Snuffs up the morning air, forgets the rein;
Loose fly his forelock and his ample mane;
Responsive to the distant neigh, he neighs;
Nor stops, till, over leaping all delays,
He finds the pasture where his fellows graze.
Canst thou, and honored with a Christian name,
Buy what is woman-born, and feel no shame?
Trade in the blood of innocence, and plead
Expedience as a warrant for the deed?
So may the wolf, whom famine has made bold
To quit the forest and invade the fold:
So may the ruffian, who with ghostly glide,
Dagger in hand, steals close to your bedside;
Not he, but his emergence forced the door,
He found it inconvenient to be poor.
Has God then given its sweetness to the cane,
Unless his laws be trampled on in vain?
Built a brave world, which cannot yet subsist,
Unless his right to rule it be dismissed?
Impudent blasphemy! So folly pleads,
And, avarice being judge, with ease succeeds.
But grant the plea, and let it stand for just,
That man make man his prey, because he must;
Still there is room for pity to abate
And soothe the sorrows of so sad a state.
A Briton knows, or if he knows it not,
The Scripture placed within his reach, he ought,
That souls have no discriminating hue,
Alike important in their Maker's view;
That none are free from blemish since the fall,
And love divine has paid one price for all.
The wretch that works and weeps without relief
Has One that notices his silent grief.
He, from whose hand alone all power proceeds,
Ranks its abuse among the foulest deeds,
Considers all injustice with a frown;
But marks the man that treads his fellow down.
Begone! the whip and bell in that hard hand
Are hateful ensigns of usurped command.
Not Mexico could purchase kings a claim
To scourge him, weariness his only blame.
Remember, Heaven has an avenging rod,
To smite the poor is treason against God!
Trouble is grudgingly and hardly brooked,
While life's sublimest joys are overlooked:
We wander o'er a sunburnt thirsty soil,
Murmuring and weary of our daily toil,
Forget to enjoy the palm-trees offered shade,
Or taste the fountain in the neighboring glade:
Else who would lose, that had the power to improve
The occasion of transmuting fear to love?
Oh, tis a godlike privilege to save!
And he that scorns it is himself a slave.
Inform his mind; one flash of heavenly day
Would heal his heart, and melt his chains away.
'Beauty for ashes' is a gift indeed,
And slaves, by truth enlarged, are doubly freed.
Then would he say, submissive at thy feet,
While gratitude and love made service sweet,
My dear deliverer out of hopeless night,
Whose bounty bought me but to give me light,
I was a bondman on my native plain,
Sin forged, and ignorance made fast, the chain;
Thy lips have shed instruction as the dew,
Taught me what path to shun, and what pursue;
Farewell my former joys! I sigh no more
For Africa's once loved, benighted shore;
Serving a benefactor, I am free;
At my best home, if not exiled from thee.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 16, 2005, 08:24 PM
An Anti-Slavery Ballad by Robert Burns


   Robert Burns
'The Slave's Lament (1792)
It was in sweet Senegal that my foes did me enthrall
   For the lands of Virginia-ginia O;
Torn from that lovely shore, and must never see it more,
   And alas! I am weary, weary O!
      Torn from &c.

All on that charming coast is no bitter snow and frost,
   Like the lands of Virginia-ginia O;
There streams for ever flow, and there flowers for ever blow,
   And alas! I am weary, weary O!
      There streams &c.

The burden I must bear, while the cruel scourge I fear,
   In the lands of Virginia-ginia O;
And I think on friends most dear with the bitter, bitter tear,
   And Alas! I am weary, weary O!
      And I think &c.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 17, 2005, 12:39 PM
Fantastic, rg and Friend. Both great choices. Thanks for putting both of them here where we could read them and remember.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 31, 2005, 04:53 PM
In honor of black history month, I thought it would be good to list some little known black history facts to honor those that are forgotten, or never mentioned in our euro centric history books. You'll probably be amazed at the things we take for granted, but the credit was never properly assigned.
Won't you join me?

Allow me to introduce Araminta Green. She was called Minta in her young years. She was born to Ashanti african slaves, Benjamin Ross and Harriet Green. Because she was a slave, the rcord of her birth is not clear, but it is thought she was born either 1819 or 1820.

As were most slaves she was treated cruelly and at the age of five was rented out to a neighbor to sit up with their infant child. If the infant woke up during the night and cried, Minta was beaten for the disturbance.

At the age of  13  Minta was hit in the head with a 2 pound steel weight as she tried to block an overseer who was about to catch a running slave. The blow was near fatal. She was unconscious for days and would suffer from blackouts the rest of her life from this vicious attack.

She eventually became a fugitive slave, came to be known as 'Moses', became a nurse and made a brew from the knowledge she had of roots and herbs, using it to cure the deadly dysentery that was killing union troops in large numbers, in spite of all the learned doctor's efforts.
She also became a soldier,scout, commander, spy, women's rights advocate, and social reformer.

If you'll harken back a few years to the time Bush Sr. sent the army to Panama, there was a female sgt. injured while leading her troops under fire. She was touted at the time to be the first female to lead troops in combat.
  Araminta Green was the first woman not only lead troops in combat to disrupt supply lines and gather information on several missions, but she devised the plan on the request of the union army and carried it out under fire with much success, freeing 735 slaves in the process.

General Saxton, who reported the raid in South Carolina to Secretary of War Stanton, said "This is the only military command in American history wherein a woman, black or white, led the raid and under whose inspiration it was originated and conducted."

Araminta went on to speak before groups on freedom and women' suffurage, opened schools and had audiences with Lincoln himself.

In her teens years she took on the name Harriet in honor of her mother. In 1844 she married John Tubman, a free black.

Yes, I'm talking about Harriet Tubman. Her motto was 'live free, or die' and she carried a shotgun to enforce that very thing as she freed hundreds of slaves with the underground railroad. She died in 1913 and is buried in New York.

This is just a small sample of what a uneducated runaway slave, who could neither read nor write, accomplished. I encourage all of you to investigate her life further.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: petro on February 01, 2005, 01:31 AM
It's more than tempting to not respond to this post.  Indeed little comfort can be gleaned from such a story.  Yet, the memory begs nothing less than acknowledgement.  This woman named; Araminta Green, humble, and deserving, suffered not in the righteous manner that others of the time suffered; to farm, and provide; struggle to nurture a family and dream, but in servitude to cruel, and sad individuals that because of their ignorance could not, or would not stand clear and allow her the the rights of a human being; indeed, her rights as an American.  Instead, she languished behind, in her early years, behing a belief, and a shameful process.  As we remember Mrs. Green, and mourn her shameful treatment,  let us also remember that even in those times there were those that stove to undue the ingnorance that prevailed.  It is, and will always be our shame, of the treatment of blacks in this country.  I, for one believe that Mrs. Green would, shotgun not withstanding, look to me and see a fellow human being, and withold a greater impullse...

Thank you A-F this post...

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 02, 2005, 02:48 PM
Your post was well thought out and appreciated. However you've confused me on one issue and prompted the need in me to clarify another.

1)"It's more than tempting to not respond to this post."

That really confuses me because I can't think of a single reason why, but it seems from the lack of response you are indeed correct. Would you explain this to me please?

2)" I, for one believe that Mrs. Green would, shotgun not withstanding, look to me and see a fellow human being, and withold a greater impullse..."

My reference to Harriet Tubman's use of the shotgun had to do with her motto 'you will live free or die.' This is what she told all the slaves she helped escape through the underground R/R. She carried lognum to keep the children quiet and a shotgun to keep those that got scared from turning back. she was well aware of the fact that if any turned back they would be tortured into telling the secrets of the underground R/R and that just could not happen.

In her post war years Harriet Tubman was a staunch worker for scocial reform. She was denied her military pension, but she used what monies she could scrape together to open schools for freed slaves, she took in children and raised them as her own,  she took in elderly and impoverished slaves.
She worked with abolishonists, campaigned for womens suffurage with Susan B. Anthony and even had a adudience with with Queen Victoria.

I say all that to say her later years were not vengeful, but full of efforts to educate and raise issues of justice. So you are indeed correct in saying she would see you as a fellow human being.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 02, 2005, 02:55 PM
David Crosthwait was born in Nashville, Tennessee and moved to Kansas City, Missouri where he attended high school. He went on to attend Purdue University where he obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in 1913 and a Master of Engineering degree in 1920.

In 1913 Crosthwait moved to Marshalltown, Iowa where he began working for the Durham Company, designing heating installations. In 1925 he was named the director of the research department, overseeing a staff of engineers and chemists. His research concerned heating and ventilating and in the coming years he obtained 39 patents for various devices including heating systems, vacuum pumps, refrigeration methods and processes and temperature regulating devices. His most famous creation was the heating system for New York's famous Radio City Music Hall.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 03, 2005, 10:17 AM
I agree, Friend. There are soooo many unsung heros that are never mentioned. Here is where I shine. I have all kinds of famous people from SC that no one has ever heard of that really need to be known. For years it has always been the same people over and over and there are so many prominent people that need to be taught. I concentrate on SC and could spend MONTHS on that alone.
For instance, Ron McNair was from my hometown Lake City, SC and no one even remembers who he was!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 03, 2005, 12:23 PM
Let's remind them of Ron McNair:

Now meet Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, born  in St. Marc Haiti (cirrca) 1745 to a french sea captain and a slave mother. He was educated in france and worked for a time as a seaman.

He spoke French, Spanish and English fluently. He was a man of refindment and was one of the rare examples of blacks owning land. As much as 800 acres. He married a Patawatomi indian (Kittihawah) and in 1779 explored north to an area named Eschikagou by the indians.

He built the first permanent structure there and it eventually became a trading post making him a very wealthy man.
In his home the first marriage was performed, the first elections were held, and the first court handed down justice. He died in August of 1818.

The place? Right at the mouth of the Chicago river.
Chicago!!! Founded by a black man.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 04, 2005, 01:28 PM
The battle of San Juan Hill little known history fact.

Teddy Rossevelt and his rough riders were not the first to reach the summit in the charge on San Juan Hill. It was the all black 10th Calvary, the Buffalo Soilders.

Here's an excerpt from a speech in 1998 by the hornorable William Clay, Missouri, read into the congressional record of the house of Repersentatives:

"Hundreds of highly decorated units of black soldiers were among the first to be sent to Cuba in 1898 to fight in the Spanish American War, including the 9th and 10th Calvary and the 24th and 25th Army Regiments. These heroic soldiers waged a furious battle, capturing El Caney and charging the enemy from the summit at San Juan Hill. Their acts of bravery enabled Colonel Roosevelt and his ``Rough Riders'' to win San Juan Hill the following day. According to an article which appeared in the Washington Times on February 8, 1991, ``Neither Col. Theodore Roosevelt, whose name is most commonly associated with the battle of San Juan Hill, nor any other Roughrider reached the summit before the black calvary''.

The Americans outnumbered the Spanish militia 10 to 1, but the undermanned Spaniard troops fought fiercely from their concrete blockhouses. American casualties were heavy. More than 200 were killed or injured. Five Negro soldiers won Congressional Medals of Honor for bravery in the battle at El Caney and San Juan Hill. They were Dennis Bell, Edward Baker, Fitz Lee, William Thomkins and George Wanton. Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox, lauded them as being the ``bravest men'' he had ever seen. "

Amazing how that got left out of the history books.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 04, 2005, 04:21 PM
How about this one??

Brigadier General Irene Trowell-Harris from Aiken, SC went from picking cotton to the first female African-American general in the 357-year history of the National Guard.
"I want to inspire young people all over the country to set high goals and reach them--especially in this day when so many young people feel hopeless. If students apply themselves, they can succeed."
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 07, 2005, 05:18 PM
I have been reading a E-book about Nat Love (1854-1921).
Born a slave and becoming a famous cowboy by the name Red River Dick, and Deadwood Dick. A little known fact is it was exslaves and free blacks that made up the majority of the western cowboys. It was the black soilder that was sent to the western plains and frontier forts, as they were concidered expendable. The title of Buffalo Solider was bestowed upon them from the Indians as a recgonition of their bravery and ferousity.

 Nat Love was one of the few blacks of that time that could read and write, learning to do both mostly on his own. He has a facinating life's story. It contains some humor to me in that men are men whatever the age or epoch, and one must certainly read past the bravado, but all in all it's a reviting story.
Nat Love met some of the most reverred figures in western history, including the infamous like the James brothers and such.
 Here is one comment he made about those outlaws. What I find most interesting about this quote is how timeless it is, maybe even being more apprpiate for our day;

" ...if they were robbers, by what name are we to call of the great trusts, corporations and brokers, who have for years been robbing the people of this country, some of them, I am glad to say, are now behind prison bars, still others are even now piling up the dollars that they have been and are still stealing from the American people, and who on account of these same dollars are looked up to, respected and are honored members of society, and the only difference between
them and the James brothers is that the James brothers stole from the rich and gave to the poor, while these respected members of society steal from the poor to make the rich richer, and which of them think you reader, will get the benefit of the judgment when the final day arrives and all men appear before the great white throne in final judgment?"

Reviting reading: <a href="http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/natlove/natlove.html" target="_blank">http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/natlove/natlove.html (http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/natlove/natlove.html)[/url]</font>
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on February 08, 2005, 12:27 PM
Thanks Earl for leading 'Black History Month' ..its really enjoyable to read history that iis normally hidden in our education system, yet playa substantial row in building America.

Would you mind if I re-posted this topic, as you write it, at the Blogosphere ZoO? You will get full credit.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 08, 2005, 12:31 PM
Matilda Arabelle Evans from Columbia was a pioneer in the true sense of the word. The first African-American woman to be licensed as a physician in South Carolina. She was ahead of her time in spreading the importance of good health and adequate sanitation in the state.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 10, 2005, 02:18 PM
Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870) was a black Frenchman who became renowned  writer. His work has made some dramatic films in our time and we read his works to this very day. They include; The Three Musketeers, The Man In The Iron mask, and The Count of Monte Cristo.

Dr. Charles Drew (1904-1950) researched blood plasma and developed the process to preserve plasma. His discoveries led to the blood banks of our day. He organized the first plasma division supplying plasma to the british in WWII (1940-1941).
 He was the first director of the A.R.C. blood bank supplying plasma to the U.S. forces. (1941) He was directed by the Army and Navy to organize a massive drive for blood donations in that year. Dr. Drew was incensed when he found out the military ordered they refuse blood from black donors.

Dr. Drew was the first director of the American Red Cross blood donor programs.

He received several honors and medals for his work.

Dr. Drew died in 1950 while driving to a conference in Alabama. He fell asleep at the wheel in Burlington, NC. and over turned. It is rumored that Dr. drew bled to death because he was refused entry to the 'white's only hospital' because of his color. Whereas it is true that many blacks did die from a lack of treatment by not being admitted to the 'white's only' hospitals, it was not the case with Dr. Drew. The doctors worked "feverishly" on him according to his wife, but could not save him.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 10, 2005, 11:26 PM
Here's a good one:

Lloyd "Fig" Newton was born in Ridgeland, SC. His claim to fame? The first African-American pilot to become a member of the elite flying demonstration team, the Thunderbirds.
Newton credits his parents with teaching him the Golden Rule and the love of learning.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 15, 2005, 05:59 PM
Black Soilders answered the call for arms in WWII and faced barrage after barrage of attacks from the enemy. They srved with honor and dignity only to be denied medals and recgonition in history.

One could say they faced the facism abroad, and won, only to return to the states to continue fighting the loosing battle of racism.

One example from an article written in the Washington Post:

 A few months after the Allied victory in World War II, 24-year-old Capt. Harold Montgomery returned to the General Accounting Office at Fifth and G streets NW to reclaim his old job with the U.S. Post Office Department.

Since leaving 4 1/2 years earlier, Montgomery had led a heavy weapons company of the Army's all-black 92nd "Buffalo Soldiers" Infantry Division up the western coast of Italy through barrage upon barrage of German fire. He had watched wounded men die as shrapnel sliced through the plasma bags set up to give them transfusions. He had grinned and waved as cheering residents of liberated cities pressed flowers and bottles of wine into his hands.
But when the Washington native walked into the GAO's grand, high-ceilinged lobby, it was as though time had stood still. A large plaque honoring postal employees who had served in the war did not list Montgomery or any other African American veterans, he recalled. Worse still, a personnel manager informed him that he would not receive a pay raise given to returning white soldiers.

For the sake of space and time you can find the full article here:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 12, 2005, 06:12 PM
George and Emillia McCoy, having escaped slavery via the Underground Railroad, settled as free citizens in Canada and homesteaded a 160 acre farm.
Born to them on   5/2/1844 was Elijah McCoy, who at a early age demonstrated keen mechanical ablities. They saved enough money and sent Elijah to Scotland where he studied as a master mechanic and engineer and Elijah returned to the United States after the civil war.

Unable to procure work as an engineer because of his color, he took a job as a fireman/oilman for the Michigan Central in Ypsilanti, Mi. He shoveled coal into the fire box and, as oilman, had to lubricate the axle and bearings of the train. At this time the train would travel a few miles and be forced to stop while an oilman walked  the length of the train to lube it.
Elijah set out to find a way to automate the task in the interest of efficiency and to eliminate the frequent stopping. In 1872 he developed and patented the lubricating cup that dripped oil when and where needed.
His device was so successful R/R companies from all over the country wanted it. He continued to improve on his lubricator and it would eventualy be used in steam engines, naval vessels, oil rigs, factories and construction sites.

In time Eijah invented the graphite lubricator to be used in superheated trains and other such applications.
Knowing there were others trying to sell lubricating devices, the purchasers would always ask if their engine had the authentic device- "The Real McCoy" lubricator.

Thus was born the world known statement symbolizing top quality workmanship; 'It's the real McCoy'.

He also invented and patented a folding portable ironing board  at the 'behest' of his wife.
The desire, as with all men, to make his life easier led him to invent and patent the lawn sprinkler.
Elijah McCoy, symbol of excellence, died in 1929.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 14, 2005, 07:05 PM
<font color='#0000FF'>Conveniently left out of popular history and such WWII movies such as 'Patton', are the Black Tank Battalions known as the Black Panthers. They made a large contribution to the war effort, in some cases being sent in harms way as cannon fodder so the white troops could come in later and clean up while claiming victory.
I give just two examples:

1)In their very first combat action, they were sent in as cannon fodder being ordered to enter the town of Morville-les-Vic, which had been by-passed by Patton because it was a German stronghold, and Patton did not want to be bogged down. The 761st was supposed to go in and allow the Germans to exhaust their ammunition on them. Then, white units would attack and mop up. Instead, after three days of fighting an entrenched, numerically superior, and well-armed enemy, the gallant men of the 761st routed the German defenders and took the town.

2)The 761st was tasked with taking the German strong hold in the town of Tillet. Every other American unit assigned to take the town had been beaten back. Tanks, artillery, and infantry inside the Ardennes Forest had assaulted Tillet and all had failed to take it. After a week of steady fighting against entrenched SS troops, the 761st took Tillet and drove the Germans out in full retreat.

There were many such feats from many Black Tank Battalions, stories of unsung heros left out of the history books bearing silent witness to the racism suffered by black men and women even as they shed their blood for this country. The ommission of these stories in the history books also bear silent witness to the bias we are force fed in schools to this day in the name of euro-centric history.

In 1978 the 761st was belatedly given the 'Presidential Unit Citation for Extaordinary Heroism' by Jimmy Carter:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States and as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, I have today awarded


The 761st Tank Battalion distinguished itself by extraordinary gallantry, courage, professionalism and high esprit de corps displayed in the accomplishment of unusually difficult and hazardous operations in the European Theater of Operations from 31 October 1944 to 6 May 1945. During 183 days in combat, elements of the 761st - the first United States Army tank battalion committed to battle comprised of black soldiers - were responsible for inflicting thousands of enemy casualties and for capturing, destroying, or aiding in the liberation of more than 30 major towns, 4 airfields, 3 ammunition supply dumps, 461 wheeled vehicles, 34 tanks, 113 large guns, 1 radio station, and numerous individual and crew- served weapons.
This was accomplished while enduring an overall casualty rate approaching 50 percent, the loss of 71 tanks, and in spite of extremely adverse weather conditions, very difficult terrain not suited to armor operations, heavily fortified enemy positions and units, and extreme shortages of replacement personnel and equipment. The accomplishments are outstanding examples of the indomitable spirit and heroism displayed by the tank crews of the 761st.
In one of the first major combat actions of the 761st, in the vicinity of Vic-sur-Seille and Morville-les- Vic, France, the battalion faced a reinforced enemy division. Despite the overwhelming superiority of enemy forces, elements of the battalion initiated a furious and persistent attack which caused defending enemy elements to withdraw. While pursuing the enemy, tanks of the 761st were immobilized before an anti-tank ditch. Savage fire from enemy bazooka and rocket launcher teams, positioned 50 yards beyond the ditch, disabled many of the vehicles. Crewmen dismounted the disabled tanks, resulted in the elimination of many of the positions and virtually destroyed two enemy companies while permitting the escape of other tanks and crews and eventual completion of the mission.
From 5 January 1945 to 9 January 1945, the 761st engaged the 15th Panzer Division in the vicinity of Tillet, Belgium. Suffering severe casualties and damage to their tanks, the 761st attacked and counter-attacked throughout the five-day period against a numerically superior force in both personnel and equipment , and on 9 January 1945 the men of the 761st routed the enemy from Tillet and captured the town. This action was significant in that the enemy was prevented from further supply of its forces encircling Bastogne, and the United States troops there, because of the closing of the Brussels-Bastogne highway by the men of the 761st.
One of the most significant accomplishments of the 761st began 20 March 1945 when, acting as the armor spearhead, the unit broke through the Seigfried Line into the Rhine plain, allowing units of the 4th Armored Division to move through to the Rhine River. During the period 20 March 1945 to 23 March 1945 the battalion, after operating far in advance of friendly artillery, encountered the fiercest of enemy resistance in the most heavily defended area of the war theater. Throughout the 72-hour period of the attack, elements of the 761st assaulted and destroyed enemy fortifications with a speed and intensity that enabled the capture or destruction of 7 Siegfried towns, 31 pill-boxes, 49 machine gun emplacements, 61 anti-tank guns, 451 vehicles, 11 ammunition trucks, 4 self-propelled guns, one 170mm artillery piece, 200 horses, and one ammunition dump. Enemy casualties totaled over 4,100 and of those captured it was determined that the 761st in its Siegfried Line attack had faced elements of 14 different German divisions. The accomplishments of the 761st in the Siegfried area were truly magnificent as the successful crossing of the Rhine River into Germany was totally dependent upon the accomplishment of their mission.
The men of the 761st Tank Battalion, while serving as a separate battalion with the 26th, 71st, 79th, 87th, 95th and 103d Infantry Divisions, the 17th Airborne Division, and 3d, 7th, and 9th Armies in 183 continuous days in battle, fought major engagements in six European countries, participated in four major allied campaigns, and on 6 May 1945, as the easternmost American soldiers in Austria, ended their combat missions by joining with the First Ukrainian Army (Russian) at the Enn River, Steyr, Austria.
Throughout this period of combat, the courageous and professional actions of the members of the "Black Panther" battalion, coupled with their indomitable fighting spirit and devotion to duty, reflect great credit on the 761st Tank Battalion, the United States Army, and this Nation.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on February 16, 2005, 01:28 PM
Earl was wondering if you had any African American poems (perhaps slavery) that we could could put up on the blogs?

Langston Hughes is one my favorites and is always popular but I'm thinking of the less known?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 17, 2005, 06:00 PM
Phillis Wheatley, ( commonly mispelled Phyllis),  born mostly likely in Senegal, Africa cirrca 1753 or 1754. Died free in poverty December 5, 1784 just ahead of her third child.

She was kidnapped and enslaved being bought in 1761 by John Wheatley to be a personal servant to his wife, Susanna. As was the custom she was given her master's surname. Being enslaved by the Wheatley's made her life more fortunate than other slaves. She was taught to read and write and allowed to expand her studies once her keen abilities were evident.

In 1773  a collection of her poems were published and this caused great concern amoung the white establishment. They doubted that any slave could write poetry and if it was proven she actually did write them, then it would demostrate she could THINK, an accomplishment they found absolutely scandalous to contemplate. ( Think, for a moment, about the ramifications of that revelation. Now they have to face the fact that chattel can think.)
Susanna Wheatley, her master, set out to debunk this nonsense and Phillis was brought before a panel of 13 learned and respected men of position in Boston to be questioned and examined to determine if she indeed wrote the collection.
This preface was placed in her book:

"WE whose Names are underwritten, do assure the World, that the POEMS specified in the following Page, were (as we verily believe) written by Phillis, a young Negro Girl, who was but a few Years since, brought an uncultivated Barbarian from Africa, and has ever since been, and now is, under the Disadvantage of serving as a Slave in a Family in this Town. She has been examined by some of the best Judges, and is thought qualified to write them."

Witnessing the revolutionary war and the events that led up to them, Phillis Wheatley wrote this:

" From native Clime, when seeming cruel Fate
Me snatch'd from Afric's fancy'd happy Seat
. . . Ah! what bitter pangs molest
What Sorrows labour'd in the Parent Breast?
That, more than Stone, ne'er soft Compassion mov'd
Who from its Father seiz'd his much belov'd.
 And hold in bondage Afric's blameless race?
Let virtue reign - And thou accord our prayers
Be victory our's, and generous freedom theirs."
--"On the Death of Gen. Wooster" (July 1778)  

Though she had more freedom and priviledge than most slaves, this passage demonstrated she regonized she was still only a slave.

Phillis Wheatley's story and links to her poems:
<a href="http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_phillis_wheatley_2.htm" target="_blank">http://womenshistory.about.com/library....y_2.htm (http://womenshistory.about.com/library....y_2.htm)[/url]</font>

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 22, 2005, 10:23 AM
Peter Cooper, born 1791 in New York city, went on to become one of the greatest 19th century inventors and, in 1825,  built the first American steam locomotive called the Tom Thumb. He built a glue factory and a iron mill among his many business ventures. He was also a supporter of Abe Lincoln and a passionate abonlishonist.

Consider his proposal to avert civil war;
"Buy the four million slaves from the south and free them."
Sound crazy? Well compare that to the cost of four billions dollars and half million lives the civil war cost.
"http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi835.htm" http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi835.htm (http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi835.htm)[/url]

Meet Moses Austin, whose son, Stephen Austin, led the way to colonize Texas and the city Austin bears his name to this day.
Moses and his brother, whose name I cannot find, went into the lead business making lead shot as early as 1790. The venture failed around 1796 and Moses went on a scouting trip for about two years and in 1798 Moses opened even bigger lead mines in Missouri. The lead business was so labor intensive that by 1814 Moses made the bad mistake  of buying slaves, which bankruted him by 1819. His mistake?  The slaves cost him more to feed and house than freemen would have.
"http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi954.htm"  http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi954.htm (http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi954.htm)[/url]

Thomas Hodgkin, yes the same one who gives his name to Hodgkin's disease, was passionately anti-slavery, even befriending freed slaves in his home. He saw things in ways that others did not and after rasing his vioce in concert with otheres, it took Britain just three years to abolish slavery.
"http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi817.htm" http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi817.htm (http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi817.htm)[/url]

Harriet Beecher Stowe, the Quakers... now what do all these non-black people( and others, too many to mention) have to do with black history? What is the common thread?  They are the ones that made the incremental steps to abolish slavery.

Until the passage of the 13th Amentment in 1865, there were no monumental steps to free all slaves. Not the civil war, not Abe Lincoln, who said if he could save the Union by not issuing the Emancipation Proclamation  he would not free a single slave. Abe Lincoln himself believed in white supremacy.  The only thing the Emancipation Proclamantion did was to free the slaves in the states that were in rebellion. It didn't even free the slaves that were fighting in the Union army.

Slavery was abolished by those that advocated justice, one small step at a time; those that had radical ideas; even those that believed in slavery, but saw the financial ruin it brought them, culminating in the reluctant Emancipation Proclamation thta forever attached the isue of slavery to the civil war and the 13th Amendment December, 1865.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 26, 2005, 12:04 AM
In 1839 a group of  Mende Africans were taken  into slavery by Spaniards, to be taken to Cuba. They overcame their captors on the spanish ship Amistad, oddly enough that name meaning friendship.
The Mende forced the Spaniards to sail east toward Africa by day, but by night the Spaniards would head back toward Cuba. Eventually this led to them landing in the Long Island Sound where the Mende were arrested and put on trial.
What happens next is demonstrative of how insidiously evil slavery was, and the depths to which the US government would stoop. The United States wanting to return the Africans to Spain, lacking any other legal recourse, charged the Mende Africans( the very ones that were kidnaped) with violating America's anti-slave laws by bringing the ship into American waters.

The US Supreme Court, after some lenght, set the Mende free and put them back on a ship to Sierra Leone.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 26, 2005, 04:57 PM
Inventions claimed by some notable people before the civil war, were often the ideas or inventions of blacks both free and slave. The free blacks knew that their inventions would suffer if they tired to patent them, so they had thier produts registered by white people such as lawers. Just as often as not, since the blacks most often could not read or write, their patents were stolen by the same people.
The slaves coudn't patent their inventions at all, they being property themselves their inventions were the proerty of the masters.

A few notable examples of technology flowing from the ones that actually do the work:

Eli Whitney got the idea of his cotton gin from a slave known only as Sam. Sam's father had solved the problem of separating seed from cotton by the use of a kind of a comb. Whitney simply mechcanized the comb.

Cyrus McCormick  famed for the McCormick reapers and tractors, worked so closely with a slave called Jo Anderson in developing the reaper that it's hard to discern where Anderson ended and McCormick begins, but McCormick got the patent.

A slave of Jefferson Davis brother,whose name was Benjamin Montgomery, invented a new screw propellor for steam ships, replacing the ineffecient paddle wheel. Not only did Jeff Davis steal the rights to the invention, but it was put to use by the south during the civil war to keep slavery intact.

Cotton Mather a famous preacher in colonial Boston, scientist and practicer of medicine knew of a inoculation against small pox as early as 1712. He learned it from a African slave. Found in his documents from the slave;"... take the Juice of the Small Pox, and Cut the Skin and put in a drop: then by 'nd by a little Sick, then a few Small Pox; and no body dye of it; no body have Small Pox any more. "

The lesson in this is that disenfranchised minorities look unproductive because they have no franchise. Historians of technology are just beginning to see that the slave inventors we know about are only the tip of a very large iceberg.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 27, 2005, 06:44 PM
Although no WWII Medals of Honor were awarded at the time to any African Americans, researchers later determined that at least seven (and possibly more) black servicemen deserved this award.
Here are some examples of the Black soldier in action and the redress they recieved posthumusly:

 One of these men was Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers, who was severely wounded in action on 15 November 1944 but refused medical evacuation so that he might stay with his company. When their advance was stopped by enemy fire at Bougaltroff, France, on this date, Rivers’ tank helped cover the company’s withdrawal. Rivers was killed and the other crewmen were injured when their tank was hit by enemy fire. Rivers was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in January 1997.

14 December 1944  Lieutenant (later Captain) Charles L. Thomas was another of the seven African Americans posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor in January 1997. Thomas won this prestigious award for his heroism in action on this date near Climbach, France. Wounded in the initial enemy fire while storming the village, Thomas helped his comrades to safety at which time he was wounded again. Despite intensely painful multiple wounds, he directed the emplacement of two antitank guns and thoroughly briefed the platoon commander before allowing himself to be evacuated.

26 December 1944  First Lieutenant John R. Fox, a member of Cannon Company, 366th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Division, sacrificed his life to direct defensive artillery fire to slow the German advance on Sommocolonia, Italy. Although most of their fellow infantrymen were forced to withdraw because they were outnumbered by the enemy, Fox and others in his observer party voluntarily remained in town to direct Allied artillery fire. Fox willingly directed fire onto his own position because it was the only way to defeat the attacking Germans. He, too, was posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor in January 1997 for his valorous actions on this date.


23 March 1945  Another of the seven African-American soldiers posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in January 1997 was Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr. After the tank on which he was riding came under enemy fire near Speyer, Germany, Carter voluntarily led a 3-man group across an open field against the enemy. Two of the men were killed and one was seriously wounded in the attempt, but Carter continued alone until he, too, was wounded and forced to take cover. Although eight German soldiers were sent to capture him, Carter managed to kill six of them and take the other two hostage. As he led his prisoners back to his unit, he learned valuable information about enemy troops in the area.

5-6 April 1945 The only one of the seven WWII African-American Medal of Honor winners still alive to receive his award in January 1997 was Second (later First) Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker. In fighting near Viareggio, Italy, Baker showed extraordinary heroism by singlehandedly destroying two enemy positions as well as two more with his men’s aid. He then covered the evacuation of his company’s wounded by drawing enemy fire to an exposed position. The following night he voluntarily led a battalion assault against the enemy through minefields and heavy fire.

7 April 1945 Private First Class Willy F. James, Jr., was killed while attempting to aid his fatally wounded platoon leader. As lead scout on a maneuver to secure and expand a vital bridgehead, James was pinned down for over an hour. During that time he observed enemy positions in detail, then used that information to help his platoon plan a new maneuver. James died while leading a squad during the assault. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism in January 1997.

22 August 1945 Colonel Julian G. Herne, Jr., commander of the black 24th Infantry Regiment, accepted the surrender of Aka Island, the first formal capitulation of a Japanese army garrison.

The void of  men and women of color in our history books is nothing less than shameful. It is my hope that all will take a little time to learn of the contributions of people of color in our history, often with no hope of reaping any benefits.
From the Black fighters that fought with George Washington in Yorktown, Va. forcing the surrender of Cornwalis and thereby helping in the very birth of this nation, to the Black troops that helped stopped Robert E. Lee in Appomatox, Va., forcing his surrender and thereby reuniting this country.

Everything from inventions to just awesome examples of the will of the human spirit to survive such degredation as slavery and racism to this day, is exemplified by Black Americans.

Thanks Witt for your participation. Thank you Petro for your contribution, but I'm still curious to have my question answered.
And thank you RG for the encouragement to go forward  with these posts.

This brings these proceedings to a close.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on February 28, 2005, 01:56 PM
Thank you Earl for leading Black History Month. Its was very interesting and enlightening. History brings understanding to the present. We need to do more history on cultures.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 02, 2006, 08:24 PM
<font color='#0000FF'>Once again Black History month is upon us. I invite all to join me.
I would like to start with the hall marks of a warrior.
A warrior takes part in the conficts thrusted upon him never flinching in the face of danger.
A warrior runs the gauntlet with dignity and a fierce determination to keep fighting toward the goals of indisputable rightness.
A warrior exhibits the kind of courage and leadership that beckons fellow warriors to follow regardless of indignities, insults, injuries, or even death.
A warrior need not display mass weapons, but can lead, fight, and conquer using nothing more than truth.
Even in death a warrior leads by leaving a legacy of courage, honor and truth that forever exposes the hypocrisy of the system and powers that be.

We lost two such warriors recently. Rosa Parks and Coretta Scout King.
Mrs. King led a life of quiet dignity. She was the first victim of racist violence at the beginning the King era fighting for equality. She suffered her home being bombed and had it not been for her and the children being in the back of the house, she would have been the first martyr.
 Rosa Parks led a life long battle for equality, freedom, dignity and education. Her impetus? She was tired being treated with disrespect. Her courage to sit down gave America the backbone to finally stand up.
There's just too much to say about these two for this small forum.

Let us not forget their examples, for the struggle is not over.</font>

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on February 03, 2006, 02:34 PM
Thanks Earl for doing another series for Black History Month. Maybe we can rope ya down and keep you here and Splash around with us.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 03, 2006, 08:07 PM
Good to be back RG. I have so many things pulling me in different directions now, but I'm honored to lead this journey.

During the Revolutionary war many blacks fought for America.
Harriet Beecher Stowe commented on this:

"It was not for their own land they fought, nor even for a land which had adopted them, but for a land which had enslaved them, and whose laws, even in freedom, oftener oppressed than protected. Bravery, under such circumstances, has a peculiar beauty and merit. "

At this time there were black freemen, but even they were not accorded the status of being full human beings.
Which brings us to Colonel George Middleton, black freeman.
It is not know when or where he was born and not much is known of his early life, but it is known he was a commander of one of the two all black units that served the Continental army. His command was known as the "Bucks of America".

As is the case with many blacks who fought in America's battles, the historical records of their deeds are minimal and/or absent.

What is known is   Colonel George Middleton and his Bucks of America fought bravely recieving a flag from John Hancock honoring him and his militia for outstanding military service.

George Middlteon became the first black to build a house on Boston's Beacon Hill.

For more on his later life:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on February 05, 2006, 01:05 AM
It is nice to meet you A-FRIEND.

I was not around when you posted in prior years, but, I certainly appreciate your leadership in this very important forum.

I was greatly saddened when both Rosa Parks and Coretta Scott King died.  I wanted to share with you that my 5th grade daughter studied both women in school, and seemed to be genuinely very impressed with what she learned about them.  She even completed a major project on Martin Luther King.

Anyway, for my part, I wanted to assure you that I will most certainly read everything that you are gracious enough to share with us, and thank you in advance, for your greatly appreciated efforts.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2006, 01:45 AM
Nice to meet you too Allen. I really appreciate your comment. We all can learn from each other so feel free to contribute. Last year Witt pulled a few factual surprises on me, which was most pleasant.

Now meet Isabella Baumfree born to slave parents James and Betsey. As there are no records of her birth, Isabella calculates, as best she can, her birth to be between 1797 and 1800.
She and her parents, being human chattel, became the property of one Charles Ardinburg upon the death of his father.

One of her earliest recollections is about all the slaves of Master Charles being move to
their new sleeping quarters, which was a cellar dug under a new hotel that Charles converted into his new home. All the slaves slept there, young old, both sexes. The only light was from a couple window panes. Isabella shudders as she tells of the loose boards on the uneven floor that was oft as not filled with water and mud.
She wonders not at all at the accompanying illness suffer by them. Here is a most remarkable quote about here attitude toward this cruelty:
Still, she does not attribute this cruelty“for cruelty it certainly is, to be so unmindful of the health and comfort of any being, leaving entirely out of sight his more important part, his everlasting interests,“so much to any innate or constitutional cruelty of the master, as to that gigantic inconsistency, that inherited habit among slaveholders, of expecting a willing and intelligent obedience from the slave, because he is a MAN “at the same time every thing belonging to the soul-harrowing system does its best to crush the last vestige of a man within him; and when it is crushed, and often before, he is denied the comforts of life, on the plea that he knows neither the want nor the use of them, and because he is considered to be little more or little less than a beast.

At nine years of age Isabella was sold on the action block. Isabella's masters up to this time were Dutch and as such she could only speak dutch, but the ones that bought her spoke English. She suffered terrible beatings for that lack of understanding.

Fast forward to Isabella's adulthood. She bore thirteen children, work in the fields and worked in the slave master's house.

Eventually Isabella ran away becoming a preacher, lecturer, and abolitionist.
Hugh crowds came to hear her oratory.She travled all over the country, had audience with President Grant and was befriended by Harriet Beecher Stowe and other famous abolititionists. She preached from memory and spoke from her experiences and heart as she never learned to read.
One of her greatest oratories is entitled, Ain't I a woman?
Isabella Baumfree...We know her well. She is none other than Sojourner Truth.

Riveting reading:
http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/truth/1850/1850.html (http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/truth/1850/1850.html)[/url]]

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2006, 02:08 AM
I found an accounting of Sojourner Truth's  "Ain't I a woman?"
She was speaking before a white audience on the merits of women's suffurage. It is an outstanding oratory given by a completly illiterate exslave.

Several ministers attended the second day of the Woman's Rights Convention, and were not shy in voicing their opinion of man's superiority over women. One claimed "superior intellect", one spoke of the "manhood of Christ," and still another referred to the "sin of our first mother."
Suddenly, Sojourner Truth rose from her seat in the corner of the church.

"For God's sake, Mrs.Gage, don't let her speak!" half a dozen women whispered loudly, fearing that their cause would be mixed up with Abolition.

Sojourner walked to the podium and slowly took off her sunbonnet. Her six-foot frame towered over the audience. She began to speak in her deep, resonant voice: "Well, children, where there is so much racket, there must be something out of kilter, I think between the Negroes of the South and the women of the North - all talking about rights - the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what's all this talking about?"

Sojourner pointed to one of the ministers. "That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody helps me any best place. And ain't I a woman?"

Sojourner raised herself to her full height. "Look at me! Look at my arm." She bared her right arm and flexed her powerful muscles. "I have plowed, I have planted and I have gathered into barns. And no man could head me. And ain't I a woman?"

"I could work as much, and eat as much as man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne children and seen most of them sold into slavery, and when I cried out with a mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me. And ain't I a woman?"

The women in the audience began to cheer wildly.

She pointed to another minister. "He talks about this thing in the head. What's that they call it?"

"Intellect," whispered a woman nearby.

"That's it, honey. What's intellect got to do with women's rights or black folks' rights? If my cup won't hold but a pint and yours holds a quart, wouldn't you be mean not to let me have my little half-measure full?"

"That little man in black there! He says women can't have as much rights as men. ‘Cause Christ wasn't a woman. She stood with outstretched arms and eyes of fire. "Where did your Christ come from?"

"Where did your Christ come from?", she thundered again. "From God and a Woman! Man had nothing to do with him!"

The entire church now roared with deafening applause.

"If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back and get it right-side up again. And now that they are asking to do it the men better let them."

 link to some of her other speaches:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: brokenbutterfly on February 06, 2006, 12:47 AM
The information provided is incredible, not to mention the time it must've taken to pull it all together and post.  Applause to A-Friend and Witt for the the time and effort.   :sun  I don't really have any information-just a suggestion to those who may be interested to read
The Classic Slave Narratives edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr. .Its a collection of four narratives about Frederick Douglas, Olaudah Equiano, Harriet Jacobs, and Mary Prince.  It's well worth the time.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on February 06, 2006, 12:54 AM
A-FRIEND ~ I found your above two posts both fascinating.  What is even more important, is that I learned something of importance.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 07, 2006, 11:39 AM
Pssssst...BrokenButterf ly, don't tell anybody this, but I strongly disagree with your statement you don't have any information to add.  Your suggestion to read the slave narratives was a tremendous contribution and I thank you.

Allen I have found that different people learn different things from the same information. Would you share with us what it is you've learned? You may very well teach me something with your prospective.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 08, 2006, 08:47 AM
Some notable inventions by African Americans that changed our lives.

Phillip B. Downing invented the drop mailbox with a hinged door. pat# 462096

Geroge Crum invented the potato chip in 1853. He was a chef in a resort in Saratoga Springs, NY.and one day a customer complained of his french fries being too thick.Even though Crum made a thinner batch, the customer still was not satisfied. Crum finally made some fries that were too thin to eat with a fork hoping to annoy this iritable customer, but to his surprise the customer loved them.

Sarah Goode, business woman and inventor. she invented a cabinet bed that, when folded against the wall, could be used as a desk complete with compartments and supplies. she owned a furniture store in Chicago and invented the small apartment bed. pat#322177 July 1885.  Her patent was the first ever obtained by a African American woman.

Norbert Rillieux,1806-1894. Rillieux invented and patented (1864) a vacume sugar evaporator. It made the processing of sugar faster, safer and more eficienty. The sugar was also of superior quality. His invention was used by sugar plants all over the world.

Benjamin Banneker, in 1770 of Maryland, invented the first American clock that struk off the hours.

More on Benjamin Banneker later.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 08, 2006, 08:19 PM
The First Rhode Island Regiment, the only all-black American unit at the siege on Yorktown, Va., formed part of Major General Benjamin Lincoln's division. The soldiers were among the 4,300 men who dug the first parallel on the evening of October 6 about 550 yards from the enemy. They were in the trenches on the 9th, when the first American artillery shells hit Yorktown. And they were in the trenches again on the night of the 15th, when Lord Cornwallis made his only serious sortie against the Franco-American siege lines.
Two days later, surrender negotiations began; in the early afternoon of the 19th the defeated British army and German allies laid down their arms.

The slaves and free blacks that were in this line of defense are of particular importance. They were recruited after George Washington realized the major, major, mistake of  refusing to recruit blacks into his army, thereby giving the British the advantage of offering freedom to the slaves that fought for them. Coming to his senses, Washington changed his position and offered  the same deal.
Also the First Rhode Island Regiment was hand picked by Washington. This was a tremendous testament to their gallantry. Remember, they were slaves and free blacks not even accorded full human status, but their sacrifice in blood and lives gave birth to this nation.
When Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, the United States of America was born.

The 1st Rhode Island was demobilized at Saratoga in June of 1783 after having fought valiantly as a part of the Continental Army for over 5 years. The troops were left to find their own way home and in later years often had to resist efforts to re-enslave them. Colonel Olney assisted his former troops in their efforts to remain free and also supported their claims for pensions from the U.S. government.

Sadly neither the British nor America held true to the promise of granting freedom to the blacks.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 09, 2006, 07:18 PM
Meet Mary Fields born a slave in Tennessee the year 1832 died in 1914.
She grew up an orphan, never had children, never married and had no education.

At the tender age of 52 she moved west to Cascade County, Montana to care for the ailing Mother Amadeus (nun) that had cared for her and with whom she had a strong bond. The convent took her on as a hired hand and she did all kinds of physical chores from chopping wood to picking up supplies.
Mary tenure at the convent was short lived at best. She got into a gun fight with another employee and that just would not do at the convent.

Here is an accounting of the gunfight:
"Once a 'hired hand' at the mission confronted her with the complaint that she was earning $2 a month more than he was ($9 vs. $7), and why did she think that she was worth so much money anyway, being only an uppity colored woman? (His name, phonetically, was Yu Lum Duck.) To make matters worse, he made this same complaint and general description in public at one of the local saloons (where Mary was a regular customer), and followed that up with a (more polite) version directly to Bishop Filbus N.E. Berwanger himself (to no avail).

This was more than enough to boil Mary's blood, and at the very next opportunity the two of them were engaged in a shoot-out behind the nunnery, next to the sheep shed. (Actually it turned into a shoot-out, because when Mary went to simply shoot the man as he cleaned out the latrine -- figuring to dump his body in there -- she missed. He shot back and the fracas was on.)

Bullets flew in every direction until the six-guns were empty, and blood was spilt. Neither actually hit the other by direct fire, but one bullet shot by Mary bounced off the stone wall of the nunnery and hit the forlorn man in the left buttock, which completely ruined his new $1.85 trousers. Not only that, but other bullets Mary fired passed through the laundry of the bishop, which was hanging on the line, generously ventilating his drawers and the two white shirts he had had shipped from Boston only the week before. What his laundry was doing at the nunnery is not clear.

That was enough for the bishop; he fired Mary, and gave the injured man a raise."

You see Mary was her own person. Her life as a slave made her well suited for the rugged life out west. She stood six feet tall, was known to be gritty, drank whiskey, had a temper and toted two six guns and a shotgun.
She needed no one to fight her battles. The Great Falls Examiner, the only newspaper at the time, reported that Mary had broke more noses than any other person in Montana.

The nuns set her up with a restaurant, but that was short lived because Mary, in spite of her temper, was kind hearted and would feed all who came hungry without regard to ability to pay. Other accounts say she was not a very good cook and no one would eat there.

In 1885 Mary, and her mule Moses, found the perfect job for her temperament. She took a job driving a mail coach in the Cascade county region of central Montana. Mary and Moses plugged through any and all kinds of conditions to deliver the mail to mining camps, cabins and other outposts. She was so reliable she was known all over as Stagecoach Mary. Her efforts helped greatly to advance the development of a large part of Montana.
Stagecoach Mary retired in her seventies and opened a laundry. She remained true to her reputation and it's reported she decked a guy for cheating her out of a laundry bill.

Stagecoach Mary, a true pioneer in many ways.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 12, 2006, 04:54 PM
25, August, 1944, after a thirty-six hour brain storming session, The Red Ball Express was conceived and put into service.
Patton's army was advancing across France and Belgium, about twenty eight division, each division needing 700-750 tons of supplies a day. That was a daily consumption of around 20,000 tons. Patton's tanks and army soon was grinding to a halt for lack of ordinance and fuel.

The Red Ball Express, whose name came from a R/R term ˜Red Ball which meant to ship express, 'or priority freight, had the job of keeping Patton supplied as he raced across France.

In July, 1944 the German seventh army front broke at the Seine river. Allied forces rushed through in hot pursuit, but had not anticipated the speed of the German retreat.
The key to trapping the Germans was a continuous supply of fuel and ordinance. There were strict rules governing convoys, but because of the desperate needs of Patton's divisions these rules were quickly ignored.
At its peak the Red Ball Express operated 5,958 trucks that ran 24 hours a day and made 700 mile long round trips.

This unit was not a combat unit, but was always in danger of being strafed by German aircraft.
Colonel John S.D. Eisenhower wrote: "The Spectacular nature of the advance [through France] was due in as great a measure to the men who drove the Red Ball trucks as to those who drove the tanks." "With out it the advance across could never had been made."

The Red Ball Express was officially terminated on November 16, 1944, after 81 days, when it had completed its mission. New Express lines were formed with different names.

In 1952 the movie Red Ball Express was made to honor the courage and tremendous accomplishments of this transportation unit. Problem was the movie didn't give credit were credit was due, as was the case even in the heat of the war.
You see, the Red Ball express was a majority black transportation unit. A fact left untold and unheralded.

<a href="http://www.fatherryan.org/blackmilitary/redball.htm" target="_blank">http://www.fatherryan.org/blackmilitary/redball.htm (http://www.fatherryan.org/blackmilitary/redball.htm)[/url]</font>

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 19, 2006, 03:04 AM
A heckler once called out to Sojourner Truth, "Old woman...I don't care any more for your talk than I do for the bite of a flea." Truth replied, "Perhaps not, but the good Lord willing, I'll keep you scratching."
So it was in the days of slavery, civil war, reconstruction, Jim Crow, separate but equal, segregation . Truth be told those days are still with us, but I digress.

Down through time there were many such fleas that kept the public conscience scratching. One such fle was Ida B. Wells. Born to slave parents in Holly Springs, Mississippi the year 1862.  She lived as a slave for only the first six months of her life, but spent her entire life fighting the affects of slavery, the injustices against former slaves and Jim Crow laws.

At the age of 16 (14 in some accounts) she lost both her parents and a sibling to yellow fever and she assumed the responsibility of raising five younger siblings. Both parents were literate and taught Ida to read and write, which gave her a head start in life.   She was able to secure a job as a teacher and managed to continue her education at Rust College.

After moving to Memphis in 1884 Ida  began her fight for racial and gender equality. Needless to say she took the word fight quite literally. Here's an accounting of her experience while riding in the lady's car on the Chesapeake Ohio Railroad:

She was asked by the conductor of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad Company to give up her seat on the train to a white man and ordered her into the smoking or "Jim Crow" car, which was already crowded with other passengers. Despite the 1875 Civil Rights Act banning discrimination on the basis of race, creed, or color, in theaters, hotels, transports, and other public accommodations, several railroad companies defied this congressional mandate and racially segregated its passengers.     
I refused, saying that the forward car [closest to the locomotive] was a smoker, and as I was in the ladies' car, I proposed to stay. . . [The conductor] tried to drag me out of the seat, but the moment he caught hold of my arm I fastened my teeth in the back of his hand. I had braced my feet against the seat in front and was holding to the back, and as he had already been badly bitten he didn't try it again by himself. He went forward and got the baggage man and another man to help him and of course they succeeded in dragging me out.

You see, before Plessy v. Ferguson in 1886, when the U.S. Supreme court in its false wisdom made racial segregation legal, it was perfectly legal for blacks to sit anywhere they wanted in public conveyances. Ida sued the railroad and won in the lower court, but lost when the railroad appealed to the Tennessee  Supreme court.
This incident gave rise to her career as a journalist. In 1889 Ida became a partner in the Free Speech and Headlight.

In 1892 three of her friends were lynched. These black men owned the People's Grocery and were in direct competition with the white store. Not wanting to tolerate this, a group  of white men attacked the People's Grocery, but the black owners fought back and shot one of the white attackers. For the atrocity of defending themselves, they were lynched.
These kinds of injustice kept Ida B. Wells fighting her whole life.

Ida B. Wells was one of the founders of the NAACP and the NACW, she worked tirelessly for women's suffrage starting the first suffrage club for black women, she ran for the Illinois State Legislature, she started the first kindergarten for black children, she advocated for economic boycotts, and when anti lynching laws failed to pass in Tennessee, she advocated for mass exodus.

Ida's courage and exposure of the racist society so enraged her enemies they burned her press and put a price on her head.
Ida B. Wells...one powerful flea that kept the whole of the U.S.A. scratching.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: --cindi-- on February 22, 2006, 01:33 PM
Oscar Micheaux was born in 1884 near Metropolis, Illinois, the son of
freed slaves.  He was one of 11 children.  His first passion was writing
and he wrote several novels.  Micheaux formed his own publishing
company and sold copies of the books door - to - door. He soon decided
his books would be even better as movies.

Although Micheaux is unknown in the white community, and many blacks
wouldn't recognize his name, blacks in the movie industry know all
about him, and are grateful for his legacy.

Micheaux started his own company and turned his autobiographical novel,
"The Homesteader" into a movie in 1919.  This was the first feature
length film produced by an American Black.

Micheaux produced, directed, and wrote at least 43 movies in his life -
27 silent films and 16 sound features.  He was the first American
BLack to produce a "talkie" - The Exile (1931).  He did it all - hired
the actors, directed the movies and even distributed the movies to some
700 segregated black theaters.  He worked on a shoestring budget, often
taking only one "take" of a scene.  While the cost cutting is obvious in
the quality of his movies, he was clearly "a man ahead of his time".
Regrettably, most of his films are lost and only 10 are commercially
available, however, all seven of his novels are available and 2 are
still in print.

For a list of his movies and novels, check out the following link.

"http://shorock.com/arts/micheaux/videography.html" "http://shorock.com/arts/micheaux/videography.html"

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on February 23, 2006, 01:36 AM
I was asked by A-FRIEND, a few posts up, what it was that I had learned.  Rather than taking the easy way out, and stating something to the affect that:   I learned a lot about the people highlighted; I decided to attempt to answer the question in a more global manner.

Well, I think there are many things to be learned by following this discourse; either directly within this thread, or just as pertinently, without and in general.  While I was happy to learn much factual information about black people, and the very proud heritage to which they aspire; for me, the learning process involved a more long term contemplation of the numerous social issues and challenges which have been highlighted.

My learning came very much from the process of thinking about individual issues, and forming conclusions, and endeavoring as a result of my conclusions, to grow my attitude toward such issues.

I found that I learned the most from the challenge of not only reading about the topic, but by thinking about it, and applying those thoughts to events within my daily life.  As a result of this contemplation, I have viewed socially significant events from a slightly different perspective.

Overall, I would say, that the most significant lesson from these contemplations is the sadness that is apparent, when looking at the human races need for segregation:-

Whether it be:

White against Black
Man against Woman
Rich against poor
Upper class against lower class
Strong against weak
Dog against Cat
Cat against Mouse

It would seem
In simplicity
Nothing more
Than one groups need
To feel superior
To another.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 24, 2006, 10:37 AM

You make a very interesting point. Just as the ocean is made from a compilation of single drops of water, so goes it with each individual in this string being a part of a global society, with the ills and cures interwoven across the spectrum.

If we all take your view and see each individual as having a place in this global society, therefore occupying important places in history, then diversity and accurate, inclusive histories could become a part of the mainstream curriculum.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 24, 2006, 08:02 PM
I was in Barboursville, Ky., on vacation. They have seen the wisdom of embracing all their history. We were on a 'wagon' tour and on coming into the center square the guide pointed out a large flat stone. He explained it's history in honest detail.

It was the original slave stone, upon which the slaves were displayed and sold.
As it was in any slave auction, men, women, or children were brought up in any stage of dress or undress, and displayed for all to see. Some places would even string the slave up by the ankles and the hapless slave would be examined like any horse or cow.
We were invited to linger awhile and contemplate. Many stood on that stone, as did I.  This is how it felt:

 I stood on the seller's block
My blood chilled and time stopped.
I can feel the fear and cold,
But I'm a warrior so I must be bold,
While I lie in my own excrement
With others dying all around me
From this barbaric treatment.
I can hear the women scream
I'm a warrior, my women are queens,
But I'm helpless
Bound here in these chains.
I go sick from the ship
To getting lashes from the whip.
All I wanted was to hold on to my child
And they say 'we' are uncivilized and wild?
From the holes of the ship
To the filth of the pens,
I can feel the rape of the women
The death of the men
The sickness of seeing children sold again.
I'm bred with my sister
My uncle breeds his niece
We are just animals to be sold
To the barons piece by piece.
My blood builds their wealth
A country is forged on my back
Fields are fertilized by my unmarked graves
And I'm not recognized for my tasks.
I stood on the seller's block
And my blood ran cold.
These were my ancestors
But 'get over it' is what I'm told.
© earl

That last line really has a strong emotional impact on black people. This is our history. There has been no atonement, no redemption. When the conversation of slavery comes up,  invariably someone will say "get over it."
What that means is black folks are supposed to just dismiss their history. It means we are supposed to concider it meaningless. It rings in our ears as hate coming from those that would embrace their own history, while displaying all the symbols that were used to enslave, rape, murder, and destroy black people, while at the same time demanding black folks revere those symbols.
That, dear people, is shameful.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 26, 2006, 03:14 AM
I have read this all month. It was the last entry that finally made me comment.

I was asked a few days ago that since so many things are left out of history books (making history in error) how is it supposed to be fixed? My response was that I cannot remember a time when something was important to the political or social majority that a task that they saw as important was not accomplished. See the suggestion to me was that correcting the history books to reflect accurately what happened with inventions, building this country, medical advances and on and on, as it would include blacks was impossible. Why? It would seem that research has indeed enlightened a lot of us about black history. Amendmants, additions, corrections, are made to encylopeidas (sp) annually. So it can be done.

I am going to share this poem and the comment with others. I think it speaks volumes in a way I could never express.

PS: I'm not a poet, not even a good writer so on a poets forum I am a fish out of water.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on February 26, 2006, 03:23 PM
Welcome to Splash Cappy, you dont need to be a poet to enjoy all that Splash has to offer. Many of our members come to just read, others join in non-poetic discussions, some enjoy the music, social justice and poetic mix on our audio outlet BZoO HomeGrown Radio.

In another words, get off that sandy beach and come swim with us ..the water is great.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 26, 2006, 10:08 PM

I join RG in welcoming you to the board.

In addition to your comment the question has to be asked, where are the black voices? Why has there been no leadership from the influential people of color in advocating for mainstreaming black history? Where is Ophra or Cosby or anyone of a host of people that have platforms?

I concider their silence to be as shameful as the neglect of black history in the school system.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 26, 2006, 10:36 PM
Now that is a good question. Is the issue of correct black history important enough to black leaders? If so why is there only lip service paid to it once a year and no substancial effort under way to spearhead what can fairly easily be done?

Hmmmmm.... you have put me to thinking.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 27, 2006, 12:54 AM
The first Negro of science. Such was the title bestowed on Benjamin Banniker, born in Baltimore, Md. 1731 with the surname Bannaky from his grandfather, a slave known as Banna Ka. His grandmother was a English girl working as a maid named Molly Welsh.  Molly was  sentenced to death for stealing milk, but had her sentence reduced to being sold as an indentured servant to a British colony in North America. After seven years she paid her bondage debt, bought a small farm with two slaves, freed them both, and married one, Banna Ka. They had several children including a daughter named Mary, who grew up and bought a slave named Robert. She freed him, married him and thus was born Benjamin Bannaky  to a life that was to be as complex as  the tapestry that led to his birth.

Molly, his grandmother taught him and his siblings to read and write using the Bible. They grew up on a successful family farm. Benjamin did get some education from a Quaker school, where the schoolmaster changed the spelling of his name to Banneker, but he had no other formal education.

At the age of 22 Benjamin took apart a borrowed pocket watch, carved from wood each individual piece, put the watch back together and gave it back.  Benjamin's wood carved clock was the first striking clock to be made completely in America and it was so precise it struck every hour on the hour for forty years.

At the age of 52 Benjamin had borrowed books and taught himself algebra, geometry, logarithms, trigonometry and astronomy needed in becoming  an astronomer. He also taught himself how to use a compass, sector and other instruments to make astronomical predictions. All this culminated in the publication of Banneker's Almanac, a copy being sent to Thomas Jefferson with his plea to recognize the equal intellect imbued upon all men, by the creator, regardless of color.

Referring to the American Revolution and the struggles that brought into being this new country, Bejamin Banneker wrote this to Thomas Jefferson- "This, Sir, was a time when you clearly saw into the injustice of a state of slavery, and in which you had just apprehensions of the horrors of its condition. It was now that your abhorrence thereof was so excited, that you publicly held forth this true and invaluable doctrine, which is worthy to be recorded and remembered in all succeeding ages :
``We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, and that among these are, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.''

Here was a time, in which your tender feelings for yourselves had engaged you thus to declare, you were then impressed with proper ideas of the great violation of liberty, and the free possession of those blessings, to which you were entitled by nature ; but, Sir, how pitiable is it to reflect, that although you were so fully convinced of the benevolence of the Father of Mankind, and of his equal and impartial distribution of these rights and privileges, which he hath conferred upon them, that you should at the same time counteract his mercies, in detaining by fraud and violence so numerous a part of my brethren, under groaning captivity and cruel oppression, that you should at the same time be found guilty of that most criminal act, which you professedly detested in others, with respect to yourselves.

Banneker spent his last days in his farmhouse carrying out scientific experiments and died alone in 1886.
Mysteriously  his house burned to the ground on the day he was buried (it is thought to have been deliberately set aflame) and all his work was lost, including the still working wooden clock, save for a manuscript that was not on the premises that contained mathematical puzzles and their solutions.

Benjamin Banneker. Watch maker, writer of the first almanac, mathematician, surveyor, scientist.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 27, 2006, 08:21 PM
I would like to close our recognition of black history month with a commentary.

One thing is clear. History as it is taught in our schools is far from accurate.
Example. I had a conversation down at my local watering hole about black history. As always the questions are :
1) Why are you so special you need a whole month?
2)How do you think the white kids feel having to take a month to learn black history?
3)There's no Mexican or Indian history month, so why black history month?
Answer to question one.
I asked my friend to tell me what he knows about common history, such as the Mayflower, Yorktown, Western frontier, Appomattox. You know, the easy stuff. He told me exactly how he was taught. He knew absolutely nothing of the parallel histories and contributions of people of color during each and every event. 
He knew of the Mayflower, but didn't know that the same ship that brought white Europeans here in search of freedom from oppression, was turned into a slave ship as early as 1657 and made many voyages here bringing slaves.
That's why we need black history month.

Answer to question two.
I asked my friend to explain to me how the black kids feel being force fed one-sided euro centrist history, devoid of images of their own people, all the rest of the year. It's a wonder how he could devalue one month of inclusiveness for black history, while at the same time valuing the incomplete histories being taught all the rest of the year. His shortsightedness also blinds him to how all the kids are being robbed of the richness of learning the complete history of this country.
That's why we need black history month.

Answer to question three.
I notice the issue of the lack of Mexican or Indian history month never comes up until Black history month comes around. Even then it's not brought up in a venue to advocate for such opportunities of enriching our knowledge, but it's used as a battering ram to somehow undervalue the fact that we do have a Black history month.
Now I'm a black man, this is Black history month. The lack of any other month of learning in no way devalues the importance of this month. If one wants to advocate for any other opportunity of learning, I'll be glad to join in, but I'll not entertain such nonsense as would undercut Black history month.
That's why we need Black History month.

The discussion of Black history month has to be used to spot light the continuing racism and classism that continues to this day.
Evil does not vanish simply because it's abolished.
Slavery was abolished and the evil of the K.K.K. was born.
Segregation was abolished, but the evil of bombings, lynchings and murder continued right into the 1960s. You couldn't even get a modern day congress to pass anti lynching laws.
The evil of racism is alive and well. Black men being sodomized in jail basements and the police unions stand firmly on the side of those officers.
Unarmed black men shot down in the streets and doorways and get acquitted.
I even read comments where the evil of racism gave some license to rationalize that James Byrd deserved to be dragged behind that pickup truck in Texas.
The evil of classism that allows entire segments of this society to be ignored and abandoned in favor of enriching the upper class through cronyism and outright thievery. Case in point are the images we all witnessed during Katrina. Even as we speak, billions of dollars are being given to the rich, while those poor folks in New Orleans suffer from a lack of just basic human dignities.
Does anyone think for a single moment if this had been white suburban Ohio the response would be the same?

The evil of racism allows those practitioners to hold people of color or lower classes, in far less esteem, and allows them to with hold all aspects of humanity from them, rob them of any vestiges of dignity and then, while peering through the prisms of their own making, mock those people for being less than they are.

What continues to be amazing to me is the arrogance of racism will not let the racist note that what he sees is merely what he has defined through the ignorance of racism.

 Black folks!!! Have we forgotten  our own psychological mandate to free ourselves from bondage? Why are we not strongly advocating for a true and accurate history curriculum?
What kind of retarded self hatred allows us to except music performed by US that calls our women bitches and hoes??? When did we sink to the place that it's ok for US to teach our young girls it's alright to be a boy toy for some stupid thug?? When did it become ok for us to call each other nigga and dog??  Why aren't we marching in our own neighborhoods against what we are doing to ourselves? Where are our leaders? Where are our voices? Where are our voices? (sic)

This closes our recognition of Black History month, but your comments and further discussions are welcome all the year.

My thanks to all who participated and all those that read this thread.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 27, 2006, 08:56 PM
Thanks to all for the welcome.

I can't think of a better commentary than the one I just read above. It is so easy to belittle things that are not important to you as some in the majority belittle Black History Month. The failure is not realizing the value that others place on what comprizes thier history; the vital parts and lifes' blood of the very essence of black culture as not defined by the white majority but as evolved through the contributions, intellect, blood, struggles, accomplishments, heroism, creativity, and many more descriptive actions of black slaves and freemen alike.

Why should I have to have a month designated for my history when all of the things described ae fully etched into an inaccurate history of the majority? Why is it that when the truth is told that it becomes a threat or even a matter of guilt to the majority rather than a tool of education? Black History Month is not the "beating pole" in the middle of the yard where the lashings took place. If you see it as that then could it be that your duty to yourself would have to be an introspective look, and examination of what is it that produces the guilt or feelings of being "forced" to acknowledge what you freely acknowledge about your history?

Now as to black folks, Friend you made some mighty bold and provocative statements. No enemy is greater than the enemy within. No greater damage can be done than in the inner circle where influence is peddled and trends are made and where 'green' rules the roost. As much as we hold accountable the white majority for its failures we must never accept or overlook the failures from within. One voice touching another that touches another will sharpen us all collectively over time. One rescue from the bowels of self defeat where only despair and degregation are passed from the end of the alimentary track, one rescue at a time and we can start to build the sensitivity it takes not to use derogatory names against ourselves. Oh but to have those voices out there; on here, Joe Average, Sally Anyperson to join us reaching verbally others and saying that we are accountable and apply what Dr. King said in the Old Negro Sprititual as black men and women to us, about us . . "Free at last. . . Free at last. . . Thank God Almighty I'm free at last!!"

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: WordFaery on February 27, 2006, 10:16 PM
I'd like to contribute this link to an article on the Michigan Baptist Church, one of the stops on the underground railroad.  There's quite a bit of information.


If you visit western New York, there is a wonderful period costume guided tour by local actresses which includes crossing the Whirlpool bridge on foot.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 28, 2006, 04:47 PM
Word, I saved that link for later. Thank you.

I had a chance to visit a safe house in Memphis, Tn. The last family member died in the 70s and she wrote out all the rich history, complete with all the secrets, photos, and letters from exslaves. It was both chilling and amazing to see and hear the story.

By design the underground railroad was secretive, so alot of its links to safe houses and history are lost forever.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on March 01, 2006, 02:34 AM
Before the month ends, I wanted to thank A-FRIEND for his leadership in our black history month.  As I have mentioned above, I have truly learned something.

We can never actually know how many people have enjoyed this journey, because most people don't comment, but merely tag along for the ride which, by the way, is absolutely fine.  Remember, that Splash has a surprisingly large following, which is comprised of people who browse, but do not feel the need to become members. This is the great power of the internet.

Thank you, however, to Cindi and Cappy, who were so moved by this series, that they were inspired to join our community, and share their perspectives. Please feel free, both of you, to hang around and participate further in SplashHall, if you wish.

Anyway, thanks again A-FRIEND.  It is my opinion that the cascading effects of your leadership are more far-reaching than you might imagine.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Loni Love on March 04, 2006, 06:40 PM
My Goodness! It's not February anymore, but I am not going to wait until next year to tell all of you how grateful I am for this treasure trove of information and insight. I stumbled upon this thread today after missing it all month long (even with it being a banner) and it fed something within me that I wasn't even aware was hungry. I have never in my life really looked at where I came from, and up until today no one had bothered to try to show me. Not like this. I feel blessed.....My GOODNESS! It is fair to say that this has whetted my appetite....Thank you Thank you Thank you
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 06, 2006, 09:13 PM
What a pleasure reading your response. I guess Allen is right. One never knows who reads these threads and how it affects them.

I propose we keep this going, after all one of the main themes here is to main stream black history. Any personal stories? Any personal experiences?
How about an open and honest discussion of diversity, including race relations and classism?
Black folks, let your voices be included. Now is the time for all people to be heard.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Peaches on March 07, 2006, 05:32 AM
Like Loni, I found this after the end of Black History Month. I began reading thinking I was not gonna see much I didn't already know. How wrong I was. There is a wealth of information here.

I was particularly fascinated with the  info about expendable soldiers. It brought to mind a story my father would occasionally tell. He was on the first boat to land at Normandy. Traveling conditions were, shall I say less than ideal. The soldiers were issued one thin blanket with no provision for heat. They often had to fight the rats for food. Then the final indignity. When they arrived at Normandy, or close to the beach in any case. The bottom of the boat dropped open. Dumping the men into the icy waters. Any who could not swim were in deep trouble. My father was one who had not learned to swim, it was not included in any of the training. Come to think of it, he never mentioned any training. Somehow he made it to shore. Only to find angry enemy troops waiting for them.

It was sometime during WW II that my father had half his head blown off. The miracle is that he was not left on the battle field to die. He was in fact treated with a radical new procedure that had his skull replaced with a steel plate. Although he never mentioned it, I had the strong impression that he was a test case. And that his survival was not as important as the test results.

I think of it as another one of those 'emancipation' things. I'm only interested in the results, not your reason for doing it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Peaches on March 13, 2006, 03:05 AM
There was another historic moment at the oscar's. A rapp group winning an oscar. On the one hand I'm elated that our youg black brothers were recognized for their talent. On the other hand I cannot conceive of the degradation of the black race, its women in particular, as a talent. We have spent such a long time pulling ourselves up from the dirt, only to be rewarded for going back there. What's wrong with this picture?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 13, 2006, 08:46 PM

I had a conversation with a young man the other day about this. The name of the song is, 'It's hard out here for a pimp'.

Now what in the dubious wisdom of hollywood would make that song the best there is? Both the movie and the song takes the abosolute worst stereo types of black people and with all the black artists and entertainers out here, Hollywood passes over all the positive images to elevate this garbage as the best there is.

Now before anybody takes this as a 'blame whitey' forum, let me say this. We, black folks, participate in this filthy outrage willingly. The corporate money brokers are white, but it's us, black folks, that portrayed and betray ourselves by this filth they call hip-hop. In my opinion the worst racist or salve holder could not have invented a more degrading, poisonous atmosphere than rap music. We are the only race on earth ( if I'm wrong correct me) that portrayes our women in such a degrading fashsion. Bitches, hoes, and that image is displayed around the world.
Our young people are having thier minds poisoned.
Case in point. The young man I was talking to has a college education and seemed to be rather bright. I was trying to get him to see how all these negative images are destryoing our culture.
I thought we were having an intelligent conversation until he said this: "When are we gonna stop worrying about what white folks think about us?"
I was absolutely stunned. I mean I was stunned into silence.
As bad as I was thinking it is with the stereotypes, it was only then that I realised it's much worse. This young man had so ingested this garbage, he had so internalized this filth, he had so bought into it; he could not see I wasn't talking about what white people think about us. He just could not get it, I was talking about what we think about ourselves.
Our young black people are being so poisoned, they see this garbage as normal. Our young women aspire to be the 'bitches and hoes' in the videos. Our young men aspire to the glorification of the ugly violence calling themselves player, dawg, and thugs.
I cannot express my outrage and discuss at what's going on in our community. My outrage and discuss is only deepened with the glorification of this garbage and negative images by awarding it an Oscar.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: --cindi-- on March 15, 2006, 12:58 AM
Peaches and A-Friend

I have very mixed feelings about this subject. Not all rap is degrading and belittling to our culture and our women. There is positive rap out there. The ones we tend to focus on is the negative, stereotypical crap, (which i do detest).

Rap used to  be about making things better, then the gangster revolution came around and the culture changed.  It used to still talk about many of the same types of subjects (survival, Love, Friends etc) but in a different way.

With it's crossover appeal it has reached a new high, leading to our recent oscar win.  No i'm not proud of the song, nor the movie it came from.  And i personally feel that Terrence Howard has played in much better movies than this one. But this is the one that got him the nomination.  And yes, i did watch the movie, even though these types of movies never appealed to me. But I do have children who are still of the Hip Hop generation. However, I choose to focus on the positive rap, Wyclef Jean and Will Smith. Inspirational artists like Kirk Franklin. Some of the older rappers like Run DMC, Salt and Peppa, and Hammer.

Even though the messages were not always positive, it was fun, and that is ok in my book.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Peaches on March 15, 2006, 02:19 AM
Cindi, you are right of course that it is a mistake to make lump sum judgements. However, my comments were based solely on the oscar winning movie. It reminds me of the black exploitation movies of the '70s. The movies that drew the most attention were the ones depicting blacks as drug dealers and thugs. That theme did not change for this movie. The thing we need to recognize is the inherant racism in the promotion and rewarding of these kinds of films. The interesting thing about racism is the subtle ways it is promoted. These types of movies are todays house slaves.  House slaves were promoted to the position of keeping the other slaves in linel. The feeling of power went a long way to helping them promote the master's agenda. The question is should they have taken the positions and improved their lot in life. Or should they have rejected the positions, taking the moral high road, but dooming themselves to living in squalor?

Both you and A Friend are right though. The oscars are promoted and paid for by the white man. And this is the kind of picture that gets their attention.

Considering your views on the negativity, it is interesting that you enjoyed the movie.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: stormy on March 15, 2006, 02:25 AM
Hey Cindi,

I couldnt agree with you more about rap. That is a big reason why I gravitated toward spoken word. It had the feel of rap and inspiration of neo-soul and that 1960's social awareness.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Peaches on March 15, 2006, 02:30 AM
A Friend, I too find it appalling how much the negativity has been internalized. And the concept of it being fun and a true or real expression of life just blows me away. If that is so then why don't we see major movies about white drug dealers. Think about it, who has the money. There has to be a funding source. And I'll bet you dollars to donuts it's not coming from the black community.

But the most diabolical thing is this is how we see ourselves. It matters not what others may think of us. It's what we think of ourselves that does the most damage or good, depending on our personal picture.

There is another reason that particular picture won the oscar though. It was popular among all races. Which means I once again have the minority view. And this one saddens me most of all. Because the majority view is the most self-destructive.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: --cindi-- on March 15, 2006, 02:50 AM

Don't get me wrong, I was not disagreeing with anything you said. As a matter of fact i have the same feelings regarding that oscar winning movie/song. I never said i enjoyed the movie, only that i had watched it. It is definitely not my taste in  entertainment.

I'm in a hurry to leave for work right now, but will get back to this later.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 15, 2006, 07:39 PM
Here's my problem. We came a long way from the harlequinade times of the step-n-fetchin roles in entertainment, where all black folks were maids, or 'happy ' slaves or portrayed as some bugged eyed buffoon scared of 'haunts' having to be lead around by little frilly white girls.
We have come a long way from the frippery of being portrayed as ignorants in minstrel shows. We have come a long way from the insult of being portrayed in black face.

The fight was hard won by such greats as Ozzie Davis, Cicely (spelling?) Tyson, et al.
Now here we are with this rap garbage taking ourselves backwards to those days were all we're portrayed as are buffoons.
Run Dmc, Salt & Pepper, Hammer, all these characters took us to the precipice and from there it was a short leap. That's why I'm not willing to give them a free pass.

As far as Kirk Franklin is concerned, I think he could do alot better utilizing a different forum.

Yes I'm hardcore on this subject. I can't see any rationale as to why we should accept this rap poison.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: --cindi-- on March 16, 2006, 12:19 AM

I am totally against the negative rap, in any shape form or fashion.  I think we all agree on this point.  Yes, there have been great strides made in the entertainment industry to provide better roles for our people.  And I applaud the ones who set the standards to achieve this end.

I learned a long time ago that arguing certain points are useless.  I stated my opinion and i still believe there is positive rap, and feel there is nothing wrong with "positive rap".

As far as Kirk Franklin and his inspirational rap, do we know how many of our youth may have been reached by his particular forum?  And do we know if he could reach more from this forum or a "different forum".  No we don't. But i say use whatever forum you feel comfortable with to try and reach our youth.  And as long as it is positive I fail to see how one can degrade it.

I will stand behind anyone  who is against negative rap and any other negativity for our youth.  I fail to see how this movie/song ever reached oscar level.  I have even heard some of our youth who can't believe that this movie/song made it so far.  But sad to say it did.  I'm not sure what we can do to protest and try and make sure that something this senseless ever happens again.  If anyone has any solutions then i would be happy to hear them.  But until then, I will continue to say that not all rap is bad.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 17, 2006, 06:30 AM
Actually we agree on all points except one. I see no redeeming value in this so called hip-hop regardless of how one tries to clean it up. It's called by our youth, hip-hop culture, which means they internalize it as a lifestyle. One can not take a culture whose very design is destructive and clean it into something positive.
There was an attempt to sanitize the slave culture into Jim Crow, that culture was attempted to be cleasned into separate but equal, that culture was attempted to be cleansed into giving 'us' some basic rights as long as we stayed in our place. Each attempt failed because you can't take a loosing culture, call it something else and by virtue of renaming it, expect it to become something positive.
I can dress a pig in high heels, lipstick and an evening gown, but it's still a pig.
So on that one point we'll just have to agree to disagree.

However we do have common ground on how to protest this stuff.
We are doing it by having these public forums, we do it by  being living examples of decency, we do it by not allowing our youth to listen to and imulate that which degrades them.
Our black men need to step up to the plate and teach our young men how to treat our women. I taught my sons the only way to have a woman treat you like a man, is, first, you have to treat them like a lady. If we want our young men to respect our women, they need to see us respect their mothers.
There's a whole host of things we can do on the family and grass roots level. I don't allow this hip-hop garbage to be played in my house. I didn't ever allow it with my kids, nor will I allow it with my grandkids.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 28, 2006, 09:11 PM
June 29 2005. Nicholas Minucci (aka Phat Nick) attacks a black man with a baseball bat while calling him a 'nigga.'  He was charged with a hate crime. He says it was not a racial attack.
His defense makes the ' Twinky ' defense pale by comparison. His lawer is going to use a hip-hop defense. He says it was not a hate crime because he called him a 'nigga' not a 'nigger.'

Now with out discussing the merits of what happened, am I the only one that sees this as serious outcome of the way we blacks portray ourselves in this hip-hop filth. What this defense is literally saying is if black folks can't respect themselves, then why should anyone?
We have so mainstreamed the degrading way of portraying our young men and women,that, now we've moved several generations backwards where we are seen as the 'niggas' and 'dogs' that is so vividly and constantly displayed to the world.

The saddest part? We are to blame, black people. WE ARE!!!!  We have allowed this to happen by willfull participation in this filthy self hatred called hip-hop and rap.
When are we going to learn?


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: SilverFlame on March 30, 2006, 03:27 PM
This was very interesting - I thoroughly enjoyed the series of facts all of you posted. They were actually rather enlightening (the conversations/comments were quite scintillating as well ).  Thanks for sharing!

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on March 30, 2006, 08:57 PM
That guy is going to win that case. Not the assault but he will get it reduced from being a hate crime.

My specialty is in employment law. One of the things that I have learned is that you cannot simply read a law and then accept that what you have read will become the law in its prcatice. No. . far from it. There is always the court's interpretation that changes how the law is applied. This will become a test case for hate crimes and how language will be applied to the outcome of the charge.

What has happened with the creative defense is that we (black people) as Friend has pointed out, will now see another outcome of the rap culture. And as much as I can understand Cindy saying that there is positive rap, I can't agree that there is. That positive rap carries a similar attitude just not to the degrading level that so called negative rap does. It has to carry it in order to appeal to the senses that rap music reaches. The same way gospel appeals to a certain sense or country to another sense. Rap has so much poison as demonstraed by this creative defense that there is little distance between positive and negative. Sorry.

Words are impactful. Self imposed conditions of how words are used and accepted do not now enjoy some type of immunity when people use what we call ourselves while doing things we don't like. This attack is multi-faceted. First is it so far from what rap teaches? The violence is also associated with rap culture simply from the defense that is being mounted.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on March 30, 2006, 09:26 PM

I invite all to read this link while we discuss this topic. You will find it provacative. It gives plenty of food for thought. Yet after I read it I'm thinking. . how much of this is imposed on blacks from society and how much of it did we do to oursleves? It will require deep soul searching to find an answer.

I will not give away the content of the article.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 06, 2006, 08:06 PM

I read that link. In fact I read it several times.
I was awe struck at how succinctly Laura Douglas captured the Black experience in this country. Especially with her being a white woman.
I have to give her credit for her honesty. Perhaps she can bring a little more understanding to the issues on race relations.

It is my hope that others will read this link and join the discussion.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on April 07, 2006, 02:36 PM
racism, prejudicism, profiling is very much alive ...i still hear remarks about color from whites and blacks about whites ..how about a middle eastern man ..child? is it possible for an native american to drink whiskey sociably?

here's a few more questions...

if your white, or other than black, if you was walking down the street, and a black man has fallen to the street and needed ..mouth to mouth crp ..would you give it to him?

let me ask the same of my black cousins, would you give a white man mouth to mouth cpr?

it is said 'the garden of eden was in africa? was adam and eve black?

if a white man is of African descent and his parents come live in America ..does he become an African-America?

if you follow golf, are you cheering Tiger Woods on ..he is about (or could) to make history again?
(even if you dont follow golf i bet you have an opinion on this)


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 07, 2006, 06:30 PM
Quote (A-FRIEND @ April 06 2006, 1:06pm)

I read that link. In fact I read it several times.
I was awe struck at how succinctly Laura Douglas captured the Black experience in this country. Especially with her being a white woman.
I have to give her credit for her honesty. Perhaps she can bring a little more understanding to the issues on race relations.

It is my hope that others will read this link and join the discussion.

This was another on a site that I follow for my work. What I found surprising was how many people came on to be very critical of her revelations. The complaint was "why should white men be made to feel guilty because blacks were mistreated?'

Now think about that for a moment. Laura ONLY spoke from her own epiphany. She spoke in the first person with thoughtful deliberation about circumstances she could find herself in as a white woman yet placed herself in the same set of circumstances as a minority male or female. What was it about her first person story that woud elicit any comment that she attacked white males or asked them to feel guilty?

You know what happened? There is an old saying that if you throw a rock into a pack of cats, the one that meows is the one that got hit. Her story was so familiar to the ones that protested that it could only mean that the experience was so close to them, perhaps as participants in the behavior, that they had to "meow". Her story was printed solely for an educational experience. If guilt was brought forth that was self assigned perhaps that was a peripheral benefit for the ones protesting while reading Laura's story. Maybe they were 'looking' at her story but 'saw' themselves.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 07, 2006, 06:50 PM
Quote (cafeRg @ April 07 2006, 7:36am)
racism, prejudicism, profiling is very much alive ...i still hear remarks about color from whites and blacks about whites ..how about a middle eastern man ..child? is it possible for an native american to drink whiskey sociably?

here's a few more questions...

if your white, or other than black, if you was walking down the street, and a black man has fallen to the street and needed ..mouth to mouth crp ..would you give it to him?

let me ask the same of my black cousins, would you give a white man mouth to mouth cpr?

it is said 'the garden of eden was in africa? was adam and eve black?

if a white man is of African descent and his parents come live in America ..does he become an African-America?

if you follow golf, are you cheering Tiger Woods on ..he is about (or could) to make history again?
(even if you dont follow golf i bet you have an opinion on this)


Those are good observations. It is true that while white > black racism is alive and well that certainly does not mean that black >white racism does not exist. It has to be said though that the white power structure has a greater ability to stifle growth from a societal standpoint than black racism can concerning whites. Perhaps a minor point but in the big picture an important one.

As to you questions. Fortunately I can say yes. I know whites that would do CPR on anyone and blacks that would do the same without hesitation or question. I am in emergency services, however let me tell you a couple of my expeiences.

Both were heart attack calls. Both were white families. One would not let me work on his wife because two of the three members of my crew were black. It was better for his wife to die. No. . I kid you not. I had to threaten him with being locked up in oreder to treat his wife. While being called nigger under his breath. She lived in spite of him.

The second one was similar only this time I was attacked by the husband and son with a knife. His wife was being given CPR but it was more important that he clear his house of niggers than for his wife to live. Still we did all we could for her. She died.

I have faced this kind of thing frequently. There has been only one person in my 34 years as an emergency responder that was black that this did this kind of thing and he was a mental case from Nam.

I have responded to calls dressed as the only official in the group. Class 'B' shirt, badge, pin, collar insignias, subordinates calling me Captain and opening the doors for me while they were dressed down in polos and work pants. Yet residents would side step me to start addresssing the problem to the subordinates, not the most obvious  person who would have been in charge. Why? I'm black. The subordinates would tell them "look he is the one you need to talk too" and the residents would simply turn to another white subordinate and keep talking.

So Laura was right. What happens to you is influenced a lot of times simply by, not what you are doing, but by the color of your skin.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 12, 2006, 04:57 PM
Good questions.
As to Tiger Woods I don't cheer for him or against him, I just don't like him. I don't like his personality and I don't like some of the references he's made about blacks. Let not this be confused with not liking him simply because he's black, as is the case in some circles.

 Like Cappy, I've been disrespected many times on scene.
Many times, in the process of giving lawful orders, I've been called nigger and other names.  I've even been the only body standing between life and death for some very unappreciative individuals, at the same time being called derogatory names by the very person I'm trying to save.
Yes I've seen white officers abused by the public, but that's because of WHAT they are (police officers) as opposed to WHO they are (black officers).

As to Adam and Eve, there are schools of thought to confirm they were indeed people of color. You'll find references to that in some of the very first National Geographic magazines, which are known for their anthropology honesty.
Just plain logic applied to their original location would dictate they were black.
Of course this kind of logic would, by necessity, have to be blurred at some point by believers in white supremacy, who had/have the to power to do so. They controlled the print, they had/have the power.
Imagine, if you will, the white preachers in the pulpit using the Bible to tell the slaves to obey their masters, and at the same time telling them that the first people on earth were Africans. That just would not do.

I will answer your question on the white person of African descent later, as I've run out of time. Needless to say it is a very complicated question.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 17, 2006, 12:50 AM
"If a white man is of African descent and his parents come live in America ..does he become an African-America?"

Only in America can a question be so complex. If you had asked that question  with the boy moving to a country other than America, the answer would be no. If you had asked that question with the boy being any other ethnicity, the answer would be no.

There was a time in America when there was no defined color line. Yes there were Europeans, Indians, Africans, ect. Without going through a long period of anthropic history there came a time when the land  speculators, plantation owners, slave masters, ect., had to invent a color line, because of ethnocentric fears brought on by their own behavior.

These fears were complex for them at the time, but it stemmed mostly from the most public 'secret' of that time. The wives, the elite, all members of society knew that the white men would have sex with the slave women. It was just not a topic of opened conversation. After all the slave women were property to be used as they saw fit, and it sure kept the sexual beasts off the genteel white women of society. Some of these encounters were genuine, though prohibited, but  the vast majority of times the black women, even young black girls, had no choice. Well these encounters produced babies. Now the white society has a problem.
Do you accord equal human status to these babies? Are they to be welcomed into white society as equal partners as the other pure white children? Do they become inheritors? Will they be allowed to intermarry? Will  they own property? Will they live in the 'big' house'?
The questions just go on and on.

So now what do they do?
Enter the invention of the color line. Enter as many convoluted explanations for the color line, as there were rapes of black women that necessitated it.
Enter, now, into the American lexicon, such words as mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, zambo (sic), griffe, and sacatra. The purpose of these names? To preserve the whiteness of white society. They could now, through this color line and these names, assign a less than human status to children of mixed races.
In fact a part of this theory says  that if a white man sires a  child with a woman of another race, that child would default to the status of the lower race, and we all know they were not calling white men the lower race.
All of theses names and concepts eventually became known as The One Drop Rule. If you have just one drop of black blood in America, you are black.

The white elite was so pressed to preserve their whiteness', they even have court cases on the books that declared people black, thereby making and/or keeping them a slave, based solely on how much association they had with blacks.

These concepts of human hierarchy  were put forward by such stalwarts  as Thomas Jefferson et al, and have been in the legal mindsets of America so long that its become institutionalized  and excepted as true throughout American society, even black society.
Interestingly, these concepts were never codified into written law. It was much too complicated even for the lawmakers and scholars that invented them to explain. So it was left up to the local areas to do what they will. That means if the white men said it, it was law. The blacks had no choice. 
So entrenched is the One Drop Rule, it now is institutionalized into our American culture.

Of further interest is a 1967 U.S. Supreme Court case that ruled the One Drop rule illegal when it overturned the Virginia Racial Integrity Act. Even more interesting than that point is the UPHOLDING of the "One Drop Rule" by the 1986 U. S. Supreme court's refusal to hear a Louisiana racial classification case as applied to Susan Phipps, even though it had previously been outlawed.
The point of interest I'm making?
For those that want to say there is no such thing as institutionalized racism, ask yourselves this; If the One Drop Rule was never codified into written law how can it be a legal argument to be overturned or upheld even in our day?

So the answer for  the White boy from Africa is this; If he has One Drop of black blood, America says he's black.
He being from Africa is the one strike against him. There is precedent in American courts that says he can't prove his heritage to be purely white, there is precedent in American courts that declares and upholds ethnicity through association.

<a href="http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.htm" target="_blank">http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.htm (http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.htm)[/url]
<a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson/mixed/onedrop.html" target="_blank">http://www.pbs.org/wgbh....op.html (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh....op.html)[/url]
<a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson/slaves/" target="_blank">http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson/slaves/ (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson/slaves/)[/url]
<a href="http://backintyme.com/essay050101.htm" target="_blank">http://backintyme.com/essay050101.htm (http://backintyme.com/essay050101.htm)[/url]
<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-drop_rule" target="_blank">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-drop_rule (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One-drop_rule)[/url]</font>

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 17, 2006, 01:17 AM
It should futher be noted that the color line was the white man's concept and invention as early as the 1600s.
The consequences suffered by us all with regard to the color line started with them trying to justify their own immorallity.

Codified, insitutionalized, whatever it is, we have to learn to better our society to get beyond it. Alas, we have a long way to go. In fact we are regressing.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 17, 2006, 03:29 PM
That is some nice research. I learned a heck of a lot here.

Poetic: I would like your thoughts on this research. In it you may find the answer to your question of why there is no white history month. Perhaps you will find that there is no need to declare something that already is, has been established by power structure and courts of the land for centuries. Your thoughts?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 17, 2006, 10:57 PM
My research was mainly aimed at the 1600 to 1800 period in American history with regard to the color line and the One Drop Rule.

Whereas it is true the inventors of the color line never codified them into written law leaving it up to localities to do as they will, in fact these states did codify the One Drop Rule into written law circa 1920s:
Tennessee, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, North Carolina, Virginia, Alabama, Georgia, Oklahoma, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Utah.

When this happened it was certainly a mighty victory for the Jim Crow laws designed to keep blacks at as low a status as possible for decades to come.
In compliance with Jim crow, I was 14 before it was legal for me to walk through a front door, or sit where I wanted.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 18, 2006, 07:08 PM
Have you ever considered the influence of savery and today's cusine? It's roots can be traced by to the 1600s.

Interesting reading:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 24, 2006, 07:22 PM
Juneteenth, celebrated on June 19, is the name given to emancipation day by African-Americans in Texas. To the slaves it holds equal or more importance than July 4th. After all it wasn't the slaves that got freedom during the American revolution, even though they gave blood and life fighting for the birth of this country.

 On that day in 1865 Union Major General Gordon Granger read General Order #3 to the people of Galveston. General Order #3 stated "The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor. The freedmen are advised to remain quietly at their present homes and work for wages. They are informed that they will not be allowed to collect at military posts and that they will not be supported in idleness either there or elsewhere."

Large celebrations on June 19 began in 1866 and continued regularly into the early 20th century. The African-Americans treated this day like the Fourth of July and the celebrations contained similar events. In the early days, the celebration included a prayer service, speakers with inspirational messages, reading of the emancipation proclamation, stories from former slaves, food, red soda water, games, rodeos and dances. The freed slaves even bought or rented land on which to hold these celebrations.

At this point it's important to discuss the date, June, 19, 1865. Why?
Well the emancipation proclamation was brought into effect in late
December 1863. That's a little over two years. Why did it take that long to get the news to the slaves in Texas?

There are several schools of thought as to why it took over two years to get the freedom news to Texas.
One being that the Union wanted to allow Texas one more crop season before the enforced the proclamation.
Now let's see if I can follow this logic; It was during the war, one side determined to defeat the other, Sherman making his march across the south destroying everything in his path, bloody battles, deaths unseen in battles before and we are supposed to believe the Union was being this generous.
It just does not make any sense what so ever.
Another ridiculous excuse is that news traveled so slow it took that long. Let's examine that a few moments.

A horseman could ride at least 20 miles a day. Texas is roughly 1550 miles from Washington DC. He could have ridden that distance in 2 1/2  months.  Under forced march men could march 10 to 15 miles a day, so one could march to Texas from DC in 5 months.  
But wait, there was the telegraph, news dispatches, migration patterns, fleeing patterns, the railroad.  When Atlanta was under siege  some slave owners fled to Texas. They went by carriage, the  slaves were, for the most part, marched to Texas. There are accounts one can read from the slave narratives that states it took them a few weeks by foot.
Even the most generous time line would say the fleeing slave masters and plantation owners would have taken the news of the proclamation with them.
Hint... are there any accounts that says it took two years to get the news of the emancipation prolamation to Georgia?

The war itself was prosecuted from 1861 to 1865. I'd say that's 4 years by any man's count. The war took place country wide. Would anybody dare say that the news of the battles, couriers carrying dispatches from camp to camp, or from state to state, or from Generals back to  Lincoln in Washington , or from Lincoln back to the Generals, or from Generals to Generals, or from Generals to subordinates took over two years each to deliver and not expect to be called a fool?

Surrender was on April 9 1865 (corrected) in Appomattox, Va.  On June 19 1865 Major General Gordon Granger read Order # 3 to the people of Galveston, Tx.  That's about 1220 miles and 15 days later.

Lincoln was assassinated April 14 1865. He laid in state in both in the Whitehouse and Capital, was transported 1700 miles by rail to Springfield, Ill and was buried on May 4 1865. That's 1700 miles, 20 days.

April 23 1865...Jeff Davis was already in full flight according to a letter to his wife. He fled from the fall of Petersburg to Danville, Va.  and was captured in two weeks in Georgia. That's roughly 550 miles in 14 days. So if it was a full 2 weeks Jeff Davis traveled an average of 39 miles a day. That would of course be by R/R, horseback and/or buggy and perhaps some walking.

What is my point?
There are no circumstances that can be supported with any modicum of common sense that  would justify the news of the 1883 emancipation proclamation taking over 2 years to reach the slaves in Texas, save but one.
They knew. The slave owners knew. With the telegraph Texas would have known about the emancipation proclamation in a few days. They made concerted efforts to keep the news from the slaves, and to keep them in bondage.  There are accounts stating that fact in the slave narratives.
This is just another demonstration of the lies used in the daily lives of the slave holders, the good church people and extended right into the heart of the confederacy in the civil war.
It's inexcusable. But then again, if your existence is based on a lie, you have to live that lie.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: --cindi-- on April 26, 2006, 01:31 PM
Afriend, I must commend you on this well written and very informative piece.  Not many people who aren't from or around Texas know of this injustice.  I just want to take this time to thank you for your research and sharing this information with others who were not aware of this blatant disregard for our honor and our freedom.

I am from texas, born and raised here and have celebrated Juneteenth all my life, but it was only on June 1st, 1980 that Juneteenth was declared a state holiday, 115 years after texas slaves were freed. We have State Representative Al Edwards to thank for this.


Once again. THank you
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 26, 2006, 08:30 PM
Thank you for that link and your comments.
I was beginning to think I was hearing an echo in here.
I hope to see more of your superb articulations.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 27, 2006, 02:30 PM
Superb! I had no idea how much I did NOT know. How much history that is never published; how foul things actually were and in far too many onclaves still defended.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 27, 2006, 05:45 PM
" In far too many onclaves still defended"

Cappy, you said a mouthfull. You would be amazed how many site I run across that spout obsolute racist ignorance with regard to slavery, the confederacy, black contributions and people of color in general.
Half truths, attempts to sanitize slavery. For example; I took my granddaughter to Williamsburg, Va. We were watching a film at the welcoming center about settlers coming to the americas and they were calling them immigrants because they migrated from where ever they were. Now here's what got me.
They actually reffered to slaves as immigrants simply because they came from another country.
I hit the roof!!!!!!....This is what they're teaching the school kids about slavery?  I went from one office to another trying to get someone to explain how they could put such BS out as educated facts. Of course I recieved no satisfactory answer.
This is but one example of how intrenched ignorance is still being defended in onclaves that even passs themselves off as educators.

I use the words racist and ignorant in the same breath because they are synonymous.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on April 29, 2006, 12:55 PM
I just wanted to jump in and thank A-Friend, once again, for the many lessons contained within this topic.  I have to admit that I am a little embarrassed that I had not heard of Juneteenth.  I have learned many things within this topic, and am sure that many others have too, even if they don't post!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 29, 2006, 04:46 PM
We all learn from each other.   Some one  brings something different to our attention and we learn, so there's no need to feel embarrased.
Thank you for following along.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 10, 2006, 06:20 PM
<font color='#0000FF'>This happened recently.
The scene:
A chat room targeted to people 50 and over. Mixed audience at the time, including blacks and white.

The person I'm speaking of is well over 50.

The conversation:
General in nature, but it did include the march that was going on with the emigrants.

The statement:
" I wish I was black I so could have marched to sit on my butt and collect welfare."

Let's see if I have this gentleman's comment right.
Blacks were being terrorized by the KKK, their businesses were being burned for no other reason than they were in competition, they were being murdered if they tried to defend themselves, lynched at an average of one a week, lynched for no more reason than being accused of whistling at a white woman ( Emmit Till for example), inadequate schools, could not walk into a front door, job discrimination, copy rights stolen, land stolen, could not get anti lynch laws passed, girls rapped, killed in bombings, shot down, homes and churches bombed, children murdered, no rights to vote... I could go on, but I think this makes my point.

In spite of all this, some moron has the audacity to say all blacks wanted was a welfare check.

Just as an aside let me say this.
Fact: Every study says the largest group benefiting from welfare and affirmitive action are white women.

Here's the kicker. This individual made this decalration and accused me of being thin skinned when I called him on it.
He declares his ignorance as truth and I'm thin skinned.

Can ignorance be justified because of the stigmas and stereotypes one wants to attache to certain groups in spite of all available evidence to the contrary?

Why is it when white people say these things and black people respond with righteous indignation, the discussion turns to black people being thin skinned, rather than discussing the effrontery?</font>
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: --cindi-- on May 13, 2006, 08:22 PM
Afriend, I can relate to this topic very well. No, ignorance can never be justified. Only for those who suffer from it. Rational minds look at comments such as the ones made by this person and wonder how such ignoarance can exist.  There is no explanation for it.  It really saddens me that ther are still people who think so little of what our ancestors suffered through.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 24, 2006, 07:25 PM
Bessie Coleman, known as Queen Bessie, was born 1892 in Atlanta, Tx  and raised as one of thirteen children on a share croppers cotton farm in Waxahachie, Tx, which was about 30 miles south of Dallas.
As a young girl she spent most of her time caring for her younger siblings and was a bright and eager student. Bessie craved a challenge and excelled in school, especially in mathematics. She completed the 8th grade with top honors and went to work as a laundress, hoping to save enough to pay for her secondary and college education.

By 1910 Bessie enrolled at the school of Agriculture and Normal University in Langston, Ok.  She was forced to return to the humiliating life as a domestic in Tx, as her money ran out after only one semester. Having enough of this she moved to Chicago in 1915. While living with her brother Walter, she was determined  make a better life and completed a course as a manicurist. This led to her having a reputation of being the best and fastest manicurist in black Chicago and that led to her coming into contact with many of the richest and most powerful black citizens.

Among those friends was Robert Abbott, editor and publisher of the Chicago Defender newspaper.
His support and encouragement convinced Bessie to pursue an impossible dream. She wanted to fly. This was the early 1920s when women pilots were a extreme rarity. Black women pilots? Simply unheard of.
She made up her mind to over come the limitations placed on her by racism, sexism and her present occupation.
Well you guessed it. She was totally unable to find a flight instructor in the USA because of racism, so ,following Abbott's advice, Bessie learned to speak French, saved her money, sailed to France Nov., 1920, enrolled in the Ecole dAviation des Freres Caudron in Le Crotoy, France.

By June 1921 Bessie had completed a rigorous qualifying exam and received her pilots license . To polish her skills, she spent another two months taking lessons from a french ace pilot and returned to New York with much fanfare. Most of the countrys black newspapers and even a few mainstream journals hailed her as a full fledged aviatrix, the first of her race.

She made her first appearance in an American air show on Sept., 3, 1922 billed as the worlds greatest woman flyer.
Bessie accomplished many things, but her dream of opening her own flying school was cut short in April 30 1926 when her plane spun out of control. The plane was being piloted by her mechanic William Wills on a practice run for the next days show. Bessie was in the rear cockpit and had her seatbelt unfastened to look over the side to study the contours of the field. She fell to her death.

The accident was suspicious from the start. According to the account on record at the Wright Brothers Museum in Kitty Hawk, NC, the accident was barely given a cursory investigation at which time they concluded it was an old plane and had structural problems. Other accounts say a wrench was left in the gear box.
The Kitty Hawk museum concludes that either problem would have been easily noticed by Bessie before take off due to her high professional standards, but because of the lack of interest to investigate due to racism, the absolute truth is lost to history.

One thing thats not lost to history. Bessie Coleman was an inspiration to generations of African American women and men.
Lt. William J. Powell attributed this to her in his book, Black Wings...
"Because of Bessie Coleman, we have overcome that which was worse than racial barriers. We have overcome the barriers within ourselves and dared to dream."

There is so much more to learn of this black woman and how she accomplished her dream.


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on May 26, 2006, 06:18 PM
The short answer. . no ignorance is not an excuse.

The detailed answer. It is not ignorance, it is malice. Ignorance is a case where information is scarce, unavailable, unknown. Where something is aberrant to a point that it is an anomaly and information seeking has to begin at the point of discovering the issue or incident. But as you pointed out little research or effort would provide statistics out the whazoo on where welfare dollars go. Any brief look at what spurred civil rights legislation, any brief look (even with your eyes closed) reveals the horror suffered by enslavement even when blacks were "freed". So this person is not ignorant as far as lack of knowledge goes. What he reflects is his own fear and inadequacy to compete with those whom he imposes himself as superior too. The only way for his kind to look good is to attempt to make those he fears look worse than him.

There is a secondary problem with this however. He has a following, KKK, Nazis, White Supremacy all with SPS, all ditto heads of collaborators with them. Rush, the disgraced republican speaker of the house, and a host of other enablers that foster the same atmosphere while they themselves become convicted of yet sweep under the 'ole dirty rug, the same things they falsely accuse most blacks of. I have no love, pity or understanding for such fools on this earth.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 28, 2006, 01:21 AM

I stand corrected. Indeed I have been using the wrong word.

When statements are made that are outright despicable, they are not made out of ignorance. They are malicious and the intent is to hurt and degrade.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on May 29, 2006, 02:10 PM
There's reference at the top of the boards, that the first Memorial Day was held in Charleston, SC..

"Professor David Blight, of the Yale University History Department, has suggested that the first memorial day was held by liberated slaves at the historic race track in Charleston in 1865. The race track, which was used as a Confederate prison during the war, was the site of a mass grave for Union soldiers who had died while captive. A parade with thousands of freed blacks and Union soldiers was followed by patriotic singing and a picnic."

Liberated Slaves & Racial Ignorance

So you're tried of hearing about poor ol' Blacks? A search on the internet could change your mind. Though Modern Day Slavery is not just about Blacks or African-Americans, as you will find, ignorance and racism still does exist here in America. Did you know...?

"UNICEF estimates that 200,000 children from West and Central Africa are sold into slavery each year."

"For most Americans, images of human slavery, are usually associated, with the American Civil War. However, there are an estimated 200 million people in bondage today."

"Slave labour exists in one form or another on almost every continent today"

"We must ensure that when western companies invest in poor or emerging countries they respect basic labour rules such as have been lain out in international law."

"In the Dominican Republic, the collection of slaves for the busy harvest season is more random. The Dominican army, with the support of the  State Sugar Council (known as the CEA), "hauls Haitians off public buses, arrests them in their homes or at their jobs, and delivers them to the cane fields," according to Charles Jacobs.

Some of the cane-cutters sign on to work voluntarily. When the number of workers does not meet the harvest's demand, the Dominican army is set into action. The army's captives are forced to work at gunpoint and beaten if they try to escape."

"young girls sold into prostitution in Thailand and slave chattels in Mauritania. Though most Americans believe slavery was abolished with the Emancipation Proclamation more than a century ago, the horrors of human beings held in bondage flourishes today."

"Racism is a crime of the heart and the spirit... which is why the memory of slavery remains a living wound for some of our fellow citizens."

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on May 29, 2006, 05:31 PM
You are so right. Further the sex slave trade if flourishing in the Ukraine, Russia Viet Nam Thailand and many other places. African nations are exploiting little girls as well some as young as eight to get food that our tax dollars sent there. I'm not talking about the typical black market criminal, I'm talking about the police, politicians and the very representatives that are responsible for the distribution of food.

See the problem  with malicious comments by fools is that they select what they want to condemn and at the same time are too stupid to know that when they condemn those they hate they are doing the same thing to those they would call their own people. One can't outright lie, as so many do, about the races and then try to piece together a 'truth' about themselves. Facts are those that those who are so quick to lie are the ones that are involved in the sex trade and slavery of the modern century. To say I am repulsed by such people and will not tolerate them in my space is to say the least. Of course most that do that are forum cowards that hide behind a keyboard ever fearing to tread in public where the tar and feathers even if metaphorically, exist.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on May 29, 2006, 05:37 PM
BY the way RG, I was so focused on the last part of your post that I forgot to say that I learned something from it. See there is so much information out there as you, Friend and others have posted that it is amazing that drivel is still believed and fostered as credible.

Me I'm just hanging out and posting about things that catch me. Perhaps one day I will live up to the most articulate and eloquent company that am keeping on this forum.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 31, 2006, 08:17 PM
Good post RG. I was unaware of
Proff. David Blight's studies in the Yale Historical Dept.
The start of the Memorial Day celebration is just another example of what African Americans did for this country, even though its popularization  is credited eleswhere.

With regard to the rest of your post, excellent information. It demonstrates the need to continue speaking on the subject of slavery. Its history is directly tied to the present and to forget the one is to deny the other.

I found it quite interesting the 'dots' that were connected between your post and Cappy's. It appears there is a seamless connection from country to country, system to system, history to present history, method of operation to method of operation, with regard to slavery.

I would like to connect a few more 'dots'.
Let us not omit the complicity of America and its policies, especially the policies promoted with this curent administration.
Can one have slavery without promoting/participating in a 'slave mentality'? If one promotes/participates in this slave mentality, is that one just as guilty even though they  claim clean hands?  If one is aware of specific places or entities that not only promote the slave mentality, but participates in its out come and says nothing, is that one just as culpable?
Connect the dots from out sourcing jobs from well paid USA companies, to foreign countries that pay slave wages to its workers. Workers that have no work place rights, no protections, no insurance, no child labor laws. Connect those dots to our President (Bush), who is beholding to big business, saying publicly that he see's no problem with that happening. In fact he said it was good for America. Connect those dots even futher to the cozy asscociation between big business and this right wing congress that allows this to happen. Connect those dots to big business that invest rather than divest from countries that do the very things RG and Cappy made reference too.

Lets carry that a little further. Think about the imigration issue as it's now being handled. Look at the double speak we hear from congress and this administration. Listen to all the clamour about the problems caused by illegal immigrants while at the same time the President says we need a 'guest' worker program.
Now why do you suppoes that is?
The reason the powers that be want you believe is our citizens don't want those jobs that the imigrants take. The truth we all know is americans won't do those jobs for slave wages. So we have an administration that says one thing to appease the public, while at the same time help businesses drive down wages pushing the middle class further out and creating a lower class pay tier system. Think that doesn't lend itself to the promoting/participation of a new slave mentality?

The picture can't be any more clear. The USA, it's policies, big business and its lackeys, the congress this President, as well as certain individuals, are guilty as hell in promoting not only the development of this new slave mentality, but participating in the resulting slavery.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 01, 2006, 10:17 PM
This is a must see for everybody, especialy my black people.
Finally the movement has started by black people, for black people to educate us about our own self destructive hatered.

I can't describe how distressing it is that this has to be done in order to stop us from degrading and disgracing ourselves.

A discussion of this site is encrouraged. For now I'll post it without comment.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 13, 2006, 07:20 PM
Hate speech: Speech that is vile and demeaning, used to undermine and destroy every vestige of dignity and humanity.
They are words that have a history of no redeeming value or counter argument to justify their use.

I'm going to direct this squarely at my own black people.

The words nigga and nigger have absolutely no social value, nor have they ever. Their very genesis was used to demean and dehumanize us from the time our people were first dragged into the holes of slave ships.
Its degrading meaning is not lessened just because we use it among ourselves. In fact it's a sure sign of our own vicious ignorance and self hatred.  No other racial group takes the racist phrases that demean them and identify themselves with its use.
There is no excuse for it, no justification for it and any black person that tries to excuse it, is suffering from a self destructive mental deficiency that is unknown in any other racial group.
Every time we use that word we put our stamp of approval on every racist movement that has been perpetrated  against us from slavery, to the rape of our women, to the murder of our people, to the lynchings, right up to all the past and present discriminations in jobs, housing, bank loans... everything that is negative.

Its use amoung us is a disgrace and a curse we CAN do something about. Ban the words from your vocabulary. Take time to tell our young folks about its genesis. When you hear it used, call that person out and demand an apology.
It IS past time we stand together and put a stop to this outrage.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on June 15, 2006, 04:59 PM
That was a visually powerful site. Many of the captures I personally remember with the dogs and water hoses. They bring up the hopelessness and anger intermingled with the fear from the very forces that were supposed to protect all, police, courts, the constitution. They all failed and became full partners in crime, hate and yes using the handle of the time to dehumanize blacks, nigger.

Now full circle we have been led, duped and become complacent in the use of the same mantra as some sort of personal possession as if to say if we call ourselves that then whites can't use it as an insult anymore. All the while being too naive or unwilling to look at the gashes we inflict upon ourselves that whites no longer have to do. (This is not an editorial about or against whites. Please read it in the context of banishing the use of the 'N' word)

Isn't it ironic that we now have affirmative defenses by white defendants in racial beatings. The hate crime element of the beating done for no other reason than they are black is now being challenged in court because we have diminished the hate of the most vile term used against us, by using the term is such common reference to ourselves. Sadder still is the abject stupidity of the ones who defend it's use without any regard to what has now happened.

I am continually saddened by hearing it daily and saddened still that we have reached a point were such web sites salted with the memories of such violence under the banner of the word nigger have now become a necessary media toll to plead for the banning of the word not from whites, but from us.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on June 15, 2006, 06:07 PM
My father lives in Auburn very close to her house. If anyone is in upstate NY they should definatley go there. Tubman is one of the people focused on in history. Everyone Knows of her. When I was in Middle school and  High school she was the subject of many research projects and presentations. I think it is wonderful you posted this.

Some good resources I have enjoyed and been touched by are
Slavery and the making of America.  vol. 3,  seeds of destruction  [videorecording] /  directed, written and produced by Chana Gazit ; WNET New York ; series producer, Dante J. James
Its a dvd Done in 2004 I beleive? There are two riveting personal accounts of Harriet Jacobs and Louis Hughes  and
Roots of resistance:  a story of the underground railroad /  produced and directed by Orlando Bagwell ; co-produced by Susan Bellows ; writer, Theodore Thomas
This I watched on a VHS i dont know if the dvd is available I know its a pbs video</font>

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on June 19, 2006, 03:20 PM
The splash intro to this site was so powerful that I did not need to get into the site.  I repeated the intro!

I wanted to post my thoughts while my emotions are so raw.  What are they?  Sadness and anger and embarrassment that ignorant people can be so damn, well, Ignorant!

I am going to go back to the site and check out the contents, but am reposting the link for anyone that has not gone there yet, with my strongest recommendation that you all do so.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on June 19, 2006, 04:59 PM
At some point in time everyones people have suffered greatly.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 20, 2006, 04:55 PM
"At some point in time everyones people have suffered greatly."

Amber, I feel obligated to say this. You may not understand now, but one day you're going to be sitting here several decades older, as I am, and you're going to give a younger person the benefit of your experience, your life's lessons, and the wisdom that comes with it.

I don't in any way think what you said was said with malice, but let me tell you the way it's used in my world.
Much the same as when men say something thinking it's perfectly ok, but women hear it differently, and the men are clueless as to why.

In the light of the seriousness of this topic, it cannot be reduced to 'everyone has problems.' Even less so in the aftermath of viewing the last link.
I've heard that line time and again and it's used to somehow diminish the seriousness of what was done (and still being done on some level) to black people in this country.
It's used by certain groups to say that what happened won't so bad.
Some that use that line, for the most part, are so far removed from the seriousness of what happened, and I can understand that to a degree, but that doesn't excues one from the responsibility of understanding history.

Others use that line to simply dismiss the historical record as if black people are not important enough to have their history recorded in all it's heinousness, without having that record cheapened by comparing it to other histories that are totally immaterial.

Sure bad things have happened to other people, I don't deny that, but the enslavement, degradation, bombings, lynchings, is unique in American history. All of this was directed at one culture, the black people. It cannot be compared to indentured servants or anything eles in american history.

As an elder in the american community, I've lived through segregation, the bombings, lynchings, beatings, dogs, firehoses, and still live in a very real racist society. I come from slave ancestory and it's much more than 'at sometime everybody had problems.'

Again I say, I don't believe you said anything with hurtfull intent. I'm just giving you the perspective from one decades older so you may learn that innocent said, is not always innocent heard.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 20, 2006, 05:22 PM
Allen, thank you for the reinforcement on recommending that site.

It is my shame that it had to be created by black people for black people, but it carries a most powerful message for all.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on June 20, 2006, 07:03 PM
Quote (MistressofSolace @ June 19 2006, 9:59am)
At some point in time everyones people have suffered greatly.

Let me ask you something to ponder over. When was the last time you thought of that when you saw a PBS special about the Jewish Holocaust? Have you ever made the same comparison when you read about Indians being massacred? Perhaps that thought came up during the Kosovo ethnic cleansing a few short years ago. Maybe you thought of that when you heard of the trafficking in the sex trade of innocent girls and women. Could it be that the family murdered when bullets flew through their house from gangs firing on each other outside in the street brought up a similar thought? My point is that this thought that all people have bad times never seems to come up unless it is related to the minimization of the black holocaust.

I attribute no ill will to your statement and certainly mean no offense to you. I do ask that you consider the type of historical mental indoctrination that it took to attach that thought to such horrific and specific events.

If you like I will be willing to answer any questions you may have and share my personal experiences with you so that you may gain a greater understanding of why Friend and myself have responded in such a way.

May you continue to have peace and be blessed.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on June 20, 2006, 10:48 PM
Friend and Cappy.

I really don't think, as you point out Friend, that in this particular case, Mistress meant to be heard in the way that you point out.  I really believe based on all of her other posts so far, that she meant to indicate that there are ignorant and evil people everywhere.

I do, however, want to agree wholeheartedly with you in acknowledging that there are many bigoted people, who will use this pat response to attempt to minimize Black injustice.  I do think that it is a good lesson that you teach, from your perspective of greater experience; that we all need to be sensitive to the way our innocent remarks can be misinterpreted.  Sometimes, unfortunately, this only comes with life experience, and of course; as the result of the gifts of people such as yourselves, who are good enough to share their own wisdom.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 21, 2006, 04:50 AM
You are right on point, Allen.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on June 21, 2006, 04:19 PM
I said what i said because Allens comment reminded me of a disuccion we had in my history of the American worker class. So much ignorance has permeated our history, and thats what I meant. There has been so much sufferinng. I didnt mena to minimize anything! I see that i should have explained or add to that post so that there wasnt that misunderstanding. i am glad I got peopel thinkgking though really, but it is terribly judgemental to think that I was trying to belittle any particular peopels suffering. Ignorance has inflicted pain on so many that was all that I was saying , and yes it is embarassing to think that human beings are capable of such hatered and ill wiil towards others.  I have had experience with innocent comments being misunderstood and this is another one, its not discouraging. I odnt think other cultures sufferings shoudl be lessoned either. We couldn't even begin to understand that kind of pain, only to learn from it and talk about it to keep it alive. And Allen thanks for bringing it up that based on my other posts its obvious that I wasnt making a negative racist comment, or comparing for that matter , did i say was no but I didnt say I wasnt either,.This isnt a first time in MY young young young young life ( yes i know im 24) that  I have been misunderstood ,offended, hurt and pissed, and i am sure as I AGE it will happen over and over and over and over again. And yet it is not discourageing I will continue to have a voice. I am glad everyones brains are working and that there are such serious conversations on SplashHall. I do thin k that it is imporatant to keep the history alive not the hatred.

Oh and cappy it has been two days since I watched soemthign about the jewish holocaust--weird huh? I taped the interveiw oprah had done with Elie Wiesel. I couldn't stop crying, it was riveting, haunting, and I am glad i have a copy to share with my future children when they get old enough to learn of such horror.  I can tell by your examples you are well learned adn your eyes are open. yes so many innocent peopels have suffered. Makes you realize that we are in hell, and evil was created by man. Its nauseating. Compasion os one of my strengths and the wrongs, and suffering of mankind is alway on my mind and in my discussions with god Sex trafficking saturates the us and other countries. DId you see the primetime special that aired 2/9/06 and the dateline special "children for sale" about sex trafficking in cambodia, that aired last year , also their are some studies at Harvard that are worthreading about, for those of you who havent been exposed to the huge problem that seems to be growing everyday. And for readers that didnt heear of the Kosovo issue in 1999 hear is a link to soem information.  

Well it seems I am ranting adn i dont ahve tiem for it, so I will end here. When i originally posted my post that is in question I had explained it ,then i deleted it thinking it would cause people to think and it did , and to seek out information if I just letft it there alone by itself a statement in response to the post right before it. People judge, its in there nature, I beleive peopel responded to what has been said to them or they have heard in there own experiences and not me. How could they have no ne knows em here or my experiences. But i do have prior posts to draw from and that being said some comclusions shoudl have never been drawn. But liek I said i am happy people are thinking. Our societys culture focuses around the individual and secondary relationships creating apathy adn selfishenss. It is wonderous to find the opposite here at splashHall.
Thanks ,and bless you as well
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 21, 2006, 06:52 PM
"it is terribly judgemental to think that I was trying to belittle any particular peopels suffering."
Amber you may want to review my and Cappy's posts. We both specificaly said we did NOT think your intent was harmful, and Allen pointed that fact out as well.

My post was to elighten you, and all readers, to the way things are heard with regard to one's experience. Many times things are said in jest, glibly, or even in all seriousness, but they have different meanings to different people or groups.
When that happens, we are obliged to point it out.

Take close note of Allen's point. My response was niether to inflame or accuse, only to enlighten.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on June 21, 2006, 10:13 PM
I have reveiwed it and I said what i had to say.

I would like to post one of my favorite poets ,Langston Hughes, poems and a little info about him. I originally wanted to post something about Phillis but I saw that was already done. So, the handsome and intellegent James Langston Hughes it is.

" James Langston Hughes was born February 1, 1902, in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was a small child, and his father moved to Mexico. He was raised by his grandmother until he was thirteen, when he moved to Lincoln, Illinois, to live with his mother and her husband, before the family eventually settled in Cleveland, Ohio. It was in Lincoln, Illinois, that Hughes began writing poetry. Following graduation, he spent a year in Mexico and a year at Columbia University. During these years, he held odd jobs as an assistant cook, launderer, and a busboy, and travelled to Africa and Europe working as a seaman. In November 1924, he moved to Washington, D.C. Hughes's first book of poetry, The Weary Blues, was published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1926. He finished his college education at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania three years later. In 1930 his first novel, Not Without Laughter, won the Harmon gold medal for literature."
H also worte short stories, prose, and plays.

He died of prostate cancer and where he lived in Harlem is a landmark (20 East 127th Street.)

Let America be America again

Let America be America again.
Let it be the dream it used to be.
Let it be the pioneer on the plain
Seeking a home where he himself is free.

(America never was America to me.)

Let America be the dream the dreamers dreamed--
Let it be that great strong land of love
Where never kings connive nor tyrants scheme
That any man be crushed by one above.

(It never was America to me.)

O, let my land be a land where Liberty
Is crowned with no false patriotic wreath,
But opportunity is real, and life is free,
Equality is in the air we breathe.

(There's never been equality for me,
Nor freedom in this "homeland of the free.")

Say, who are you that mumbles in the dark?
And who are you that draws your veil across the stars?

I am the poor white, fooled and pushed apart,
I am the Negro bearing slavery's scars.
I am the red man driven from the land,
I am the immigrant clutching the hope I seek--
And finding only the same old stupid plan
Of dog eat dog, of mighty crush the weak.

I am the young man, full of strength and hope,
Tangled in that ancient endless chain
Of profit, power, gain, of grab the land!
Of grab the gold! Of grab the ways of satisfying need!
Of work the men! Of take the pay!
Of owning everything for one's own greed!

I am the farmer, bondsman to the soil.
I am the worker sold to the machine.
I am the Negro, servant to you all.
I am the people, humble, hungry, mean--
Hungry yet today despite the dream.
Beaten yet today--O, Pioneers!
I am the man who never got ahead,
The poorest worker bartered through the years.

Yet I'm the one who dreamt our basic dream
In the Old World while still a serf of kings,
Who dreamt a dream so strong, so brave, so true,
That even yet its mighty daring sings
In every brick and stone, in every furrow turned
That's made America the land it has become.
O, I'm the man who sailed those early seas
In search of what I meant to be my home--
For I'm the one who left dark Ireland's shore,
And Poland's plain, and England's grassy lea,
And torn from Black Africa's strand I came
To build a "homeland of the free."

The free?

Who said the free?  Not me?
Surely not me?  The millions on relief today?
The millions shot down when we strike?
The millions who have nothing for our pay?
For all the dreams we've dreamed
And all the songs we've sung
And all the hopes we've held
And all the flags we've hung,
The millions who have nothing for our pay--
Except the dream that's almost dead today.

O, let America be America again--
The land that never has been yet--
And yet must be--the land where every man is free.
The land that's mine--the poor man's, Indian's, Negro's, ME--
Who made America,
Whose sweat and blood, whose faith and pain,
Whose hand at the foundry, whose plow in the rain,
Must bring back our mighty dream again.

Sure, call me any ugly name you choose--
The steel of freedom does not stain.
From those who live like leeches on the people's lives,
We must take back our land again,

O, yes,
I say it plain,
America never was America to me,
And yet I swear this oath--
America will be!

Out of the rack and ruin of our gangster death,
The rape and rot of graft, and stealth, and lies,
We, the people, must redeem
The land, the mines, the plants, the rivers.
The mountains and the endless plain--
All, all the stretch of these great green states--
And make America again!

Also the voice of Langston hughes by langston hughes contains great recordings of his poetry. Track one is "THe Negro Speaks of Rivers" Its beautiful. YOu can listent o it on the net or at Amazon heres the info  

Okay well i'll post the poem here because I am listening to it right now and I love it, I have to admit I liked it at first then I heard him read it and I loved it. He has so many amazing writes I encourage anyone who woudl like to look into his works.  

I've known rivers:
I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow
   of human blood in human veins.

My soul has grown deep like the rivers.

I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.
I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep.

I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it.
I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went
   down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn
   all golden in the sunset.

I've known rivers:
Ancient, dusky rivers.

My soul has grown deep like the rivers.

I was going to insert an image but I dont know how. It hasks for th epics url address? Its on my computer so what url address do I put in there. I am not that savvy with htese machines lol.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on June 22, 2006, 03:37 AM
Langston is one my all-time favorites also ..i even have an entire page tribute for him ..i am guilty of not updating it since i learnt CSS/XML ..but i will get to it.. as i will for many pages i did for the SplashHall Community ..there's even a romantic tour pages (Rooms For Lovers) *evil grin*

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: --cindi-- on June 22, 2006, 08:22 PM
In response to the statement made by Amber, I don't want this drawn out into a long discussion but i feel i must point out a couple of things.

First you say you are "misunderstood, offended, hurt and pissed". And couple of paragraphs later you say "When i originally posted my post that is in question I had explained it, then deleted it thinking it would cause people to think and it did, and to seek out information if I just left it there alone by itself a statment in response to the post right before it".

These two statements are contradictory. Why are you pissed if your purpose was to promote thought? Frankly the way I see it is you are the one being judgemental. They both said they didn't think you meant what you said with any malice, so why accept their comments with malice?  They were only trying to enlighten you.  That comment can be compared to someone saying "some of my best friends are black".  Now they acknowledged you apparantly did not mean it that way, so please accept what they said as one of life's lessons.  We can all learn from each other.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on June 23, 2006, 08:18 PM
First Cindi and Allan thank you for your clarifications. I think they were needed.

I have sat and read your response Mistress, several times. I appreciate the fact that you have a different thought process however that does not mean it escapes the scrutiny of the hearer or reader, as the case may be.

You said in part:

"Oh and cappy it has been two days since I watched soemthign about the jewish holocaust--weird huh? I taped the interveiw oprah had done with Elie Wiesel. I couldn't stop crying, it was riveting, haunting, and I am glad i have a copy to share with my future children when they get old enough to learn of such horror.  I can tell by your examples you are well learned adn your eyes are open. yes so many innocent peopels have suffered. Makes you realize that we are in hell, and evil was created by man. Its nauseating."

I have no doubts that you are a compassionate and caring person. I have not indicated otherwise. That was not my question though. My question involved that when you hear of or watch others suffering then do you as readily revert to a mentality that 'well every people suffer at some time' as quickly as you did when it came to blacks expressing to you how your words felt? You also called the explanations hate. I'd like to know why? Why is an expression of my 56 years of life, what it meant, what I survived, accomplished an expression of hate yet you assign such high regard to your expression that was so uninformed?

It's all a learning experience. Given that I still feel that you intended no harm does not of itself mean that no harm resulted. As an example look at a kid’s baseball game. Each child is striving to do their best at the position they are playing. A child tries to steal a base; the pitcher throws just as hard as he could to the second-base catcher yet he strikes the runner and injures him instead. Didn’t mean too obviously, but the injury occurred non-the-less. What will the coach do? He will instruct the child not because he meant injury but because he caused injury and needs to learn how not to do that the next time.

In like manner do not assume that when you say something that all other people will say your measure of the world is THE measure of their personal experiences and simply learn from what others are trying to convey.

Thanks for listening and I look forward to more of your post.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on June 26, 2006, 11:05 PM
My question involved that when you hear of or watch others suffering then do you as readily revert to a mentality that 'well every people suffer at some time' as quickly as you did when it came to blacks expressing to you how your words felt?

Cappy my statemen was on ignorance! becasue of ignorance that has plagued a young nation masses of peoel have suffered. It wasn't in compariso ot any particular group I though I made that clear in my statement after being accused of that very thing. that is what i am saying. That was why I was pissed at first. Because obviously that wasn't understood, so i htought I clarified. I wll be clearer next time. I didnt refer to the staements as hate? I sinly said we as peoeple must keep history alive not hte hate that has permeated it. Just one of my philosophies. I have been misunderstood before. Take care
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 27, 2006, 03:49 PM
"...after being accused of that very thing."

Amber, I see you still refuse to get it and this is my last statement on the matter.
Every single response you've gotten has said you were not being accused of anything, only enlightened. Yet you still insist on repeating that same wrong headed thing.

You're young and you are going to be learning about alot of things that you now think you understand. I made referrence to that in my first response to you.
Included in that maturing process you will learn the distinct difference between enlightenment and accusations.
You will be amazed as to how much it adds to your credibility once you learn that.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 27, 2006, 03:56 PM
I've been doing some reading on the influence of slave healers and the developing America.

Too much information for this country boy to reduce into a few paragraphs, so here's a link. Very interesting reading:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on June 28, 2006, 04:57 AM
Cappy said.."My question involved that when you hear of or watch others suffering then do you as readily revert to a mentality that 'well every people suffer at some time' as quickly as you did when it came to blacks expressing to you how your words felt?"

this is an accusation can you not get that. That is not my mind set!!!!!!! I understand that my satement could be misinterpreted by people who were or weren't following the post. i should l have originally posted more as to explain it  so that there was no misinterpretation. I am sorry but I understand that on sensative issues it is very easy to anger someone and offend. You dont know my life experiences and I dont know yours. you should remember that. YOu should understand that the way you are addressing me is condescending, or at least can be perceived that way. Perception is reality. And I apologize if my statement was perceived for a cruel comparison or a nonchalant statement. It was simply about ignorance that was mentioned in the post before it. When I had signed in that day I couldn't remember if I had posted this whole long thing that I wrote in word . i originally started going off on another subject wich happens alot when I post. I had just had a conversation abou the history of unions and immigration. Well I typed all this stuff then I was like hmm this isn't the right topic. So I deleted it and left That statement. Because it is so sad and true and painful. The world really is a hell. The link and stuff Allen had posted reminded me of that. Since I was so touvhed by what I had seen and read itmade me thik of a mass of injustices, and maybe woudl have been better as a new topic. I am very sensative. You and whoever may have said that you thought I didnt mean it with malice, but then in the next sentence jump to the conclusion that I think the suffering of African Americans was minute and is lessoned by others sufferings. Or that I was saying oh well, everyone has. You may have thought you were telling  me that it was a dangerous statement and to say it is a high risk and it will always evoke anger, sadness ect. But thats not what it felt like or sounded like. As you know once I had offended by posting that the ball rolled and there is no stopping it because somone else will read it and it will spark passion in them to  rebuttle against, and attack the people that say that and MEAN TO belittle the sufferings of African Americans, and the plight of the past or pain endured, and the sadness and pain that still resides. But I will stand tall and scream and rant until every person knows I will never and have never felt that way. So go ahead and dissect this post and and quote and whatever. But this is a sensative issue and I was offended too. Did I already say perception is reality? Yes I am done with this too . i would like to get back to sharing history. Anyone else? Who else enjoyed the post about Langston? I would like to hear of that, or perhaps some more links to some useful info. Dont refer to me as wrong headed again I dont care for it, it hurts my feelings. Thank you

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on June 28, 2006, 01:01 PM
Quote (MistressofSolace @ June 27 2006, 9:57pm)

"Cappy said.."My question involved that when you hear of or watch others suffering then do you as readily revert to a mentality that 'well every people suffer at some time' as quickly as you did when it came to blacks expressing to you how your words felt?"

this is an accusation can you not get that."

It was a mental exercise used to sum the experiences that you had been reading. I never challenged your compassion. I do challenge the stance that you go through that same mental exercise (mentality) when you have to digest circumstances that equal the horror of the black experience.

The problem is that some things should not be said. . period. You don't yell "fire" in a crowded theater and then 'explain away' the panic the word 'fire' created.  

"That is not my mind set!!!!!!! I understand that my satement could be misinterpreted by people who were or weren't following the post."

It was at the time it was posted. I am not saying you are permanently stuck in that mentality and perhaps you are correct in saying that you should have explained more.

"I am sorry but I understand that on sensative issues it is very easy to anger someone and offend. You dont know my life experiences and I dont know yours. you should remember that. YOu should understand that the way you are addressing me is condescending, or at least can be perceived that way."

I am trying to understand your life experiences that would put you in the frame of mind to say such a thing. I am also trying to have you understand my life experiences so that you may understand that it is more than a sensitive issue. It is my life. It is the history of my family and people. It is my memories, realities, personal injustices on colossal scales that are hard to comprehend. Amber I am not being condescending to you. I am not complaining, rather, I am explaining.

"I apologize if my statement was perceived for a cruel comparison or a nonchalant statement. It was simply about ignorance that was mentioned in the post before it."

Ok I accept that. I equally apologize if you were offended but there are the times that straight speech is the only avenue to growth.

"You and whoever may have said that you thought I didnt mean it with malice, but then in the next sentence jump to the conclusion that I think the suffering of African Americans was minute and is lessoned by others sufferings. Or that I was saying oh well, everyone has. You may have thought you were telling  me that it was a dangerous statement and to say it is a high risk and it will always evoke anger, sadness ect. But thats not what it felt like or sounded like."

Remember the baseball illustration in my last post? In order for injury not to occur the next time, the coach must instruct the pitcher about how to improve or understand the physics of throwing the ball. Remember it is not intent that always causes injury. Unintentional injury is just as hurtful and growth means that you can see an injury rather or not you meant it as that.

One last thing. It is not an insult or disability to be young. Older people would never indicate that. Youth however can be impetuous; you will see that as you grow older. Equally older people are not stuck in some past time warp. But we can, as a result of being older and learning that we did not know what we thought we knew when we were young, be forth-right about issues that are clear to us because of age and experience. Yes both young and old then have communication issues but we have to bridge. Young people learn from older ones and older ones learn from younger people. But I ask you, when was the last time you saw a grandfather or grandmother at the knee of their grandchildren being instructed; or is it primarily the other way around? Interesting thought. . . no?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on June 28, 2006, 01:26 PM
The link on slave healing was very enlightening. There-in and again we see the absolute involvement of courts, politics, law enforcement with the sanctioning of the constitutional entities of the United States to suppress, manipulate, punish an entire ethnic group of people for selfish gain.

On the other hand there is an abject fear of the intelligence of the same people the political entities are suppressing. On the one hand blacks could not practice in the light but then white doctors are sneaking into their mud floor abodes to get the same drugs and elements that slaves can't use in the light.

Yet this has more implications for our present time. How often do we see the same philosophy being imposed by the same political entities for the same reasons today? How often do we see our politicians lie with impunity while proportioning out the ultimate sanction on other countries for telling the same lies? How often do we see a rush to judgment when the victim is white yet the same crime brings a rush to defense when the victim is black? How may reactionary laws have been passed when black defendants are acquitted of the same types of crimes whites are acquitted of BUT it is viewed as different now.

Food for thought.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on June 28, 2006, 02:07 PM
Speaking of slavery, does that extend into the new slave trade? Women? Further, what about the peace keeping forces and the UN food ditributors in the African nations? Why is it not on the news the same way rape of the Croatian women were? If what is happening to other women in nations that were not African it would be such an outcry that it would be heard world wide. So why are girls as young as 8 years old sold and have to have sex to get food (didn't I ask this before) goes unnoticed by our expose` news media? You know. . the ones that claim they keep people honest.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on June 28, 2006, 02:26 PM
Meet Emmett Chappelle
Biochemist, photobiologist, astrochemist and inventor.
Chappelle is the recipient of 14 U.S. patents and was recently recognized as one of the 100 most distinguished African American scientists and engineers of the 20th Century.
He started with NASA in 1966 in support of NASA's manned space flight initiatives. He pioneered the development of the ingredients ubiquitous in all cellular material. Later, he developed techniques that are still widely used for the detection of bacteria in urine, blood, spinal fluids, drinking water and foods.

This web site is full of unknown inventions and the people that help nake our life easier.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 06, 2006, 07:37 PM
A general observation.

The slave masters used the Bible to justify their cruelty and  barbarianism.
I have heard over and again some of our local Islam believers using the Bible to justify believing white people are devils.
They use Matt.16:23 where Jesus told Peter to "get behind me satan". They use that scripture to say since Peter was white then Jesus must be declaring white people to be devils.

Both sides will use the 'perception is my reality' statement as some kind of security blanket to make their case. You see, that defense gives them cover so they won't have to face the fact that no matter how much they repeat those claims, they are not based in reality and have no connection to reality.
Both sides are, by definition, being wrong-headed.
Because they obstinately keep repeating the wrong thing as truth. Regardless of all evidence to the contray.

In order for perception to be a defense for one's reality, that reality has to have some substantive connectivity to truth.
Obstinately repeating the wrong things will never make them true, only wrong-headed.

For example, the slave women in the master's household.
Regardless of their age or marital status it was a well known 'secret' that the masters would rape them at will. After all his perception was they were his property.
The slave women's family were defenseless to do anything. Even the husbands had to suffer this indignity on pain of death if they were to try to defend their wives.
Now can you imagine what their perception of reality was?
You can bet it was quite different from the slave masters'.
You can also bet their perceptions was based on real connections to that reality.

What about the perceptions of the master's wives? They knew what was going on and ,for the most part, instead of defending the helpless in their households, they percieved the slave girls as threats, and treated them curely.
But at least their perception had some connection to real events.

Slave children that worked morning to night in the BIG house often would take whatever food they could aquire back to their cabins. Notice I used the word aquire, whereas the slave masters called them thieves.
While the perception of the masters was it was thievery, they would only supply the most meanial of goods and food to the slaves while working them from sun up till sun down and at times well into the night. The slaves had to devise ways to survive. Their perception of that reality was just that, one of survival. Also they reasoned that if they themselves were property,  then property can't steal property. All these perceptions had a connection of substance to reality.

I've been researching the lives of slaves in the master's households, especially the slave women.

Harriet Jacobs, exslave, wrote her autobiography and it is absolutely riviting. I'd like all to look it over and, if you will, examine the different perceptions of one's reality and it's connection to truth.


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 17, 2006, 07:38 PM
Thomas "blind tom" Greene Bethune (1849-1908). 
Born a blind slave and raised much like a family pet. He was considered an idiot while at the same time being a called prodigy, miracle, inexplicable musical genius.

Blind Tom's life as this idiot, which today would most likely be diagnosed as autistic savant, has been researched and documented by Barbara Schmidt.
While he was a slave he was easily used to the master's benefit as a pawn to entertain the confederacy and for the enrichment of the master as well.
At the end of the civil war master Bethune tricked Blind Tom's parents into signing him over as a sort of indentured servant until his 21st birthday whereupon he would pay Tom $200 a year and his parents $500. At the end of that period master Bethune petitioned the court to declare Blind Tom incompetent and to name him his caretaker. Blind Tom was making him allot of money and the court bought the false argument of his benevolence toward Blind Tom and granted his request. It is estimated that over this period time Blind Tom made master Bethune $750,000.
The fortunate thing for Blind Tom? He was blissfully unaware of his status as slave, indentured servant, or pawn due to his condition.

Blind Tom played concerts all over the world, astonishing the most brilliant musical masters of his day. He composed classical pieces that mimicked the sounds he heard. When asked where he got the music he would say the birds told him or the rain told him what to play.

This biography is astounding to say the least. The testimonials, the events, his personality, the tug of war by the elites who just could not believe what they heard from what they saw as a grotesques black slave idiot.

You'll find some sound recordings of Blind Tom's compositions at the end of the page as well. A very enjoyable and educational read.

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Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 07, 2006, 04:58 PM
In May 1927, on a local radio show called the Barn Dance, a classic opera piece had just finished.
It was long the opinion that realism had no place in classics, so George Hay (known as the Ole Judge) announced "you just heard some grand opera so now you gonna hear some grand ole opry." He introduced Deford Bailey who came to the mic and played Pan American Blues on his harmonica. A song that imitated a fast moving train.

The Grand Ole Opry, as we know it today, was born. Its first star being a black man born Dec 14 1899 in Smith county, not far from Nashville. At the age of three he contracted Polio and it was then he started to learn his musical style. He said "my folks didn't give me no rattler, they gave me a harmonica."
Deford was confined to bed for nearly a year and during that time he would lie in bed and listen to the sounds of dogs howling, of wild geese flying overhead, of the wind blowing through cracks in the wall, and most importantly, of trains rumbling in the distance.

He was always seen with top hat, suit and shined shoes. Folks would joke and say he could die and be buried the same day without having to be dressed. This form of dress came about in 1918 when as a young lad he was working as a house boy for Mr & Mrs J. C. Bradford, after having moved to Nashville upon the demise of his father. ( His mother died of a strange illness much earlier) One day Mrs. Bradford heard him playing harmonica in the yard and inquired how long he had been playing music like that. He answered all his life and from then on he was dressed in white top hat, white suit and shined shoes. She stood him in the corner and he played for her guests.

Deford worked odd jobs for several years and after being heard while working as an elevator operator, he was hired to play at a formal company dinner. That company was the National Life and Accident Insurance company and it created the broadcast station WSM Oct 5 1925, hiring George D Hay. George Hay dubbed Deford Bailey 'the harmonica wizard.
In 1928, the first full year of the Grand Ole Opry, Mr. Bailey played 49 of the 52 shows - 20 more than the next most frequent artist.

George Hay never introduced Deford as a 'colored' man on the radio, because he said his audience "would blow us out" if they knew. However when he started to tour with Roy Acuff and others from the Grand Ole Opry, his music was well accepted. Seems his small stature and communication skills made him a less threatening  'colored' man.

DeFord was the only African American in his day to perform regularly and on an equal basis with white performers, and before white audiences, in Dixie and elsewhere.
Sadly he was not equal in any other ways. Legal restrictions and social norms of the time made socializing with his white associates or fans next to impossible. He wasn't allowed to eat or sleep in the same places. They often had to find him special accommodations in the black section of town. Sometimes he had to sleep in the car if they couldn't find a safe place for him to stay. When eating meals, he usually had to eat in the kitchen of a restaurant or in the car. At times he was allowed into white only hotels, but only by posing as a valet to one of the white performers.

Another first for Nashville?  Deford Bailey made records in Atlanta and New York, and when RCA Victor came to Nashville to look for country artists in 1928, Bailey cut five sides for Victor - the first recording sessions ever in Nashville.

The first star of the Grand Ole Opry was fired in 1941 by George Hay. One cannot but see the racial prejudice that played into that. In his book, published in 1945, George Hay said this, "Mr. Bailey was lazy, like some members of his race, we gave him a whole year's notice to learn some new tunes, but he would not."
At Deford Bailey's funeral Roy Acuff let the truth out, "I wouldn't say he was lazy. It wasn't that he wouldn't learn new tunes, he couldn't learn new tunes. That was the only objection. I know that he was willing to do what he could do and when it came to playing the songs he knew, there was none of them who could top him."

The man that put the Grand Ole Opry on the map, and made the first recordings ever in Nashville never made the financial gain of the white stars that followed. He was never voted into the Country music Hall of Fame and died penniless in his daughter's arms at the age of 82 June 23 1983.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on October 07, 2006, 05:51 PM
I always love reading your posts, Friend.  I learn so much.  And it truly amazes me, every single time, when I read about such prejudices.

It is my daughters 10th birthday today, and as a present, she received three small princess Barbie dolls, (which comprise a series of twelve).  One of them has dark skin, to which I do not believe she noticed, and certainly did not comment.

She goes to a good elementary school, which is somewhat racially diverse, and has almost no concept of racism.  I hope that the day is near, when humanity can look beyond external superficial differences, and look internally to the enormous similarities we all share.

*When she was three, she picked out a black doll, which she described as having dark skin.  This doll, today, is one of her favorites, with which she plays all the time.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 07, 2006, 06:44 PM
Thank you Allen.

I'd say your daughter's neutral attitude toward skin color is a grand testament to you and and her mother. She and the parents you are, should stand as a fine example of how it could be.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 07, 2006, 11:48 PM
Without fail when one is engaged in a conversation about slavery, some idiot is going try to jusitify the insitution of slavery by saying it wasn't so bad.
I sent this to said idiot a few minutes ago.
Wonder if he and his family were to be pulled from his bed in the middle of tonight, and subjected to this, would he think it's not so bad?


Here is the full table of contents for this study.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 08, 2006, 12:10 AM
I found this to be of interest. It's an editorial in a Charelston S.C. newspaper January 13 1865. I quote a couple paragraphs as it dispells out right the nonsense that the civil war had nothing to do with slavery. This is right out the horse's mouth.
Link to full editorial is at the bottom.

"In 1860 South Carolina seceded alone from the old union of States. Her people, in Convention assembled, invited the slaveholding States (none others) of the old Union to join her in erecting a separate Government of Slave States, for the protection of their common interests. All of the slave states, with the exception of Maryland and Kentucky, responded to her invitation. The Southern Confederacy of slave States was formed.
It was on account of encroachments upon the institution of slavery by the sectional majority of the old Union, that South Carolina seceded from that Union. It is not at this late day, after the loss of thirty thousand of her best and bravest men in battle, that she will suffer it to be bartered away; or ground between the upper and nether mill stones, by the madness of Congress, or the counsels of shallow men elsewhere."

Another link into the devious mind of the Confederacy.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 09, 2006, 03:45 PM
In "Jesus" name. The end of many a prayer from 'good christians', but did the use of Jesus' name portend what it was suppsed to represent?
Enter Sir John Hawkins in the service of Queen Elizabeth, 1562. After being loaned a ship in disrepair from the Hanseatic League, it was repaired and Sir  Hawkins was given permission to use it in its first voyage, accompanied by Sir Francis Drake (cousin), both being 'devout' christians, with services being held on board twice a day while requiring the crew to serve God and love one another.

One would think this sounds idealic, but what was the first cargo?
Carrying Africans to the Americas  "with their own free will'. Off the coast of Sierra Leone Hawkins captured 300-500 slaves through plundering Portugeese ships, violence and subterfuge by promising Africans free land and riches in the new world.  
Queen Elizabeth made a cursory protest as to the destestable endeavours of slave trade, but after finding out the profits to be made she joined Sir Drake and Sir Hawkins, providing them full use of this 700 ton ship.

Thus began the British salve trade.
The name of the ship? "The Jesus of Lubeck"
a.k.a.; " The Good Ship Jesus." It's first cargo being African slaves.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 09, 2006, 11:32 PM
The execution of Nathaniel Gordon. A rare example of justice visited upon a slave trader.

This link has that story and a extensive over view of slavery.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: seaspirit06 on October 18, 2006, 03:16 AM

I see you have done an enormous amount of work here. I just "found" this thread. I am sure I can learn a lot from it. I grew up in Kansas City, went to a large suburban high school. The only black kids, if I may use the term black, were a few who happened to excel in the school. I didn't get to know them, I was a fairly mediocre student and used any ability to excel at something as a means to avoid that activity.  I grew up with certain prejudices as we all do, I suppose.  It is interesting that here in Charlotte when I discuss with my neighbors issues, such as schools, there is still the concept of "them" and "us". I guess, at heart, I am basicallly a Marxist in the sense that I believe socio-economic status, power structures, if you will, determine oppression.

I just taught my first swim lessons tonight at the Johnston YMCA which is in a poorer neighboorhood of Charlotte. I could teach elsewhere, I suppose, but I feel like I am doing something good for those kids. But do I do it out of some anglo paternalistic liberal, squeaky, do goodiness, that some would scoff at, or am truly helping these "disadvantaged" children? I know that is something that I have to judge for myself, but I just thought I would throw that out there. Thanks for all your work here with this thread I will try and learn some more history.

Coincidentally, before reading this last post, I posted a  poem yesterday (which you may consider not a poem!) called "Nose Hair Clippers" where I used "In the name of Jesus we ......." repetitively, perhaps I could change one of the lines to "In the name of Jesus we shackled people and traded them amongst "us". Interesting stuff about the slave trade. Pardon my punctuation. Still bridled at that comment on "Influences". My reference to "nameless black men building aluminum temples" was to James Hampton. I had forgotten his name but was influenced by his work several years ago when I read about it. Interesting that I couldn't recall his name. Perhaps I should have looked back to find his name before I used those words in that "poem".

At any rate, again, thanks for all the work here. This kind of information is deserving of a much larger audience.

Keep on Truckin!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 18, 2006, 03:31 PM
"I just taught my first swim lessons tonight at the Johnston YMCA which is in a poorer neighboorhood of Charlotte. I could teach elsewhere, I suppose, but I feel like I am doing something good for those kids. But do I do it out of some anglo paternalistic liberal, squeaky, do goodiness, that some would scoff at, or am truly helping these "disadvantaged" children? I know that is something that I have to judge for myself, but I just thought I would throw that out there."

I applaud you for that, Scott, but why question it? You're doing a good thing for the sake of doing a good thing.
While one simply can't ignore racism, either past or present, there are lessons to be learned from those like yourself, who can do good deeds, while being neutral.

Those that would scoff at paternalistic, do goodines, are fools. I would pay it no heed.

 I spent a few days last week with friends in Charlotte, right off Harris Blvd, just past Sugar Creek road. Small world huh?

I'm glad you enjoyed this thread, it's where I spend the most time. Hope to see more of you here.

Is there any hope for fat old guys that can't swim?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on October 18, 2006, 04:18 PM
Dear Scott.

I read your post slowly and carefully, and, formed some thoughts before reading friends response.  Funnily enough, I had exactly the same thoughts as him.  Your post is very inspiring.  While continuing to analyze all the intellectual references you made, keep it simple.  What I mean by this is: Realize you are a good person, who is connecting and empathizing with people and circumstances whom/which are different.

A great book by E.M. Forster, Howards End, has a fantastic quote in its beginning:

Only connect

You will have to read the book to fully understand it. This is what the person who gave the book to me, made me do; which ended up being one of the greatest gifts I ever received.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: seaspirit06 on October 19, 2006, 02:47 AM
Allen and A-Friend,

Thanks for the compliments. Yeah, I over analyze things to death, probably my scientific training. I consider myself a world citizen or at least would like to think my views are progressive and not close-minded. I wish we didn't have labels like, black, white, yellow, Arab, and American...etc.I 've never done a lot of reading on race but my guess it was a "euro-centric" way to define and categorize observations of people. Someone trying to make rational sense of their  "world". Both of you guys I am sure are well aware that Caucasians can have very dark skin as well as white...a pigment of the skin. Then of course there are other geographical definitions also. Not to toot my horn too much, but I am familar with Drew having worked for the Red Cross. I saw that he was referenced on here, quickly skimming this thread.

Yep small world.

I hope (no pun intended) that that was a rhetorical question about fat old guys who can't swim! Since this a thread concerning African American history I don't think this is the appropriate forum for discussing the six pack of abs that we old guys all have, or at least I hope I have. They are just hidden under there (somewhere?!), that's all. We could have a serious dialogue about the higher rates of obeseity(sp.?) amongst African Americans and reasons. Likewise, but not necessarily analagous, we could have a serious dialoge about wealth or income distribution amongst race. Race is a tricky and complicated term, but that probably wouldn't be very productive!......ah, now I am digressing. So thanks to both of you, and I should shut up now and read some more of the previous posts here. Or maybe I'll be a bit lazy, tonight. I'll "splash" on over to the axe to see if I understand anything that has been posted there! Man, I thought my stuff was weird, but wow, there is some really odd stuff there.

Cheers, Bottoms Up, Skol Arriba, Abajo Al Centro, Al Dentro...Have a great day with Hope and Peace!
 :sun  :yin:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 27, 2006, 08:46 PM
September 11, 1777 , a fog shrouded day with enemies facing each other, one looking to Philadelphia as a prize, one looking to defend her.

The enemies; George Washington and his rag tag army of the revolution facing  British General Howe and his well equipped, experienced, disciplined army accompanied by the fierce Hessian forces.

The place; the high ground called Chadds Ford at the Brandywine River.

General Howe advanced using the fog shroud to his advantage. General Washington had mistakenly believed the Bristish would send the entire force to Chadds Ford, but he was out maneuvered by a split Bristish force and flanked on his right.
Caught by complete surprise General Washington ordered his men to take the high ground around Brimingham Friends Meeting House as a last defense, but the British, alas, were already there.

Cannons fireing, the report of muskets completing their bloody missons, red coats and Hessians screaming their war cry and charging with gleaming bayonets, the drum and fife adding to the fearsome charge.
The rag tag revolutionaries fought gallantly, but to no avail.
Finally all heard the order to abandon horse, wagons and guns and save yourselves.

The revolutionaries fled for their lives, save but one, Edward "Ned" Hector.
Hector was a wagoneer in Captain Courtney's Company of Colonel Proctor's 3rd Pennsylvania Artillery Regiment. He was born about 1744 and started his service March 10, 1777.
Upon hearing the order Hector was reported as saying, "The enemy shall not have my team! I will save the horses or perish myself!"  He gathered some of the abandoned arms, being a mule skinner he likely had no weapone of his own, and fought with  fierceness being the only one to save the much needed equipment from falling into enemy hands.

Not much more is known of this revolutionary hero. He lived to be 90 dying on January 3, 1834.

Edward  Hector, a little known black revolutionary fighter. As was the case with most of the Black Soldiers, he was denied a pension, but was awared a one time $40 gratuity for his service.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on December 28, 2006, 10:24 PM
I grew up in an African American neighborhood and didn't really know there was a label for anyone, until we moved.
All I knew, at age 11, was I was losing my friends.
My favorite poet is Rita Dove. Thank  you for the thread and all the information in it. :artist:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 30, 2006, 03:09 AM
You were indeed blessed at that early age, Kay, and thank you for reading the thread.
How unfortunate that everyone didn't have that.
I was 14 before it was legal for me to walk in a front door, 16 before it was actually enforced in my small town.

Still live with the labels and stereotypes to this day.

 link to some of Rita Dove's poems:

And a short bio:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on December 30, 2006, 01:34 PM
Can you believe people were and are that dumb?
I kept close with one friend, Selena, and we look back. Heck, we never gave a thought to any of it. Then society found our neighborhood, or small minds did. Thank you for those links. I have books by Rita Dove and I just love her writing.
I'd like to eventually pull some of my own memories out and write one but it would have to be done with the utmost respect and not viewed as someone who is really prejudice. But then, sometimes you can't be responsble for how someone is going to interpret. :artist:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on January 17, 2007, 10:05 PM
Quote (Kay @ Dec. 30 2006, 8:34am)
Can you believe people were and are that dumb?
I kept close with one friend, Selena, and we look back. Heck, we never gave a thought to any of it. Then society found our neighborhood, or small minds did. Thank you for those links. I have books by Rita Dove and I just love her writing.
I'd like to eventually pull some of my own memories out and write one but it would have to be done with the utmost respect and not viewed as someone who is really prejudice. But then, sometimes you can't be responsble for how someone is going to interpret. :artist:

I would love to hear of your experiences. I think it would ad to the character of this thread. To see the perhaps eyeopeners that you have from the perspective of one that did not have the childhood experience as so described by AFriend would be enlightening. We all ae different and those differences are not grounds for offense. Please. . share with us.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on January 17, 2007, 10:06 PM
In Virginia the debate rages on about the state issuing an apology about slavery. The mentality over this issue becomes evident in the absolute blunders that senior politicians make when offering their opinion of why it is unnecessary to offer contriteness for such a horrible event in our history.

My point in this post is not to stir debate over rather an apology is right or wrong, but I offer this as food for thought. One of the first defenses is that well . . we did not do it. . so why should we apologize The problem with this mentality is the narrowness of the thought process. Has any one asked for an apology for their personal individual participation? No. The apology would be a position of a state the participated in an act of evil with no atonement for it. The issue then becomes a matter of importance for the sake of cleansing because such contriteness has never been done. The concerns and memories even from some that have personal memories are trivialized by such statements as you just have to forget slavery or your past, as the senator sticks his foot in his mouth. From that statement he actually makes the argument for those descendants of slavery because the subject, to him, in his expressed personal opinion, is not important enough to even be sensitive to the painful issue of people that he can not grasp.

Lets look at that from a different perspective. No one, I'm sure, will disagree with the effect that an apology has. It heals wounds, stops generations of feuds and brings nations together. Was not a formal apology issued to those Japanese that suffered through what amounted to concentration camps during the world war? So, strictly in a thought process, why is an apology for slavery viewed as different? Also consider this. AFriend has stated in his post several things well into the 70s that still smacked of remnants of slavery. Though the legal action of slavery ended in the late 1800s did the actions of slavery end? Absolutely not, thereby necessitating the rise of a man like Martin Luther King. Remember the non-violent boycotts that were met with legal violence sanctioned by courts, carried out by police and lead by prominent politicians with a great number of citizens engaging in violence as well, against the very idea of equality? What closer kinship to the very continuance of slavery could there be? The idea of an apology from the state, not from some individual, is not a foreign concept that has never been put into practice as atonement for a state sponsored evil.

I'm sure there will be opinions that are different yet I ask that what I have said be given thoughtful consideration about an issue of sensitivity and recognition not of your personal making but of a slave state that resist any contriteness for a past sin.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Soft Words on January 18, 2007, 08:39 PM
I've just started trawling through this engaging and informative thread. Thank you all so much for putting this up and keeping it going, especially Earl.

I've flown different airlines through various countries. I'm not black, I'm not white, I'm something that is commonly described as brown, but I don't fit that stereotype either. I'm from India. But I've been through some of that racial insult that the blacks have been through. It is pitiful, how little people know of the truth.

My skin color has become an issue several times on flights. I'm a vegetarian by choice, and as I am allergic to eggs, I usually ask for fruit on flights - I mention it when I book the ticket. Yet, I usually get cheest-omlette sandwiches because "Oh! You must have been missed on the list!" I once asked for the flight manifesto (I blew up the issue), and I was one of two passengers on a vegetarian menu.

I blew up the issue because I paid about 600USD for my ticket, as much as anyone else did, and the other person who was on the vegetarian list was served his proper meal. He was white. I also discovered that three other passengers not on that list were served fruit, something I had requested when I booked the flight. These passengers were all white, spoke no English and communicated their needs by signs, and here I was, speaking perfect english in a perfectly understandable accent, and "looked over" - I wasn't white.

A black lawyer on the same flight noticed the fight, came over on my side - he was threatned with arrest on landing by the white crew. Later of course, we both took up the issue with the airline, and the lawyer sued them and won. I got nothing but an apology letter.

Another incident on a transatlantic flight happened when I tripped over a baby carriage kept in the aisle (Note: by any and all airline rules, baby carriages are either stowed away in the overhead compartment or in a storage bin - they must not be in the aisles). It was me that sprained my back, hurt my knee, gashed my had and nursed a swollen wrist; it was the white mother that yelled and bawled. The crew's argument was on her side (no one mentioned the baby carriage), that I should have been in my seat because there was turbulence. No notice was taken of the fact that no sickness bags were provided on the flight until I yelled at them, or that I was running to the loo to throw up, or that I was thrown off balance by the turbulence. I also fought off being force-fed a bunch of pills by the flight doctor. I was on that flight for a very uncomfortable 6 hours more, with the sibling of the kid whose carriage it was walked up to my seat a million times to call me a bunch of unflattering epithets. No one mentioned anything about this being out of the rules, no one bothered to stop the kid, and when I finally told her to stop doing that, I fought her mother again - and yelled her down. Sure, the other passengers on the flight might have commiserated with me, but they were more irritated at having their on-flight siesta disturbed. I was one of three non-whites on the flight. Of course, I was again "overlooked" on this flight's food manifest too, but I was wise enough to carry some food with me. And I had no energy left to take up the food issue with the crew again. Of course it might have been retaliation, but I don't want to find out.

(Note: the baby carriage stayed there in the aisle until a crew member tripped on it, broke her wrist and bawled her eyes out. No one forced a bunch of pills on her, and a case was registered agains the errant passenger. I received no mention, and no follow-up from the airline after four complaints)

There have been several more instances, and I no longer count the flights on which I've been bumped off or overlooked. I've been accused of being narcisisstic, histrionic, manic and paranoid. I've been told I'm bossy, overly sensitive, thin skinned, an attention-seeker, and blow things out of proportion. I've been called various names for standing up for people who are helpless, for standing up for myself - but this is not a place I will recount the words or the incidents.

I don't know how much of a difference I can make with the color of my skin to those who have none (no offence to anyone, please!) but I stand together with all the "colored" people - free of inhibition. I fear no one because I am better than most, and I know it. Some of my best friends have been blacks - intelligent, wonderful, articulate people. We've all fought together, stood together, won together. It makes me proud to learn more of their history, just as well as I know my own. In conclusion to one unedited ramble, here is something I often quote in such arguments:

I don't pity myself that you insult me, but proud that you recognise my individuality enough to segregate me from yourself.


Sunshine and smiles,
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on January 19, 2007, 02:12 PM
Soft Words, you have articulated the very essence of racism as it still exists today. I thank you for sharing your experiences we us.

I have a thought about Soft Words post. There are often the times when such post about the personal struggles of people of color are shared the gut reaction is negative. Such things as why is she accusing "us", or "they" are always having problems. In other words some take the stance that since they don't do a certain thing or perhaps have never seen a certain thing then the validity of the life's experience of another can't be what they have said it is.

Soft Words presented another very valid issue. Since, from her posting, other people were around and observed the abject injustice where was their voice? Can one say they do not participate in racism yet remain silent right in its presence?

From her example one can learn about the words institutional racism. Let's look at what happened. First let's dismiss the words discrimination from the equation so you may see the difference in the two activities. Discrimination is an unlawful act that is directed at a protected class that affects their forward advancement in a social structure. Jobs, promotions, access, housing vehicles of travel ect. Rather simplistic but that is the meat of the matter. Racism is not necessarily an unlawful activity but the attitude that gives the action of discrimination its foundation. Look at what happened when she tripped. As an institution she was assailed for tripping over a carriage that should not have under any circumstances have been there. The institution was the airline employees, the people that were irritated by her injury AND those that remained silent with injustice lock right on the airline with them. Now the flight attendant trips has the same injuries as SoftWords and is treated with concern, respect, dignity, monetarily compensated and last but not least prosecuted the same offender that caused Soft Words her injuries. Now it became discrimination because similarly situated situations were treated differently based solely on skin color.

Thanks Soft Words. A lesson shared is a lesson learned.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cafeRg on January 20, 2007, 05:58 PM
sometimes a certain quote just hits  ...this is rockin''''''

I don't pity myself that you insult me, but proud that you recognize my individuality enough to segregate me from yourself.

can i steal it?

and hi cappy ..good to see ya again.. your just in time for our new boards ..if all goes well next week sometime..

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 20, 2007, 09:47 PM
Cappy, your post on the lack of contrition and atonement for the insitution of slavery is right on point.

The lack of willingness on the part of America to issue even such small a thing as an apology for  the evil done to generations of its citizens, resulting in the enriching of its institutions ,as well as certain families, as a result of slave profiteering, while at the same time hanging on to a plantation mentality that allows the residual effects from slavery to continue, further demonstrates a "margin/measure of evil that remains visible in America with no atonement or accountability."

I've never talked to a single person that says black folks should just 'get over it', who is willing to exchange their ancestry, yet that statement completely ignores the position of privilege they have based on the color of their skin.
The simplest of searches exposes all kinds of institutions who are still profiting from the unpaid labors of generations of slaves. Newspapers, insurance companies, colleges, business, and on and on. 

Herman Melville's parable about slavery quoted the moody, vaguely ailing captain of a Spanish slave ship after being asked: "What has cast such a shadow upon you?" He replies simply: "The Negro."
All these centuries later with no accountability or atonement for slavery, segregation, discrimination, racism, black genocide, the long history of rape of our women, destruction of black families, theft of land and intellectual properties, one wonders if the shadow that is still cast over America by her treatment of its black citizens can be even slightly abated by a simple apology for these evils.
The victims of those evils says it can. How much more evil, then, would it be for the' institution' of America that perpetrated those evils, to continue to deny their responsibility to atone for it.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 20, 2007, 10:04 PM
Arti, how unfortunate it is that your experiences are not isolated incidents. That happens to people of color day in and day out, but when we speak of it inevitably someone will say we're being thin skined.

Thank you for sharing your experience so that we may learn from it.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Soft Words on January 31, 2007, 10:10 AM
Quote (cafeRg @ Jan. 20 2007, 10:58pm)
sometimes a certain quote just hits  ...this is rockin''''''

I don't pity myself that you insult me, but proud that you recognize my individuality enough to segregate me from yourself.

can i steal it?

Feel free, Rg. Its just something I believe in, often the last word in any argument. The funny thing is, people do shut up, probably acknowledging the truth.

Institutional discrimination or whatever is rooted in personal discrimination... people have to change for the institution to change. Change has to start within each of us, we have to believe in the change for it to happen, we need to find the guts to defend our stand. My current university has students from diverse backgrounds and colors, who all get along like a house on fire. Okay, so we do have issues, but I seriously doubt any of it is based on color.

If standing up for what is right is being thin skinned, then would you call the first whites that fled to America thin skinned as well? Just checking, no offence. If anyone chooses to take offence, well, its their problem.

Labels will be applied so long as we pay attention to them... Either one must learn to defend oneself, or educate the "educated", or simply let one's bearing, dignity and work do the talking. I use all three depending on the situation, and so far, even if I've changed a person for an hour, its an achievement. As a female travelling alone, I often get sidelined. If that dosen't happen, then the comments are to a different tune. Maybe, we need to take apart people's education from the grassroots and re-educate them about humanity.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 01, 2007, 01:28 PM
To kick off this month, I can't help but tout my favorite artist, Jonathan Green. I don't know if it will be ok to post one of his works, but I hope he won't mind. It is in tribute to his wonderful artistry. It is so hard to pick just one to post because they all are so close to my heart.
I have a poem for him, and if I can ever find where I put it I will post it.
Jonathan Green was born in 1955 in Gardens Corner, South Carolina and graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1982. He holds an honorary doctoral degree from the University of South Carolina. Following his graduation Green traveled widely – throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the West Indies, Switzerland, Germany, England and France.

While his appeal and perspective are truly modern and cosmopolitan, Green looks to the familiar images of his ancestral home for the subjects of his paintings. In his art Green draws upon his own intimate personal experiences, steeped in the traditions of family, community and life in the Lowcountry of South Carolina. Each of his paintings is a testament to the motivating power of place and the enduring qualities of culture.

Green’s paintings show the primal beauty that exists in even the simplest tasks. While these dreamscapes may spring from cultural and perceived life experiences, they echo profoundly human themes. His work serves as a document of a humanist perspective and way of life; a way of being that is rustic yet filled with elegance; plain, yet layered in rich color. Balancing the serene atmospheres of his work with a strikingly contemporary approach to movement, Green captures the essence of simple acts of joy -- from swinging, fishing or bringing home the harvest to walking on the beach or carrying water.

Critics often count Green among the most culturally significant African-American artists of our time.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 02, 2007, 02:26 PM
Witt, thank you for leading us into Black History month. I've been running about 600 miles a night which didn't leave me much time to get things started. You stepped into the breech with a very much appreciated informative post. Hope to read more from you.

Dr. Carter G. Woodson was born in 1875 to former slave parents, Anne Eliza (Riddle) and James Henry Woodson, in Buckingham, Va., which happens to be 33 miles from where I live.

Neither of his parents were literate and they had a large family, which prevented Carter from recieving what little education was available. Helping on the farm took priority. However, Carter's father taught his children a sense of dignity that helped frame his life's work.
James Woodson insisted  that "learning to accept insult, to compromise on principle, to mislead your fellow man, or to betray your people, is to lose your soul."   With that philosophy, Cater  taught himself the fundamentals of common school subjects by the time he was seventeen. After several failed endeavors to get an education Carter was able to enter high shool in West Va. at the age of twenty, earning his diploma in just two years.

Later he received his Bachelor of Literature degree from Berea College, Kentucky.  From 1903 to 1907, he was a school supervisor in the Philippines. Later he traveled throughout Europe and Asia and studied at the Sorbonne University in Paris. In 1908, he received his M.A. from the University of Chicago, and in 1912, he received his Ph.D. in history from Harvard University.
This led him to the study of Negro history and, armed with his father's wisdom, he developed a unique insight into how important that history was.
'History, he insisted, was not the mere gathering of facts. The object of historical study is to arrive at a reasonable interpretation of the facts. History is more than political and military records of peoples and nations. It must include some description of the social conditions of the period being studied.'

In 1915, with the help of some friends, Dr. Carter
Woodson  established the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History in Chicago. In 1916 the Journal of Negro History appeared. In 1926, he developed Negro History Week.

Thus was born what we now celebrate as Black History Month.

Dr. Woodson's dream was to have Black History  mainstreamed to the point where there would be no need to have a special period to study Black History.

Sadly, Black History and the contributions of Black Americans as a legitimate and integral part of the history of this country, is still not recognized.

Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson, renowned as the Father of Black History.

"Those who have no record of what their forebears have accomplished lose the inspiration which comes from the teaching of biography and history"... Dr. Carter Woodson.

"http://www.chipublib.org/002branches/woodson/woodsonbib.html" target="_blank">http://www.chipublib.org/002branches/woodson/woodsonbib.html (http://www.chipublib.org/002branches/woodson/woodsonbib.html)

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 02, 2007, 09:45 PM
Thank you Earl for this opportunity to get to know the "Father of Black History".  Well done!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 03, 2007, 11:51 AM
I found my poem, which was written as a tribute to Jonathan Green. I first discovered him a few years ago when I was watching a program called Palmetto Places. It's not on anymore, but it taught a lot about the people and places of SC. Only a few weeks ago, I was watching CBS Sunday Morning about a couple who collected art. I spied one of Green's paintings on the wall! I was so proud, and I don't even know him! I was captivated by his work. It reminds me so much of my childhood.
I am putting my poem in the AX if you would like to comment.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2007, 03:53 AM
Quote (Soft Words @ Jan. 31 2007, 5:10am)

If standing up for what is right is being thin skinned, then would you call the first whites that fled to America thin skinned as well? Just checking, no offence. If anyone chooses to take offence, well, its their problem.
Arti, that's quite a different issue from what I was addressing, but the interesting thing is I've never heard whites being called thin skinned as a culture because they want some issues addressed.  
I have read numerous editorials, heard the talk shows, the sport shows, the conversations and many mediums that seem to scoff at the issues people of color bring up, based on the fact the same things don't happen to them, therefore people of color should just shut up.
The experience that you wrote about is a perfect example of how people of color are ignored, but if the same thing happens to a white person, then a price has to be paid.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2007, 03:55 AM
Witt, I read your tribute. Mr Green made quite the impression on you. I don't think I've ever seen any of his work, but I got some vivid visuals from your poem.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2007, 04:02 AM
Elise, yes Dr. Carter had a very important influence on the studies in black history. Thank you for your interest.
Stick around, we are going to explore many interesting people and events.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on February 05, 2007, 05:07 AM
Even situated in the 21st century, a story such as Dr. Carter's, would be inspirational:  Today, there is still so much oppression and lack of opportunity; that such accomplishments are impressive. It is challenging for me to imagine, how much more impressive Dr. Carter's accomplishments must have been, at the end of the nineteenth century.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 05, 2007, 09:26 AM
I am really not sure if Oprah Winfrey fits into "Black History" month category since she is still alive and kicking.   But I wanted to say something about her, and I am certain that long after we are all gone, she will definitely "fit" into a topic on Black History.

Oprah has left an indelible mark on the face of television and the world. Coming from humble beginnings in rural Mississippi, she has risen to become one of the most powerful figures in the world.

I cannot begin to tell how much I admire her.  She is making a HUGE impact on the world today.

"I want you to open your hearts and see the world in a different way. You get from the world what you give to the world. I promise this will change your life for the better."


She honestly believes that "where much is given, much is expected".   She is one of the most powerful people on earth right now, and uses her power to influence change in the world. 

Through the power of media, Oprah Winfrey has created an unparalleled connection with people around the world. As supervising producer and host of the top-rated, award-winning The Oprah Winfrey Show, she has entertained, enlightened and uplifted millions of viewers for the past two decades. Her accomplishments as a global media leader and philanthropist have established her as one of the most respected and admired public figures today.

Oprah has long believed that education is the door to freedom, offering a chance at a brighter future. Through her private charity, The Oprah Winfrey Foundation, she has awarded hundreds of grants to organizations that support the education and empowerment of women, children and families in the United States and around the world. Amongst her various philanthropic contributions, she has donated millions of dollars toward providing a better education for students who have merit but no means. She also has developed schools to educate thousands of underserved children internationally and created "The Oprah Winfrey Scholars Program," which gives scholarships to students determined to use their education to give back to their communities in the United States and abroad.

Oprah encouraged viewers to use their lives to make a difference in the lives of others, which led to the creation of the public charity Oprah's Angel Network in 1998. To date, Oprah's Angel Network has raised more than $50 million, with 100% of audience donations going to non-profit organizations across the globe. Oprah's Angel Network has helped establish scholarships and schools, support women's shelters and build youth centers and homes—changing the future for people all over the world.

Oprah's commitment to children also led her to initiate the National Child Protection Act in 1991, when she testified before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee to establish a national database of convicted child abusers. On December 20, 1993, President Clinton signed the national "Oprah Bill" into law.

In recognition of her extraordinary achievements and contributions, Oprah has received numerous honors, including the most prestigious awards and highest industry acknowledgments.
 Time Magazine's 100 Most Influential People in the World
 The New York Public Library Lion 2006
 National Civil Rights Museum  2005 National Freedom Award
 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Hall of Fame
 Time Magazine  100 Most Influential People in the World
 International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences — 2005 International Emmy Founders Award
 United Nations Association of the United States of America Global Humanitarian Action Award
 National Association of Broadcasters  Distinguished Service Award
 Time Magazine  100 Most Influential People in the World
 Association of American Publishers  AAP Honors Award
 54th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards Bob Hope Humanitarian Award
 Broadcasting & Cable  Hall of Fame 
 National Book Foundation  50th Anniversary Gold Medal
 National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Lifetime Achievement Award
The following year, after accepting this pinnacle honor, Oprah removed herself from future Emmy consideration and the show followed suit in 2000. Oprah and The Oprah Winfrey Show received more than 40 Daytime Emmy Awards: seven for Outstanding Host; nine for Outstanding Talk Show; more than 20 in the Creative Arts categories; and one for Oprah's work as supervising producer of the ABC After School Special Shades of Single Protein.
 Time Magazine 100 Most Influential People of the 20th Century
 Newsweek  Most Important Person in Books and Media
 TV Guide  Television Performer of the Year
 International Radio & Television Society Foundation  Gold Medal Award
 George Foster Peabody Awards  1995 Individual Achievement Award

Oprah has built schools in Africa and all over the world including the United States.  She has fed and clothed hundreds of thousands of children.   She helped re-build homes after Hurricane Katrina, and other national disasters.   She uplifts and inspires all people to help and to give to those less fortunate.   

Despite her profound wealth and notoriety, Oprah has a unique way of appearing to be everyone's best friend and very down to earth.   I especially enjoy the way she brings people of all races together for the good of "human kind".   

To help Oprah in her quest to bring education, shelter, food, and enlightenment to needy people all over the world, please check out her Angel Network here:

<a href="http://www.oprahsangelnetwork.org/oan/HowYouCanHelp" target="_blank">http://www.oprahsangelnetwork.org/oan/HowYouCanHelp (http://www.oprahsangelnetwork.org/oan/HowYouCanHelp)[/url]</font>
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 05, 2007, 04:32 PM
Of course she fits in the category. She makes history everyday. She is a true giant!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Soft Words on February 05, 2007, 07:19 PM
The first black poet in the United States to be published was Phyllis Wheatley (1753  1784). Born in Senegal, Africa, around 1753, she was transported to Boston in 1761 to be sold on the slave market. John Wheatley, a tailor from Boston, purchased her as a child to serve his wife.

Soon Wheatley was accepted as a member of the family and Mary Wheatley, John's daughter, was made her personal tutor. She learned English with remarkable speed and although she never attended a formal school, also learned Greek and Latin.

At the age of 13 Wheatley began writing poetry. Her first published poem On Messrs. Hussey and Coffin appeared in the Newport Mercury in 1767. In the following years, a number of poems appeared in various publications in and around Boston.

The publication of a poem on the death of the evangelical preacher George Whitefield in 1770 made Wheatley a sensation. As a result Countess Selina of Huntingdon, a close friend of Whitefield, invited Wheatley to England and assisted the young woman in the publication of her poems. In 1773, a volume was published in London as Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. Most of the 39 poems reflect her religious and classical New England upbringing. Written in heroic couplets, many are elegies or stress the theme of Christian salvation. In all Wheatley's work only one line makes any allusion to racial inequality: 'Some view our sable race with scornful eye'. A poem published in 1776, dedicated to George Washington, brought her further acclaim.

The deaths of Mr. and Mrs. Wheatley left Wheatley struggling to support herself as a poet and seamstress. In 1778 she married John Peters, a free black man who ran a small grocery store in Boston. The business was unsuccessful and Wheatley was forced to find work as a servant to support her children.

Wheatley continued to write poetry up to her death but was unable to find a publisher. In 1784, several poems celebrating the end of the American Revolution were published under the name Phillis Peters. She died in poverty in Boston on 5th December 1784.

Here is an early poem of hers: On Being Brought from Africa to America:

'Twas mercy brought me from my pagan land,
Taught my beknighted soul to understand
That there's a God, that there's a Savior too:
Once I redemption neither sought nor knew.
Some view our sable race with scornful eye,
"Their color is a diabolic dye."
Remember Christians; Negroes, black as Cain,
May be refin'd, and join th' angelic train.

{Maybe I shouldn't post the poem in this thread, but this so perfectly fits the theme of this month, that I had to post it here. I'll admit I picked up the information on Phyllis Wheatley from another website, but I remember the poet(ess) and the poem from way before. Just my contribution to learning a little more about the world I live in.}
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2007, 08:22 PM
Elise, Witt is right on the money. You picked agood subject.

Arti,Thank you for the poem and feel free to post poems from black artist here. This is the place where we focus on black arts.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 06, 2007, 01:29 PM
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913  October 24, 2005)

"It was not at all pre-arranged. It just happened that the driver made a demand and I just didn't feel like obeying his demand¦I was quite tired after spending a full day working. I handle and work on clothing that white people wear. That didn't come into my mind but this is what I wanted to know: when and how would we ever determine our rights as human beings.

Because of that one simple act, Rosa Parks has been called the mother of the civil rights movement and one of the most important citizens of the 20th century.

Mrs. Parks was a seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama, when, in December 1955, she refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white passenger. The bus driver had her arrested. She was tried and convicted of violating a local ordinance.

Her act sparked a citywide boycott of the bus system by blacks that lasted 382 days. The boycott raised an unknown clergyman, named Martin Luther King, Jr., to national prominence and resulted in the U.S. Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation on city buses.

The success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott culminated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In 1957, Parks and her family moved to Detroit, Michigan, to escape the violence of the South.

Following her act of defiance back in 1955, Rosa Parks continued to be involved in the civil rights struggle, giving speeches and lectures, and participating in marches. In 1980, she received the Martin Luther King, Jr., Nonviolent Peace Prize, and she has opened the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute of Self Development in Detroit, to make her fellow Americans aware of the history of the civil rights struggle.

Under Jim Crow laws, black and white people were segregated in virtually every aspect of daily life in the South, including public transportation. Bus and train companies did not provide separate vehicles for the different races, but did enforce seating policies that allocated separate sections for blacks and whites. School bus transportation, however, was unavailable in any form for black schoolchildren in the South. Parks recalled going to elementary school in Pine Level, where school buses took white students to their new school and black students had to walk to theirs: "I'd see the bus pass every day But to me, that was a way of life; we had no choice but to accept what was the custom. The bus was among the first ways I realized there was a black world and a white world."

Though Parks' autobiography recounts that some of her earliest memories are of the kindness of white strangers, her situation made it impossible to ignore racism. When the Ku Klux Klan marched down the street in front of her house, Parks recalls her grandfather guarding the front door with a shotgun. The Montgomery Industrial School, founded and staffed by white Northerners for black children, was burned twice by arsonists, and its faculty was ostracized by the white community.

My favorite thing about Mrs. Parks is that she was described by her friends as soft-spoken and timid.  She would never have sought recognition for anything.  She was just tired of always giving in, so she stood firm.

Park's legacy is a symbol of courage and determination and an inspiration to freedom fighters everywhere.

Just imagine what we can accomplish when we stand up for something!

Rosa Parks being fingerprinted after her arrest for not giving up her seat on the bus to a white person.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 06, 2007, 07:15 PM
18 Oct 1969, Wheelus Air Force Base,Tripoli Lybia.
Col. Muammar Gaddafi, in an attempt to provoke a conflict, ordered a colum of halftracks into the base. They raced through the housing area at full speed. The base commander went forthwith to the front gate, ordered it closed to prevent more halftracks from entering, and then stood alone a few yards outside the barrier, facing Gaddafi and the rest of the colum. The commander ordered Gaddafi to remove his hands from the fancy pistol he was wearing, and Gaddafi backed down.
War was overted.

That commander was at that time Daniel 'Chappie' James Jr. He was to become the first African American Four Star General in the history of the Airforce. He earned his stars the old way, he worked for them.

His accomplishments and awards are just to numerous to list, so I'll post a link I hope all will take the time to read.

One of these feats was in 1966 Gen. James became the vice commander of the 8th Tactical Fighter Wing in Thailand flying 78 combat missions in Vietnam earning the nickname of 'The Black Eagle' among his men.
On one mission he led a flight in the Bolo MIG sweep in which seven MIG 21s were destroyed, the highest total MIG kill of any mission during the Vietnam war.
He died in Feb 1978 of a heart attack at the young age of 58, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetary.
The folowing link has an exstensive history of General James and pictures of his honor funeral.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 06, 2007, 07:21 PM
Wonderful addition to this forum Earl.  Great to get to know about General James.
I loved the pictures...have been to Arlington Cemetary and seen a funeral.  It is an awesome thing.   I am glad he received this honor as he certainly deserved it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 11, 2007, 03:40 PM
Enter George F. Grant. . Mr. Grant  knew something about golfing and golfers. - the average golfer is a hacker, destroying grass courses and terrorizing other golfers, homeowners and passersby with wild, dangerous drives. Although he loved the game, he grew frustrated trying to keep the ball from rolling away from him as he attempted to tee off and did not want to swing at the ball while it was moving , thus sending off a wild shot.

On December 12, 1899, Grant patented a golf tee which raised the golf ball (made of rubber at that time) slightly off of the ground, enabling the player greater control with his wooden club and therefore of the direction and speed of the drive. The tee was made of a small wooden peg with a concave piece of rubber on top to hold the ball and in addition to helping with control over the direction of the shot, it also aided in promoting longer drives.

George Grant's small invention has become a standard piece of equipment for all golfers.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 11, 2007, 03:43 PM
M. A. Cherry developed two devices that would one day evolve into very useful items for transportation. The first device was called a velocipede and consisted of a metal frame upon which were attached two or three wheels. Someone sitting on the seat of the apparatus could propel themselves forward at considerable speeds by moving their feet along the ground in a fast walking or running motion. Cherry's model, which he patented on May 8, 1888, greatly improved upon other similar devices and has evolved into what are now known as the bicycle and the tricycle.

Great things start with small  beginnings.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 11, 2007, 03:51 PM
Daniel Hale Williams was born on January 18, 1856 in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania. Daniel's father was a barber and moved the family to Annapolis, Maryland but died shortly thereafter of tuberculosis. Daniel's mother realized she could not manage the entire family and sent some of the children to live with relatives. Daniel was apprenticed to a shoemaker in Baltimore but ran away to join his mother who had moved to Rockford, Illinois. He later moved to Edgerton, Wisconsin where he joined his sister and opened his own barber shop. After moving to nearby Janesville, Daniel became fascinated with a local physician and decided to follow his path. He began working as an apprentice to the physician (Dr. Henry Palmer) for two years and in 1880 entered what is now known as Northwestern University Medical School. After graduation from Northwestern in 1883, he opened his own medical office in Chicago, Illinois.Because of primitive social and medical circumstances existing in that era, much of Williams early medical practice called for him to treat patients in their homes, including conducting occasional surgeries on kitchen tables. In doing so, Williams utilized many of the emerging antiseptic, sterilization procedures of the day and thereby gained a reputation for professionalism. He was soon appointed as a surgeon on the staff of the South Side Dispensary and then a clinical instructor in anatomy at Northwestern. In 1889 he was appointed to the Illinois State Board of Health and one year later set for to create an interracial hospital.On January 23, 1891 Daniel Hale Williams established the Provident Hospital and Training School Association. Within its first year, 189 patients were treated at Provident Hospital and of those 141 saw a complete recovery, 23 had recovered significantly, three had seen change in their condition and 22 had died. For a brand new hospital, at that time, to see an 87% success rate was phenomenal considering the financial and health conditions of the patient, and primitive conditions of most hospitals. Much can be attributed to Williams insistence on the highest standards concerning procedures and sanitary conditions.Two and a half years later, on July 9, 1893, a young Black man named James Cornish was injured in a bar fight, stabbed in the chest with a knife. By the time he was transported to Provident Hospital he was seeking closer and closer to death, having lost a great deal of blood and having gone into shock. Williams was faced with the choice of opening the man's chest and possibly operating internally when that was almost unheard of in that day in age. Internal operations were unheard of because any entrance into the chest or abdomen of a patient would almost surely bring with it resulting infection and therefore death. Williams made the decision to operate and opened the man's chest. He saw the damage to the man's pericardium (sac surrounding the heart) and sutured it, then applied antiseptic procedures before closing his chest. Fifty one days later, James Cornish walked out of Provident Hospital completely recovered and would go on to live for another fifty years. Unfortunately, Williams was so busy with other matters, he did not bother to document the event and others made claims to have first achieved the feat of performing open heart surgery. Fortunately, local newspapers of the day did spread the news and Williams received the acclaim he deserved. It should be noted however that while he is known as the first person to perform an open heart surgery, it is actually more noteworthy that he was the first surgeon to open the chest cavity successfully without the patient dying of infection. His procedures would therefore be used as standards for future internal surgeries.In February 1894, Daniel Hale Williams was appointed as Chief Surgeon at the Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C. and reorganized the hospital, creating seven medical and surgical departments, setting up pathological and bacteriological units, establishing a biracial staff of highly qualified doctors and nurses and established an internship program. Recognition of his efforts and their success came when doctors from all over the country traveled to Washington to view the hospital and to sit in on surgery performed there. Almost immediately there was an astounding increase in efficiency as well as a decrease in patient deaths.
During this time, Williams married Alice Johnson and the couple soon moved to Chicago after Daniel resigned from the Freedmen's hospital. He resumed his position as Chief Surgeon at Provident Hospital (which could now accommodate 65 patients) as well as for nearby Mercy Hospital and St. Luke's Hospital, an exclusive hospital for wealthy White patients. He was also asked to travel across the country to attend to important patients or to oversee certain procedures.
When the American Medical Association refused to accept Black members, Williams helped to set up and served as Vice-President of the National Medical Association. In 1912, Williams was appointed associate attending surgeon at St. Luke's and worked there until his retirement from the practice of medicine.

The last three post and many more black inventors may be seen on http://www.blackinventor.com/ (http://www.blackinventor.com/)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 12, 2007, 04:30 PM
At the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Roxbury, Massachusetts, a three-by-five, black, paper-covered memorandum book is kept under lock and key, along with other historical materials dealing with the founding and operation of this institution devoted to the medical and nursing education of women. On page 5 of this simple little book, the name Mary Mahoney has been inscribed. Thus began the record of the indomitable courage of the 90 pound Negro woman who became the first graduate nurse of her race in America.

Mary Mahoney was born in Boston in 1845; an unverified report gives the date as Aril 16. She lived with her parents, Charles Mahoney and Mary Jane Steward Mahoney, at 31 Westminster Street in Roxbury.

Could she have known how much her enrollment in a school of nursing was to mean to the future of nursing, that knowledge might have helped her over the rough places where she trod. It might have eased for her the fatigue of the 16 hour day and the weariness of the 7 day week devoted to washing and ironing, cleaning and scrubbing, which was the lot of student nurses of her day.

Unlike many blacks of her day, Mary Mahoney decided not to go into domestic work, but enrolled in nursing school. In 1879, out of a class of 40 students, only she, at age 34, and two other white students, graduated. With her graduation, Mahoney changed the face of nursing. Black students were accepted to the school as long as they met the requirements. Also, as a professionally trained nurse, she was noted for her expert care of the sick.

Mahoney recognized the need for nurses to work together to improve the status of blacks in the profession. She became an inspiration to The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses and helped make it possible for the nurses to be received at the White House by President Warren G. Harding. Because of her dedication and untiring will to inspire future generations, Mary Eliza Mahoney has been an inspiration to thousands of men and women of color who are part of the nursing profession.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 12, 2007, 05:46 PM
Drink Small

 - Blues Musician

Originally from Bishopville, South Carolina, Columbia resident Drink Small is known as the “Blues Doctor.” Growing up in a family of singers and musicians, Small honed his talents while listening to the Grand Ol’ Opry, gospel, blues, folk, and big band swing. His musical career began with playing guitar at house parties and at church. He also sang in the glee club and formed a quartet called Six Stars. After high school, Small played guitar with the nationally known Spiritualaires, a gospel group that recorded for the Vee Jay label, and performed at the legendary Apollo Theater.
Small is a gifted songwriter and arranger. In the early 60’s, Small performed as an R & B singer and guitarist. He played the college circuit, several world fairs and numerous blues festivals. In the 70’s he continued to perform and record his material on his own label, Bishopville Records. He performed and taught at music seminars for students throughout South Carolina. The most distinguishing features of this gifted artist are his bass voice and his impromptu song writing abilities.
Small’s reputation as a musician and recording artist has earned him many honors from his peers. In 1986, one of Small’s recordings, The Blues Doctor, Live and Outrageous was nominated for a W. C. Handy award. Then in 1989, he performed at the prestigious New Orleans Jazz Festival. Later, in 1990 and 1991, he recorded on the major independent R & B label Icheban Records, The Blues Doctor and Round Two. In 1992 he was featured on the cover of Living Blues magazine. 1994 saw the release of The Electric Blues Doctor Live on the Mapleshade label. Small, inducted into the South Carolina Music and Entertainment Hall of Fame in 1999, shares honor with such luminaries as James Brown, Dizzy Gillespie, Joanne Woodward, Bill Pinkney, and others.
2000 was a significant year for Small. He appeared at the Three Rivers Music Festival, sharing the stage with other R & B legends such as Nappy Brown, The Tams, The Impressions, and Wilson Pickett. He also participated in the “Blues Tour 2000,” at Columbia’s Township Auditorium. Headlining this show were such stars as Percy Sledge, Clarence Carter, Betty Wright, and Shirley Brown. Small performed his original tune at the 6th Annual Cammy Awards, hosted by the legendary Jerry Butler. Mayor Bob Coble declared Small’s self-penned tribute to the state dance, I’m Gonna Shag My Blues Away, as the official city of Columbia shag song. This resulted in an award of the key to the city of Columbia.
Small was inducted recently into the South Carolina Black Hall of Fame.

Would you believe that I jammed with Drink in a bar on Main Street in Columbia when I was in college at USC on my old Martin? How about that? I wish that I had a picture of it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 17, 2007, 11:37 AM
Bill Pinkney was a friend from the same town as the topic of my poem "The Conversation" if any of you remember that one.

Bill Pinkney
"He is known throughout the world as a musical Living Legend. Bill Pinkney, one of the members of the Original Drifters, was born in the Palmetto State on August 15, 1925, in the small town of Dalzell. He is currently the Ambassador of Music for the State of South Carolina. Mr. Pinkney is the sole surviving 1953 member of the Original Drifters. He owns exclusive rights to the name and/or mark of the Original Drifters.
The Drifters set the format for many musical groups to follow. Their style and versatility are legendary. The original Drifters consisted of gospel singers Bill Pinkney, Gearhart and Andrew Thrasher, and group organizer Clyde McPhatter. They first met in 1949 while performing with gospel quartets. Mr. McPhatter persuaded the men to form a musical group and finally, in 1953, Atlantic Records offered them a contract. Thus, began the Drifter's musical legacy. In 1988, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Their all time best selling song, White Christmas, features Bill Pinkney as the lead singer.
Mr. Pinkney is a former pitcher for the New York Blue Sox Baseball Team. He served in the United States Army during World War II and is the recipient of four Bronze Stars, and a Presidential Citation for military service. He has received letters of commendation from many world leaders, including United States President Bill Clinton and President Nelson Mandela of South Africa. In addition, the State of South Carolina has proclaimed May 14th as Bill Pinkney Day.
He has numerous honors for his pioneering work in music. Among his honors and awards are: Rhythm & Blues Foundation Pioneer Award, member of the United Group Harmony Hall of Fame, Beach Music Hall of Fame, Vocal Group Hall of Fame, and the South Carolina Black Hall of Fame. Additionally, the State of South Carolina has established a state park at his Dalzell, Sumter County birthplace; presented him with the Order of the Palmetto, South Carolina's highest civilian honor; and commissioned him the State's official ""Ambassador of Music."" Mr. Pinkney holds the Key to the State of South Carolina, as well as the keys to Sumter, Bamberg, and Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; Melbourne, Florida; Morristown, Tennessee; and Las Vegas, Nevada. He has been honored in other places, and by other groups including Austin, Texas; Las Vegas, Nevada; the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives.
Bill Pinkney's current Drifters are still touring and recording. His show, hailed as "the best act of its genre on the music scene today," reflects the Drifters' influence on the musical industry, as well as the nostalgia generated on all ages who love Bill Pinkney and his music. He is, indeed, a living legend!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 17, 2007, 05:01 PM
Witt, a picture of you jammin' would be absolutely priceless.

"The most extensive and extraordinary system of crime the world ever witnessed, which has now been in operation for several centuries, and which continues to exist in unabated activity, is NEGRO SLAVERY. This hateful system, involving a most incalculable amount of evil, and entailing a measure of misery on the one hand, and guilt on the other, beyond the powers of language to describe, entitles its victims to the strongest claims on our sympathy.

The hapless victims of this revolting system are men of the same origin as ourselves--of similar form and delineation of feature, though with a darker skin--men endowed with minds equal in dignity, equal in capacity, and equal in duration of existence--men of the same social dispositions and affections, and destined to occupy the same rank in the great family of Man.

The supporters and advocates of Negro Slavery, however, in order to justify their oppressive conduct, profess, either in ignorance or affected philosophy, to doubt the African's claim to humanity, alleging their incapacity, from inherent defects in their mental constitution, to enjoy the blessings of freedom, or to exercise those rights which are equally bestowed by a beneficent Creator upon all his rational creatures."

These words are from Wilson Armistead  1819-1868 in his book  'A Tribute To The Negro.'
It's an amazing work for its time. His work refutes slavery by documenting the moral, intellectual, and the religious capabilities of the 'coloured' portion of mankind.
His works ranges from the perceived inferiority of the Negroes, based not on any natural influences, but on the mindset of those who rob the Negroes of any vestage of intelligence and humanity.
 Starting at about page 500, Armistead cites one example after another that proves the Negro as capable as any other race when loosened from his shackles.
He cites Phillis Wheatly and her work, two volumes of letters from one Ignatius Sancho who was born on a slave ship.
" Lott Carney, also born a slave Excessively profane--Becomes awakened--Learns to read and write--His business abilities--Often rewarded with presents--Saves 850 dollars, and purchases his freedom and that of two of his children--Afterwards of his family--Purchases land in Richmond--Devotes his leisure to reading--Interest in African Missions--Goes out to Sierra Leone--Substance of his farewell sermon--Death of his second wife--Wide field of usefulness--His great abilities place him in a station of influence--Description of him by an American writer--Relieves the sufferings of the early emigrants--Makes liberal sacrifices of property and time--Acts as physician--Made health Officer and General Inspector--His melancholy death from an explosion--Proof that Blacks are not destitute of moral worth and innate genius."
Hannibal, Solomon B. Batley, a colony of freed Negroes in Liberia...

Amistead's evidence condemning the false thinking of what he called "white civilized savages" goes deeper than one can give due process here. A better dissertation you will not find.
The link:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 17, 2007, 07:52 PM

What would you call an organization that had no central control, no built in efficiency systems, no board of directors, no officers, no rules save the golden rule, and no laws?

What would you call an organization whose workers spent their own money, received no profits, and risked reprisals for themselves and their families even to the point of death?

What was the nation's first act of massive civil disobedience?

What was the nation's first interracial political movement?

What was the nation's first interdenominational movement?

What gave rise to the nations first women's movement?

What was the impetus that sewed all these movements into one tapestry that so consumed the masses it compelled the first American mass movement to assert the principle of personal and active responsibility for others?

The impetus was slavery.
The organization that slavery gave rise to, ergo all these other movements that advanced America to what we see today, was The Underground railroad.

The fatherhood of the Underground Railroad is credited to one Isaac T. Hopper, born in New Jersey on Dec.3, 1771. It is said he had a conversation with a slave when he was about nine years old and the hapless story he heard from this old Negro man gave rise in him a promise that if he ever got the opportunity to help a Negro, he would. He soon came to be a man of his word.


The actual name of the Underground Railroad is credited a now unknown slave holder who complained that his slave disappeared like he was on a underground railroad. Thus it has been called since.

The Underground Railroad's history is so far reaching we are just beginning to understand its depth.
For example, we all are familiar with Harper's Ferry and its history involving John Brown and his famous rebellion.
Or are we?

Little is known of John Brown's histroy with the Underground Railroad. His home in Hudson Ohio was a safe house for the UDGRR, but Brown had grander dreams.
He dreamed of a literal Subterranean Pass-Way that, in his mind, would drain the south of its slaves. It would be an underground highway that would reach 2,000 miles all the way down through the Appalachian Mountains through Virginia and Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and into the Deep South, as far as Georgia.

Brown devised this plan in the early 1840's and as early as 1847 he laid out his plan to Frederick Douglass in their very first meeting in Springfield, Ma., where upon he spread out a map of the United States." Pointing at the Appalachians, he told Douglass that the mountains “were placed here to aid in the emancipation of your race; they are full of natural forts, where one man for defense would be equal to a hundred for attack; they are also full of good hiding places, where a large number of men could be concealed and baffle and elude pursuit for a long time. I know these mountains well and could take a body of men into them and keep them there in spite of all the efforts of Virginia to dislodge me, and drive me out.”

Shortly before he raided Harper's Ferry he intimated his plan to Harriet Tubman.

His plan failed and today his plan is reasoned to be a fool's dream, but was it? 
Though not ingenious, Brown put much work into his plans to build his UDGRR as part of his planned rebellion at Harper's Ferry.

Details of his plan? How would it work? Why did it fail? Was it really as ill-conceived as we see it in today's light?

Good questions all.....the answers:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Sampo on February 18, 2007, 10:38 AM
i thought this link might provide
an insight into the mind of past mor(m)ons

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 18, 2007, 03:25 PM

The only thing you said wrong was "past" morons. They still exist in great numbers.

I do thank you for that link. It provides some insight to the type of mental inbreeding that allows the most ignorant to think this way.
It's interesting how this link quotes itself and the like mentality as some type of evidence of truth. Not one fact is found in the entire piece.

Racism can only live in the most ignorant dark minds, but this is the stuff black folks have to deal with daily.

Dear readers, put yourself in black skin and ponder the depth of hate black folks have to overcome. Ponder they way black folks have to teach their kids to protect themselves against such people. Ponder the effects this kind of hate has on an entire culture.
Once you've done that, multiply the feelings by 1000s and ponder the hapless slave that had abosolutely no outlet to express what you feel.

I say to you, you will not come even close to the feelings black folks have to deal with in real time right here and now.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 18, 2007, 07:12 PM
...okay what I see here is this.   

The thread seems to be moving from one "prejudicial" topic  to another when we say that "Mormons" are this or that.  We cannot make a blanket statement about ANY group of people. 

White, Black, Asian, Catholics, blah blah blah.    There are GOOD and BAD people in every church, in every country, in every skin color.   There are bigots, blowhards, and fanatics who use "their God" to uphold any of their own political agendas.    Every "Mormon" cannot be held responsible for what some other "Mormon" stupidly said.   No two Baptist churches are completely alike...so how can one preacher be held accountable for what some Baptist preacher in Tupelo had to say that "Baptists" believe...ever sat in an adult Sunday school class and heard the scriptures argued by 2 people of the supposed same "faith"?

Let's stand for issues, and not degrade any certain group of people.   Slavery is wrong, in every moral conceivable way.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 19, 2007, 05:51 AM
Elise, your reply took me by complete surprise, so I reread my last post.
I can see where you're coming from.
I was responding specificaly to the link Sampo posted, which in fact was about the Mormons, but I should have qualified it better.

The writer of that info link did so to make a point in justifying racism and that can't be swept to the side, but it was not my intention to imply all Mormons are of that ilk.

I'll try to be more clear from now on, and thanks for taking me to task.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 19, 2007, 02:48 PM
Earl, you big teddy bear, it wasn't directed at you.  Truly.  I just thought we oughta get this thing back on track.
Hugggs to you my friend.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 20, 2007, 11:52 AM
I'm singing praises again.
Maurice Williams and the Zodiacs was a group that performed under a variety of names until finally hitting the big time in 1960. They only reached the top forty once, but they did it with a wildly popular record.
They were formed in Lancaster, South Carolina by piano player/lead singer/songwriter Maurice Williams as the Royal Charms. The original members of the group were Williams, Willie Jones, Earl Gainey, William Massey, and Norman Wade. They won a talent contest in Lancaster and began to perform at various locations along the eastern seaboard.
The group changed its name to the Gladiolas. They recorded a song in Nashville on the Excello label that Williams had written titled Little Darlin' and it made the top 50. When the Canadian group the Diamonds quickly recorded a cover, that version of Little Darlin' made it to number two on the charts in early 1957. The Gladiolas then became the Excellos, named for their record label.
In 1959, they once again changed their name, this time to the Zodiacs, a name that stuck. The following year the group was re-formed. The new lineup included Maurice Williams, Wiley Bennett, Charles Thomas, Little Willie Morrow, Albert Hill and Henry Gaston. Their big hit was just around the corner. Recording as Maurice Williams and the Zodiacs on the Herald record label, they recorded a very brief song Williams had written titled Stay. A classic rock-and-roll record, Stay climbed to number one in late 1960 and staked its claim as the shortest recording ever to go to the top.
The group followed up with more records that sounded somewhat like their biggest hit, including I Remember and Come Along. They were minor hits. Maurice Williams went on to record some solo songs later in his career.
It is Stay that has remained as the song that is identified with Maurice Williams and the Zodiacs. Over the years the song has been re-done by other artists who had a hit with it also, including the Hollies, the 4 Seasons, and Jackson Browne.
April 18, 2001, Maurice Williams received the Order of the Palmetto from Governor Jim Hodges this day in Columbia, SC. The Order of the Palmetto is the highest honor that any civilian can receive from the State of South Carolina. On hand were a number of Beach Music luminaries and the press including Billy Scott, Drink Small, Harry Turner and Hilda Carter. Maurice is also an inductee of the South Carolina Music and Entertainment Hall of Fame, and will soon be inducted into the North Carolina Music and Entertainment Hall of Fame.
Would you believe that I never met him? I believe that he resides in Charlotte now.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 23, 2007, 09:41 PM
There were many successful slave escapes.
Most were from just plain running, others from the Underground Railroad, some escaped by choosing death, still other escapes were borne of desperation.

Henry Brown was one such desperate example. Born a slave in Louisa County, Va. in 1815.
He tells of his early childhood and the comparative less cruelty in his treatment as opposed to other plantations.
He tells of watching his master's son, Charles, emancipating about forty slaves and paying their full expenses to a free state.
Then he tells of one of the most cruel acts perpetrated on the slave.
The slave often was offered the hope of freedom to induce more labor. Imagine, if you can, the buoyed spirit this would produce from a person that lived under and witnessed the agony of slavery.
FREEDOM... the foremost thought, the grandest of expectation, the life blood to keep going.

Henry Brown goes on to relate the day his master called him and his mother to his death bed. They ran for all they were worth expecting to be freed upon his death, but the cruelest of the cruel words were spoken,  and their hope of freedom was dashed as was often the case.
Henry was willed to the younger son William, and was taken away from his mother and moved to Richmond, Va. There is no record of his seeing his mother again.

Henry Brown narrates many more stories of his life, but I bring you to the place of his desperation.
Henry asked and received permission to marry Nancy (no known last name), the property of one Master Leigh. It was the promise of Master William and Master Leigh  to never sell either one that gave rise to the hope happiness (such as it was) in Henry and Nancy.
However a slave's die is already cast and in 1849 Henry got word his wife and children were taken from their cabin and sold to slave barons from North Carolina.

The only goodbye he was allowed was to look for the last time into his child's eyes as they went by with ropes around their necks and chains on their arms, driven by the voice and whip of tyrants. To him this was worst than death, for even in death there is a body to mourn and bury.

It was then he became desperate enough to plan his escape. He spoke to a store keeper in Richmond, believing him to be trust worthy. He was, and after settling on a sum of $86 the store keeper came up with several plans, none of which suited Henry.

One day while working, a plan came to him.
He would have himself boxed and freighted to a free state. All was arranged and the freight box was to be delivered to James McKim, an abolitionist in Philadelphia. Henry spent 27 hours and traveled 350 miles in that box.
It was determined on his arrival that it would not be safe for him to remain in Philadelphia and, in time, he was sent on to New York, where he became a well known speaker for the Anti Slave Society.
He has since been forever dubbed Henry 'Box' Brown.

Details you ask?...
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 23, 2007, 10:13 PM
Earl, I need to tell you I wept when I read this.  Then I went to that site and I got physically ill reading what he and other slaves went through.   I am sure I have no real idea what it was like.  I can only begin to imagine how hard a slave's life was.   

For families to be torn apart like that is the worst nightmare I can imagine.   It reminds me of when a child is abducted.   The grief a family goes through.    Never knowing if they will ever see their child or parent again, and not knowing what is happening to them.   Such unfathomable heartache and pain.

Thank you Earl for doing your part to increase awareness and understanding.

I wanted to post this picture here from that site illustrating how  Henry Brown was packed in a shipping box.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Jodiya on February 26, 2007, 02:04 PM
Elise, I appreciate reading this post, I had no idea. Thanks for taking the time to share this with us.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 26, 2007, 02:11 PM
Jodiya, so good to see you here.  Welcome!   This post actually was initiated by my friend Earl (A-Friend).  If you go back and read the various posts in this thread, there is so much to learn here.   Awesome that you found us!
Feel free to chime right on in.   :sunny
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 27, 2007, 09:56 AM
Life weaves some very intricate patterns. The resulting 'fabric' comes with all the stories that link the human family together in more ways than one can imagine.

Ponder this question. What did Mahalia Jackson, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Roy Rodgers and Dale Evans, Elvis Presely, Dr. King, Lyndon B. Johnson and Al Capone have in common?

Travel with me back in time to Villa Rica, Georgia July 1, 1899. Born, then, to a Baptist preacher father and church organist mother was one Thomas A. Dorsey. In 1908 the family moved to Atlanta, Ga where their struggle was typical for blacks in the segregated south.

Thomas' childhood was filled with music and he began copying and writing music at the age of nine.
At age eleven Thomas quit school and took a job at a local Vaudeville show. At age seventeen he left Atlanta, Ga. for Chicago and gained immediate success.
He played at the 'speak easy' joints set up by the infamous Al Capone and soon became known as 'the whispering piano player' because he had to play quietly enough not to attract the police.

Thomas lived such a wild unhealthy life that by the age of twenty one he had a nervous breakdown and moved back home to Atlanta where he was cared for by his mother. His mother begged him to give up the blues music and its life style and return to the Lord.
He ignored her advice and returned to Chicago and the blues lifestyle.
He took the name 'Georgia Tom' and play piano for Ma Rainey, wrote music for Bessie Smith and with Tampa Red Whittaker and many others.

By 1925 Thomas had a second breakdown that left him unable to play for over two years.
No treatment seemed to work until he visited Bishop H. H. Haley and decided to devote himself to the Lord's work.
He developed a musical style based on his blues roots featuring syncopated notes with a eight bar blues structure and in 1932 his first song was published.
It was titled- 'If You See my Savior Tell Him You saw Me.'

Thus was born the first Gospel song and music. Thomas A. Dorsey, the father of Gospel music.

But wait...how does that tie into the afore mentioned names? I'll even add a couple names to that unlikely list of associates. Al Green, The Blind Boys, B. B. King, John Lomax.

Well it seems the preachers didn't like Thomas' Gospel style and called it the devil's music, so Thomas went back to playing the secular blues, but in August of 1932 his life was forever changed.
While working on the road in St. Louis he got a telegram that his precious wife, Nettie Harper, had died giving birth to their son. He arrived home the next day to see his beautiful baby boy, but that same night the baby died.
Thomas was devastated. Turning to his only comfort, the piano, Thomas says this song was 'given' him... TAKE MY HAND PRECIOUS LORD.

There dear reader is the connection. All the great singers have recorded this song. Worldwide it is one of the most used songs in history. It was sung during the last rally that Dr. King attended the night before he was murdered. Lyndon Johnson had it played at his funeral. And who could ever forget hearing Mahalia Jackson singing it?

Thomas A. Dorsey, weaver of life's fabric that affects us all, from the country music lovers Roy Rodgers and Dale Evans, all the way across the spectrum to old  blues greats like B. B. King, died at age 94 in 1993.


this link has audio clips of Thomas dorsey:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 27, 2007, 11:15 AM
Oh, my. THAT is my very favorite song, too! Thanks for the info.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 28, 2007, 04:23 AM
Awesome info Earl.  Wonderful information here.  You tell it so well too!    :rose
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 28, 2007, 02:42 PM
I would like to take time to thank all participants in this months recognition of Black History. We learn so much from each other and in doing so, we all help to shed light on the unknown histories that is so shamefully left out of the mainstream written record.

A special thanks to Witt who, intentionally or not, provided this late arriving moderator with sufficient cover by getting things started. Your posts were outstanding Witt. The only thing missing is a picture of you jammin'.

Cappy, good posts as well. Your discussion gave food for thought.

Elise, what can I say? Your participation is priceless.
We are a classic example of where we need to be as humans, neither black or white.
And yes, I'll explain that.
We are from entirely different backgrounds, different life's experiences, different ethnicity, even different generations, but the time I've known you I feel more a kinship than friendship.
I never had a daughter, but if I had, I would like to think she would have been allot like you.

Arti, Sampo, and all the anonymous readers, thank you.

As stated last year, lets keep this going. After all, black history needs to be mainstreamed. We do that by continuing the discussion.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 28, 2007, 10:29 PM
I am honored by your words Earl.  You are a great friend/Father figure, and I am sooo pleased to know you.
Love you bunches!   ~huggggs~

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 07, 2007, 03:54 PM
Poetry played an enormous part in the abolition movements. The following was written by Susanna Watts, a British abolitionist.

The Slave's Address

Natives of a Land of Glory,
Daughters of the good and brave!
Hear the injured Negro's story;
Hear and help the kneeling Slave.
Think how nought but death can sever
Your lov'd children from your hold;
Still alive  but lost for ever
Ours are parted, bought, and sold!
Seize, oh! Seize the favouring season
Scorning censure or applause;
justice, truth religion, reason
Are you leaders in the cause!
Follow!  faithful, firm, confiding;
Spread our wrongs from shore to shore;
Mercy's God your efforts guiding,
Slavery shall be known no more.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on March 07, 2007, 04:35 PM
Oh, that is wonderful! Thanks for sharing that with us.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on March 08, 2007, 04:08 PM
I wanted to make a comment about the poem earl, and that is, that I understood the reference to slave children being removed from their parents:  What is so brilliant about this topic, however, is that I learned about this, earlier on in the topic.  Had I not learned something from your Black History Month stewardship, then, I am sad to admit, I might not have understood the poem!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 08, 2007, 06:07 PM
Allen my friend, you added a smile to this old man's face.
It's so nice to hear the positive feedback. It's always been my ultimate goal and hope
to leave a living impression about the lives and contributions of black people.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 09, 2007, 02:59 PM

My tribe is bloodied,
To the bush I flee.
Strange men with strange weapons
Trying to capture me.
I'm chained and taunted
And it seems with such glee.
I tired to escape,
But the whip and chains sealed my destiny.
I'm thrown bound into a dark hole
surrounded by misery.
In a fearsome vessel for weeks,
I'm taken across a strange sea.
The voyage filled with deaths, rapes
and oh how the stench did reek.
What little food there was made me sick
Leaving my body weak.
The dead they threw overboard
For the sharks to eat.
I'm chained and beaten off this vessle
In a place called Virginny.
Penned like an animal
And what a sight I did see.
I don't even know what day it is
Be it 1690 or 1693
What I do know is never again
Will I be free.
My children enslaved, my grandchildren too
Many generations coming never to be free.
The virtue of my wife
Doesn't even belong to me.
She's used at the master's pleasure
On pain of death if she tries to flee.
Wealth is built on my back
As I'm driven to my knees.
Many stories are told
Many more stories history did leave.
Hearken, dear reader,
This is my ancestry.
These things did not happen in a vacuum,
But by American and state decree.
For all times forward one benefits from slavery,
The other one suffers the slave's legacy.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 01, 2007, 09:51 PM
I left a copy of the poem 'Laments' with the Legacy Museum, here in my home town, and was asked to explain it.
I felt it was time to do so here as well.

The topic of America and its different states apologizing for slavery has been in the forefront of the news lately. Virginia's recent statement regretting slavery has served to heightened the rhetoric both pro and con. I find it highly appropiate that Virginia leads the way. I very pleased there are now several states following Virginia's lead.

I read allot of the Slave Narratives and I can safely say a very large percent will mention Virginia somewhere in the narrative. Halifax, Richmond, Petersburg and Lynchburg in particular. In fact the slave pens for the city of Lynchburg was right on the corner of Ninth and Commerce streets.

However you would not believe the hate filled rhetoric I'm reading in the blogs against apologizing for slavery, which was the impetus for writing the poem.
I wrote 'Laments' a few days after Virginia passed their resolution regretting slavery and after reading some of the most ignorant things ever written about it.
( A side note to those that think the things said were not outright racism. The resolution gave the same weight to regretting the way Virginia treated the Indians. I haven't seen one acrimonious word against that, but the same supposedly intelligent people feel free to belittle the resolution's value to black people.)

I'm trying to convey what the institution of slavery was.
The poem represents a microcosm of a slave's life in Virginia, from the capture to the stark realization of the eternal lost of freedom. I tried to capture Virginia's history in this brutal trade in the poem, the first slaves being brought to Virginia in 1690.
If my research is not exact I will gladly accept a correction.

One point I'm trying to make is we as African Americans are not demanding apologies for slavery from individuals, which is the argument that is falsely being made against it. Slavery was a White European/American institution, sponsored, supported and profited from by American and State institutions. Its shameful and disgraceful time in American history is equaled only by the the lack of atonement and attrition on the part of the American, State and private institutions that still profit from the adumbration's of slavery.
One need do just a few google entries to find States, Banks, Insurance companies, Newspapers, Colleges, and even private wealth that stand enriched today from slave labor. Even the lack ofhaving a Congressional vote for Washington D.C. can be traced back to slavery and it's legacy.
Many stories/narratives are told about what happened. Who can number the stories/narratives never to be heard?

The legacy of white privilege we now see comes from slavery. The laws, institutions, those governing the institutions including State and Federal were all set up to advantage White society and disadvantage Blacks. That has been paritally addressed, but not only does this country have far to go, it's moving backwards.

By the same token the legacy of slavery is just as real. We did not get this racist society through a vacuum. We went from Slavery to freedom, to the night riders, to the K.K.K., to Jim Crow, to legalized segregation, to separate but equal, right up to the racist society we still live in. All of these things are vestiges of slavery.

Just as an aside. In conversations on slavery someone will invariably ask why Blacks don't demand an apology from Africa, because other Africans sold Africans. That question in itself comes from institutionalized racism. Why? Because it's designed to sanitize, minimize, marginalize, and devalue the true nature of slavery and the ancestry of Black people.
In every culture there have been traitors and opportunism. History records there were traitors and opportunist among the American colonies during the American Revolution. Does anyone hear that action being used to describe the whole of America?
Does anyone really believe there were no sellouts and opportunism among the Jewish people during the Holocaust? I note that nobody even mentions that, much less dare to suggest that those Jews represented the whole of the Jewish people.
Africa was no exception. They had traitors and opportunist as well, but those few Africans did not represent the whole of Africa, nor the whole of the slave trade. The assertions otherwise are just plain ludicrous.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on April 02, 2007, 03:41 PM
A very powerful piece Earl.  Once again we feel the need to remind ourselves that a country or "group of people" cannot be put in labeled boxes.   Even so...

Although we who are alive today did not actually participate in slavery, and although we personally had nothing to do with taking this land from the Native American Indians, we benefit from it.  The benefits are all around us.   Most Native American Indians today live in poverty.   It's shameful how we stole their land, and broke promises to provide for them.  I use this example because, as you point out, it seems most American white people can relate to this cause.   

A great deal of America was built with the slave labor of people taken against their will; torn from their families.   Can you imagine the outrage if strangers came here and yanked us out of our homes, chained us and transported us to a foreign land, where we were treated like cattle and couldn't even understand the language?   Then made us do back breaking work for no pay and then bred us and separated us from our babies?
It would be a small thing to expect that country who used us and broke our backs to apologize.

In fact, I apologize for my country, and for any of my own ancestor slave-holders.  If I don't have any, then I apologize for any of my ancestors who turned their heads and allowed it to continue without being outraged.
There were many white people who felt this outrage and did all they could to help.  I hope my ancestors were among them. 

Just like in the Holocaust where non-Jewish Germans stepped up to help.   Nevertheless, if you visit Dachau, a former Nazi death camp near Munich, you will be given a written apology from the town of Dachau about the travesty.   It is forever a black mark on their little town.   It is their shame.   When I visited Dachau several years ago, one thing that chilled me and struck me when I was exiting the concentration camp was the enormous metal sculpture near the exit gate.  It is fixed so that at first you cannot tell what it is.  Then as you get closer and realization hits you that it is a gigantic pile of twisted emaciated bodies, it is absolutely chilling.
Then engraved below the sculpture it says "NEVER AGAIN" in 5 different languages.  It is a reminder of man's inhumanity to man.   

So Virginia was right to apologize.  In fact, all of America should apologize.   Blacks shouldn't have to "demand" an apology from anyone.    Several cities around the nation are making plans to erect monuments to the slaves that labored there.   Some will complain.  Big deal.  They are a minority.  They do not represent America.  It just a monument.   The real monument to honor these people will be the continual freeing of their descendents, and genuine shame and  remorse from all of America.  The few loud idiots for sure do not represent me.

I am posting a poem by Maya Angelou that is engraved below this monument to slavery in Savannah, Georgia.[attachimg=#1]

"We were stolen, sold and bought.  Together from the African Continent.  We got on the slave ships together.  We lay back to belly in the holds of the slave ships together in each others excrement and urine together.  Sometimes died together and our lifeless bodies thrown overboard together.  Today we are standing up together with faith and even some joy"     Maya Angelou
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 03, 2007, 10:13 PM
Elise, you are 100 percent correct in being sensitive to labels. You're also 100 percent correct in noting all the help from different people to help end slavery as well as the Holocaust.
I've paid tribute to several people of different backgrounds all through the thread and I hope that has not been lost by those reading this.
The problem one has when one writes about sensitive issues is taking the path to truth, where ever that path leads. I try to be specific, but that means identifying institutions, individuals and even the country, in context with history, for what they are.

One has a responsibility to do the research to ascertain facts and I do that from more than one source before I post. I have to satisfy the honesty in me first. I'm always open for debate, but the truth is what it is.

I have great respect for what you've said here.
I'm about as hard a man you'll ever meet, coming from the experiences I've had growing up in the segregated south, violent life style in several different fields of law enforcement, facing and fighting discrimination all my life, so I was not prepared for the emotional response I had from the main body of your post. I'm not sure just how to articulate it.

I've never in my life had anybody to say what you just said.
Even in the face of all evidence to the contrary, people will say the nasty things they are saying in the blogs and even to my face. They will say Africans should be gratefull they were slaves, or slavery was not all that bad, just to give you a few examples. People here in my hometown celebrate their Confederate past and say it's their history, but I'm taken to task if I bring up the truth of that history, as if I'm supposed to forget what that history is.
You have no idea the knots that ties in the stomachs of black people.

Your post helped untie some of those knots. I hope you can grasp the full impact of that. You've taken a hard man and moved him to publicly confess to whimsy.
Thank you from the bottom of my heart.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on April 04, 2007, 04:20 AM
Dear Earl,

Your reply to my post blew me away.  I admire you so much.  It takes great courage to bring up controversial issues and then stick with it even in the face of challenge. 

I can never pretend to know what it is like to be black.  To be maligned because of being born a certain way.
I don't know what kind of things you went through in your life because of your skin color.   I can only imagine, and what I do imagine is hard to look at head on.  The horrors of slavery and the suppression of black people is too painful for most non-blacks to admit.   It is so much easier to pretend it never happened that way.

I am very proud of you Earl.   You do an important work.  Well done!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 06, 2007, 01:57 PM
Add, now, North Carolina to the list of states officially apologizing for their part in slavery and the legal system of discrimination they put in place.
That's Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina, with Georgia and Missouri considering similar legislation.

This is the right thing to do, but let not these historical events be used to say there is no more work to do. This is not the end of discriminations as a result of the vestiges of slavery, but the beginning of a long awaited healing process.

Apologizing goes a long way in any process where it is due, but, as in any process, lets see if actions back it up.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on April 06, 2007, 04:15 PM
I missed your post with "Laments". Oh, my. It took my breath away. Thanks for these wonderful submissions!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on April 06, 2007, 04:16 PM
No matter how many apologies come, (which is the least they can do) it will never ever erase what happened.  What's done is done.   An apology doesn't even do much to soften the blow.  BUT, it is an admission that wrong was done and a whole state feels regretful.   Maybe by putting it in writing, it will help assure that it never happens again.  :rose

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 06, 2007, 05:36 PM
Well thank you my dear Witt.
Comments from you are held in high regard by me.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 06, 2007, 05:56 PM
You hit my point dead on Elise. Nothing is going to erase history. Contrition is owed, but we need to make sure nothing like this ever happens again.

I had this conversation down at the local watering hole.
When I mentioned we have to wait and see if actions back up the apologies I was accused, by some, of being inflammatory and black people were never going to be satisfied. That of course is ridiculous.

I asked one gentleman if I robbed him and got away with it for years, then robbed every generation of his kin for years with the sanction of the courts, but one day came to the revelation I was wrong, who would I owe that apology to?
Well obviously his descendants, he answered.
So I apologize to his descendants for all the years of robbery, but does he seriously think his descendants will accept my apology and not watch to see if my behavior changes, or what I'm willing to do to demonstrate my atonement?
You know, it's funny how people will stutter and make excuses for not answering a question, rather than just going on and admitting they're wrong.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 25, 2007, 07:30 PM

http://www.cnn.com/2007/EDUCATION/04/25/university.slavery.ap/index.html (http://www.cnn.com/2007/EDUCATION/04/25/university.slavery.ap/index.html)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 30, 2007, 09:18 AM
Yale and slavery; a confused legacy?


Listed on the left side of the next link are the people Yale honors/honored with endowments and even naming some of it's buildings after them.
Again, a confused legacy?

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on May 03, 2007, 02:46 PM

I always love reading the research you do, and hope you continue!  Even though we are appalled by this following statement, I am hoping that it illustrates that we have come aways since then!  Thank God!                       

"Taken together, these resolutions opposed opening a "Negro college" in New Haven because doing so would undermine Yale College and would threaten the stability of our nation."

And about Bishop Berkeley:

VERY interesting Earl!   And to think this happened in Rhode Island and NOT the South.  I am hoping IF they name scholarships after this man that preference will be given to certain peoples.  I didn't read this anywhere though.  Did I miss it?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 03, 2007, 03:13 PM
Hi there daughter dear, and thanks for your comments. I'll have to do a little more research on your question later on. Leaving in the morning for 12 days of R&R.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 17, 2007, 07:27 PM
Sometimes the states really get it right.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 17, 2007, 08:10 PM
I could not find ,so far, any mention of preferences in the scholarships from Yale with regard to Bishop Berkely.

I did find this link to be of use.

It's the summary of Yales invovlement with slavery and its later tradition in fighting slavery. This essay was written because Yale's summary of itself does not include the full story. Link to both appdendix at bottom of page.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 31, 2007, 05:06 PM
May 31 Black history events.

1870 Congress passes the first Civil Rights Enforcement Act with stiff penalties. This bill, introduced by Charles Summer, recognizes the equality of all men before the law.

1909-The first meeting of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was held in New York city.

1921 A major race riot breaks out in the Greenwood section of Tulsa, OK, killing at least 300 Blacks, becoming the deadliest race riot of the twentieth century.
* The riot was when whites came into the Greenwood section of Tulsa and attacked the black community. To date no one has been held to account for these murders.

1955 Supreme Court orders all U.S. School Boards to inaugurate desegregation plans with "all deliberate speed".
To the contrary, Georgia State Board of Education proposed to revoke the license of any teacher who conducts an integrated class and Mississippi attempts to maintain public school segregation.

Even though these laws were passed it wasn't until 1964 (after blacks had suffered murders, lynchings bombings and many horrendous acts) when the Civil Rights Act was passed, that gave the laws some teeth. Even then the 1964 Civil Rights Act was not enforced in some places as late as 1966.
Other places in the deep south still had 'blacks' only' entrances and rooms as late as the 1970s.
A battle is still being raged against the Civil Rights Act by certain factions.

The fight for equality goes on, proving, again, laws can be passed to address injustice, but laws can't be passed to abolish evil.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 01, 2007, 05:59 AM
Black history events for June 1st

1760- Jupiter Hammon, a New York slave, becomes the first to publish a poem titled "An Evening Thought, Salvation by Christ, with Penitential Cries".

1843-Sojourner Truth begins travel as abolitionist speaker

1862- Slavery abolished in all US possessions.
* This was followed in September, 22 1862 with what was called 'The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.'


The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation was issued to warn the rebels to end the fighting and rejoin the Union by Jan 1 1863 or the full Emancipation Proclamation would go into effect.
Often I have wondered, if the Confederates had stopped fighting before Jan 1 1863 how long would slavery have continued?
Abraham Lincoln did believe in white supremacy and the Emancipation Proclamation was simply an article of war to use against the Confederates, even though the Proclamation took on a life of its own.

1937 -Morgan Freeman who will be noted for his three separate Academy Award nominations, acting in Along Came A Spider, Kiss the Girls, Driving Miss Daisy, Glory, and Amistad, is born in Memphis, TN.

1968- Henry Lewis becomes the first Black musical director to lead a major U.S. Orchestra when he directs the New Jersey Symphony.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 03, 2007, 02:11 AM
June 2nd Black history events

1863- Harriet Tubman led Union Army guerillas into Maryland, freeing more than 700  slaves. 
*Harriet Tubman was the first woman ever to lead American troops into combat.

1875- James Augustine Healey becomes the first black Catholic Bishop in the USA           

1943- The 99 th Pursuit Squadron, a Black Air Force unit, flies first combat mission. 

1971- Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. of Richmond,Va, becomes the first Black Admiral in the U.S. Navy


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 03, 2007, 05:34 PM
june 3rd black history

1833- Thomas "Daddy" Rice, a White "Blackface" minstrel, introduces a song called "Jump, Jim Crow" into his song-and-dance routine that he copied from a little Negro boy. Gradually, the words "Jim Crow" was applied to the stereotype of Negroes everyday life.

1890- L.H. Jones patents a corn harvester. 

1904- Dr. Charles R. Drew, who discovered that the liquid part of the blood,"plasma," can be preserved for long periods of time, is born in Washington, DC. 

1906 -International entertainer Josephine Baker is born in St. Louis. She will dazzle Paris with the show,"La Revue Negre."

1928- The "Godfather of Soul" James Brown, soul singer and dancer, is born in Augusta, GA. "Say It Loud, I'm Black and I'm Proud" is one of his many hits.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 03, 2007, 06:03 PM
I'm interested in studying the etymology of words like Jim Crow, nigger, and other derogatory caricatures of Black people.

After a prolonged search I found this study done by Ferris University. It is without question the most comprehensive study and collection I have ever seen.
It's illustrated with book covers, posters,and pictures dated from past centuries on up to our day.

Just to wet your appetite:

What connection is there between Mother Goose, Agatha Christie and the etymology of the word 'nigger'?

How are some children's lullabies associated with the racial hierarchy?

What was the origin of some of the disparaging caricatures of Blacks and how did they evolve into the disgraceful caricatures blacks identify themselves with today, including the use of the terms 'dawg' and 'niggah'?

What has some children's story books to do with the caste system?

Who set up the racial hierarchy and caste system and how did the advertising companies implement it?

What happens to the segment of society that has to endure generations of organized racism?

What happens when that segment starts to internalise the racism?

How did we as black people get from calling each other brother, to calling each other 'dawg' and 'niggah'?

Can it be justified?

I especially encourage all Black readers of this forum to read this study. It is fascinating.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 04, 2007, 04:11 PM
June 4-Today in Black history

1895- Joseph Lee, known for his baking technology in making bread and bread crumbs, is awarded a patent for his bread crumbing machine by the U.S. Patent Office in Washington, DC.

1922- Samuel L. Gravely, Jr., the first Black U.S. Admiral, is born in Richmond, VA.�

1972 -Angela Davis is acquitted of charges in San Jose, CA that she aided in a courtroom shoot out.

1973- Anna Bontemps, Harlem Renaissance author,playwright,editor, dies in Nashville, TN
*Google the 'Harlem Renaissance' for a fascinating study on this amazing period in Black History
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Sampo on June 04, 2007, 06:20 PM
A-Friend -

In regards to your previous post, I would like to thank you
for these etymological words. Beyond the racist, I'm just
a fan of words, and I love to know where they're derived from.

Without googling nigga, I was lead to believe it was a mis-pronounciation
of Niger; the country. But to be honest, I've never heard of Jim Crow.
Such names seem cynical, satirical, now given the long-standing situation.

Then again, you Americans are looking up.
Front runners for next election are female and black.
Hilary, Obama. Good stuff.

(This bodes well for the rest of world
targeted for co-operation or salvation - globalisation)


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 04, 2007, 07:38 PM
Thanks for stopping by Sampo.
I do hope you enjoy the information presented by Ferris University.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 05, 2007, 07:49 PM
June 5 Black History events

1956 -Federal Court holds Montgomery bus segregation unconstitutional. 
1987- Dr. Mae Jemison becomes the first Black woman astronaut. She will take her first voyage into outer space on the Space Shuttle called The Endeavor in 1992
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 06, 2007, 10:53 AM
June 6

1772 -Jean Baptiste Point duSable, A Black from Haiti, establishes Chicago's first permanent settlement. 

1826- Activist Sarah Remond is born in Salem, MA. 

1831 -The first annual "People of Color" convention is held in Philadelphia, PA. 

1939- Civil rights leader and children's advocate Marian Wright Edelman is born in Bennettsville, SC. She will found the Children's Defense Fund
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 07, 2007, 07:22 PM
June 7 Black history

1780- Massachusetts Bill of Rights adopted, and interpreted by courts, to end slavery in State.

1917- Pulitzer Prize winner Gwendolyn Brooks, a poet and author, who will receive the American Academy of Arts and Letters Award, is born in Topeka, Kansas.

1953-Mary Church Terrell wins struggle to end segregation in Washington DC Restaurants. (this my ahve been on the 8th of June)

1943- Nikki Giovanni, known as the "Princess of Black Poetry", was born as Yolande Cornelia Giovanni, Jr. in Knoxville, TN

* Neither the 1780 law passed Massachusetts or the 1953 struggle won by Mary Terrell did much to advance the actual lot of Black citizens.
They were indeed momentous times in history, but laws are only as good as the enforcers. The enforcers were unwilling to comply, and didn't.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 10, 2007, 12:47 AM
June 8 Black History

1798 -Black Code - Georgia - "Any person may take up any negroes that shall be found out of the plantation or place they belong...acting unlawfully...and if found with an offensive weapon shall take the same away...may whip said Negroes..."

June 8 -Homer A Plessy refused to move to segregated railroad coach
 in New Orleans, initiating Plessy v Ferguson

** Recently there was an uproar in the Black community about the republican Congress trying to let the Voting rights Act lapse. Though they were brought to their senses kicking and screaming, they did finally reauthorize the act.

The Black community saw letting the Voting Rights Act lapse as a huge step backwards, and with good reason.

Certain factions were saying that Blacks have their rights and don't need the Voting Rights Act, which just flies in the face of the reason the law had to be passed to begin with.
One only need read the Plessy V. Ferguson case to see the impetus for the fear of letting the Voting Rights Act lapse.

Right after the Civil war, and through reconstruction, Blacks could vote, run for office, ride anywhere in public conveyances, but over time the defeated slave holders, et. al., started to segregate blacks, pass Jim Crow laws and make state laws independent of the Federal laws and directly against the 13th and 14th amendments.
Though slavery was over, these laws were put in place to perpetuate the features of slavery and deny Black people equal status as full human citizens.

The Supreme Court ruled against Homer Plessy in 1883 setting into motion legalized oppression, segregation, and degradation for Black people for generations to come.

You see, initially Blacks already HAD their 'RIGHTS', only to see them taken away by the racist factions of that day. That same racism is alive and well, though more covert, today.
For those that think it can't happen again I say, read and learn the lessons of history lest they be repeated.
That's the reason for the uproar last year when the Voting Rights Act was threatened.


1968- James Earl Ray, the man identified as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassin, is captured at a London airport. He will be charged, tried and found guilty of killing Dr. King and sentenced to 99 years in prison.

1982- Leroy "Satchel" Paige, one of the greatest pitchers of all time and is named all time outstanding player by the National Baseball Congress, dies.

** There are many in the sports world (including me) that think Babe Ruth's record in the Baseball Hall of Fame should come with a asterisk and explanation that his record is not completely honest.

Satchel Paige is touted as the greatest pitcher of all time, and he was certainly the greatest pitcher in Babe Ruth's time. Babe Ruth never faced Satchel Paige, who through segregation, had to play in what was called the Negro League.

There are many (including me) who believed Babe Ruth was afraid to face Satchel Paige and if he had to actually play against him, baseball history would have been far different.

Josh Gibson of the Negro League had a better record than Babe Ruth as well:

Picture of the New York Black Yankees

Yes Babe Ruth has the record, but it's this writer's opinion that the same racism that kept Blacks out of mainstreamed Baseball makes Babe Ruth's record questionable for not having to face the Black players of his time that were at least equal to his talents.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 10, 2007, 12:48 AM
June 9 Black History

1877- Sculptor Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller is born in Philadelphia, PA. 

1962- William Braithwaite, poet, critic, and editor, dies in New York City. He was noted for his Lyrics of Life and Love."

2000 -Celebrated artist Jacob Lawrence, painter of pictures in abstract principles and social issues, dies in Seattle, WA
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 10, 2007, 03:43 PM
June 10 Black History

1854- James Augustine Healy, first Black Roman Catholic Bishop, is ordained a priest in Paris's Cathedral of Notre Dame. 

1896- "Gone With the Wind" actress Hattie McDaniel, the first Black to win an Oscar for her role as "Mammy", is born in Wichita, KA. She states in response to criticism, "I'd sure rather play a maid than be one"

1938- Arthur Alfonso Schomburg, who amassed a vast collection of African-American books, manuscrpits, and artifacts, dies in New York City. His collection was purchased by the Carnegie Corp. and donated to the NY City Public Library to eventually become the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

1940- Marcus Garvey, Black nationalist, dies in England. He was convicted of mail fraud, sentenced, released after serving half of sentence, and deported to Jamaica.

1946- Boxer Jack "Papa Jack" Johnson dies at St. Agnes Hospital in Raleigh, NC where he was taken following a car accident 20 miles north of the city.


2004- Multi-talented "Ray Charles" Robinson, a 12-times Grammy Award winner entertainer with a powerful hit list of songs such as "What'd I Say, Georgia on My Mind, and Hit the Road Jack," dies at his Beverly Hills home from an acute liver disease
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 11, 2007, 01:51 PM
June 11 Black History in the making:

June 11 Black History events:

1794- Delegates from 8 states form the American Convention of Abolition Societies in Philadelphia, PA. 

1912 -Joseph H. Dickinson patents a player piano. 

1920- Hazel Dorothy Scott, pianist, singer,and the first Black woman to host her own TV show, is born in Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

1930- Charles Rangle, unseats Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. in the Democratic primary and distinguishing himself as a liberal member of Congress, is born in Harlem

1963- Gov. George Wallace threatens to defy the court order and bar the entrance of Blacks who attempt to desegregate the University of Alabama. He stands at the doorway and denies admittance, but he then steps aside and lets them enter.

2001- (AP) reports that archaeologists Gerald Sawyer and Warren Perry uncovered remains of a Connecticut slave Plantation. This huge 13,000-acre plantation was owned by Col. Samuel Browne and his family over three generations. He and his overseer brought in 60 families of Africans to clear the land, grow wheat, process meats, and ship goods out of New London, CT.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 13, 2007, 06:50 PM
June 12 Black History

1936 -Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. graduates from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. He will become a three-star general.

1963 -Medgar W. Evers, head of Mississippi NAACP organization, is assassinated as he walked to the door of his home.

1989 -U.S. Supreme Court rules some workers may file discrimination suit if adversely affected by court-approved affirmative action policy

June 13 Black History

1868- Oscar J. Dunn becomes Lieutenant-Governor of Louisiana during Reconstruction.
** Oscar J. dunn is the perfect example of Blacks running for and holding office during reconstruction. It should be noted that Oscar J. Dunn was born a slave.
He died suddenly in office Nov. 22 1871.  It was suspected he was poisoned.

Other things of interest:
1)Even with the advent of The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 The slaves were not freed in Louisiana, in fact they were held in slavery even under Union control.

2)Louisiana in-acted the Black Codes into law in 1865, based on the same restrictions enforced under slavery. Its primary purpose was to restore the plantation economy by using blacks as poorly paid laborers instead of outright slaves.

For details on Louisiana's history during Reconstruction:

1937- Elanor Holmes Norton, D.C.'s delegate to Congress, is born in Washington, D.C. She will become chairwoman of the U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission

1967- Thurgood Marshall is nominated to U.S. Supreme Court by President Lyndon Johnson. He will become the first Black appointed to the Court.

1972- Singer Clyde McPhatter, a co-founder of the Drifters, dies of a heart attack at the age of 40. He was born in Durham, NC the son of a minister.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 17, 2007, 03:24 AM
History was made on this day June 17

1775- Minuteman sharpshooter Peter Salem shoots Major Pitcairn in the Battle of Bunker Hill.

1871- James Weldon Johnson, composer of the song, "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing" that became known as the Negro National Anthem in cooperation with his brother, is born in Jacksonville, FL.
**A story of heroic accomplishments by James Johnson and his brother John.
I highly recommend this link:

**Turn on your speakers folks, and prepare to be inspired:

1917- Lena Horne, famous singer and movie star who refused to be cast in stereotypical Black roles, is born in Brooklyn, NY

1917- Poet Gwendolyn Brooks, Pulitzer Prize winner, is born in Topeka, KA. By the age of sixteen she had already published poetry and had been encouraged to continue with her poetry by writers James Weldon Johnson and Langston Hughes.

1972- Frank Wills, a Black security guard at the Watergate complex, discovers a break-in that will ultimately lead to the resignation of President Nixon. Wills later plays himself in a movie about the Watergate scandal, "All the President's Men".

1997- President Clinton appoints Dr. John Hope Franklin Chairman of the Commission on Race Relation, a 7-member panel to advise him about racial strife in the U.S. Dr. Franklin will also receive the "President's Medal of Honor."

2004- The first Internationally famous "Black Wall Street," alias Parrish Street, is recognized with a historic marker, dedicated to Durham, NC Black's unique business entrepreneurship and financial prosperity. This early 1900 4-block business development will inspire other communities like Tulsa's thriving Greenwood "Black Wall Street" district, prior to their 1921 race riot.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 17, 2007, 03:39 AM
"I'd rather see Hitler and Hirohito win than work beside a nigger on the assembly line."

 Whites resentful over working next to blacks caused many stoppages and slowdowns. Harold Zeck, a former Packard defense worker, recalls the time when a group of women engine workers tried to get the men on the assembly line to walk off the job to protest black female workers using the white restrooms. "They think their fannies are as good as ours," screamed one woman.

Wonder what this is about?
Wonder why riots happen?
Are Blacks to blame?
Can this happen during a time of war with Blacks dying on foreign soil for the freedoms ALL Americans are suppose to enjoy?

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on June 22, 2007, 05:34 PM
I remember those days well and asking the same question? What the heck is this all about? I never could understand it. People are people.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 24, 2007, 02:32 AM
The Greenwood Race Riots in Tulsa, Ok is another example of the murderous atrocites suffer by blacks that supposedly had their 'rights.'

There was a evolution of jealousy and tension that culminated in the 1921 buring of the Black Wall Street community known as Greenwood.
The police were complicit, the National Guard was complicit, the State was complicit,the city was complicit.

All the lawfull organizations that one was to turn to for redress for this atrocity was complicit. To date there has been no one charged or tired for the over 300 deaths (women and children were not spared), lootings and arson.

A full report on the Riot:

A most heart rending video:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on June 24, 2007, 11:27 AM
Thanks for bringing this to my attention and this was a good site to read about it and learn more.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 05, 2007, 09:12 PM
July 5th. A quiet day as far as main stream history is concerned, but this day held far more significance in slave history and the history of abolition.

July 4th was seen as an insult by the slaves and free blacks, as well as the abolitionsts. Blacks, free and slave alike, fought and died for the freedoms enjoyed and celebrated on July 4th, only to be denied the same rights and freedoms.
The promise of freedom was hollow, not even the hand picked "Black Bucks" who fought in Yorktown and helped defeat Cornwallis thereby giving birth to this nation, won any of the freedoms celebrated on July 4th.

July 4th was celebrated in quite a different way in the 19th century. It was very sacred, almost a religious service, so it is quite significant that the free blacks, slaves and abolitionsts didn't celebrate July 4th.
As a way of protest to the falsehoods and empty promises of July 4th, they would just ignore it, not even speaking of it until July 5th.

Research brings a few interesting stories about this little known way of protesting.
One such story brings us to one who is touted as the greatest orator for abolition in the 19th century, Frederick Douglas.
He lived half his life as a slave. At great risk he ran away and after a long and historic struggle finally won his freedom.
Fast forward to July 5th 1852, Rochester, NY. Frederick Douglas was asked to give a speech in recgonition of July 4th at Corinthian Hall. He struggled greatly over that request in light of the afore mention reasons, but not one to miss an opportunity to speak about freedom, he prepared to do so.
As it happened July 4th was on a Sunday that year and the city officials of Rochester moved the celebration to Monday July 5th.
Frederick Douglas did not waste the gift of this day, or the significance. He knew he was going to be speaking to the whole of America that day.

He had to capture the audience or risk loosing them from the start.
He stepped up to the podium, he had a habit of standing silent for a few moments before speaking, then he started to speak with the baritone voice of a master orator:

"Fellow citizens, pardon me, allow me to ask, why am I called upon to speak here today? What have I, or those I represent, to do with your national independence? Are the great principles of political freedom and of natural justice, embodied in that Declaration of Independence, extended to us? and am I, therefore, called upon to bring our humble offering to the national altar, and to confess the benefits and express devout gratitude for the blessings resulting from your independence to us? "...

The title of his speech was 'What To the American Slave is Your July 4th?'
Ohh what a speech it was. It has been called the greatest abolition speech of the 19th century.

The speech by Frederick Douglas:
 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2927t.html (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2927t.html)

 The Speech plus a bio of Frederick Douglas:
http://www.freemaninstitute.com/douglass.htm (http://www.freemaninstitute.com/douglass.htm)

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on July 06, 2007, 11:04 AM
Thanks for bringing this to our attention. I had not heard of the silent protest. Valuable information for the future.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 08, 2007, 11:54 PM
Thanks for keeping up with the posts and the feed back Witt
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 15, 2007, 06:36 PM
Black history events: July 15

1822 -  Public schools for Blacks open in Philadelphia, 1822

1864 - General A. J. Smith, with fourteen thousand men, including a brigade of African American troops, defeats Nathan B. Forrest at Harrisburg, near Tupelo, Mississippi.

1869 - A.J. Hayne, an African-American captain of the Arkansas militia, is assassinated.

1929 - Francis Bebey is born in Douala, Cameroon. He will become a self-taught master guitarist, composer, and sanza player.

1968 - Ellen Holly integrates daytime television when she appears on ABC's "One Life To Live" as Carla, an African American "passing" for white. The role is a marked departure for the New York City-born African American, whose first professional role was with Joseph Papp's New York Shakespeare Festival as the white Desdemona to William Marshall's Othello in 1958.  Holly had been a featured player in Papp's company and had played several Shakespearean roles, including Lady Macbeth opposite James Earl Jones in "Macbeth" and Princess Katherine opposite Robert Hooks in "Henry V," before being signed to the soap opera.

1970 - James McGhee is sworn in as the first African American mayor of Dayton, Ohio.

1980 - Benjamin Hooks addresses the GOP convention after a lobbying effort and threatens a walkout by 121 African American delegates. Hooks speaks before the convention despite leading candidate Ronald Reagan's refusal to appear at the NAACP convention earlier in the month.

(credit- The Munirah Chronicle)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Dryad on July 20, 2007, 02:37 AM
This is a fascinating read. Seems pretty important to make these things known
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 20, 2007, 10:16 AM
Welcome Dryad. I hope you visit often as new information is added regularly.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 05, 2007, 07:36 PM
Civil rights attorney Oliver Hill died today. He was deeply involved in the Brown v Board of Education in 1954. That case changed the course of segregation in the south.

Won in Prince Edward County, Va. in the court at Farmville,Va., the Brown v Board of Education called for an end to segregation, but rather than comply with the law the county and city of Farmville closed all the city schools, thereby denying education to all for almost two years.

All of Virginia watched as Prince Edward County and Farmville, Va. defied the court order. It was not until the Civil Rights act passed in 1964 that Va. stopped to rethink their actions. And still not until 1966 before the schools were actually intergrated, even though the public parks, pools, ect. remained closed to blacks for some time.

How do I know? I was there.

The news story about Oliver Hill. He was 100 years old:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Dryad on August 06, 2007, 04:23 AM
The only good thing here is that the truth finally won through. Segregation seems nonsensical these days which shows that progress is good for some things at least.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 28, 2007, 02:37 AM
James Robert, born a slave in 1753 with no record of his death, was a fighter in the Revolutionary Army owned by Francis De Shields, colonel and fought with Gen, George Washington in many battles including the battle of Yorktown, Va helping in defeating British Gen Cornwallis.

He also fought gallantly with Gen Jackson in the battle of New Orleans in the war of 1812.
After such loyalty and the sacrifice of blood, limb and nearly his life, what do you think his reward was?

Here is his story:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on August 28, 2007, 12:30 PM
Thanks for posting this story. Talk about a quotable quote: Freedom is better than slavery, if enjoyed but one hour.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 28, 2007, 06:08 PM
Amen Witt.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 10, 2007, 04:56 PM
How can one measure strength? 
If one has no power, not even the power over your own sex organs, how can one rebel?
What can one do to empower ones self, if only in some small measure?
If one is objectified as being anything from a beast of burden to a whore at the whim of another, what standard is fair to use in judging the morality of that hapless soul?
If you can even imagine living under such conditions, what do you think you could do to protect your children?

Enter now Harriet Ann Jacob, born into slavery 1813. She learned to read and write and documented her story. All of the questions above are addressed, and much more.
For example, how does one survive seven (7) years in the crawl space over a porch being able to see her children but not being able to even tell them you're there?
Is that strength?
What happened to put her in such dire straights?

Harriet Jacobs life's story is one of abject tragedy that is an example of many slave lives.

NPR audio:

Electronic Edition of Harriet Jacob's book, Incidents In The Life Of A Slave Girl:

Same book listed by chapter:

An interesting discussion by Margaret Washington Associate Professor of History
Cornell University about the physcosis of Harriet Jacobs and the institution of rape being used to control the slaves:

 Any one, or all the links will be an enlightening experience.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on September 10, 2007, 06:21 PM
Wow Earl...this was awesome! 

A perfect example of the saying: "desperate times call for desperate measures".   I admire her a great deal for taking control of what she was able to control.   None of us is qualified to judge her.   This is also a lesson for us in dealing with people even today.   
As another saying goes:
"walk a mile in my shoes"

Thank you Earl for sharing her story with us.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Dryad on September 12, 2007, 02:35 AM
I just feel angry at what she had to endure
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 14, 2007, 02:59 PM
I know what you're saying Dryad. When you read about the lives of the slaves it does get emotional, even more so for those of us in the black community.
Interestingly, when this topic comes up you will always have someone say things like 'slavery won't so bad', 'slaves were treated like family', the white folks did those spear chuckers a favor', 'the slaves loved their masters', and this is the worse ' the slavers treated the slaves with such benevolence and the slaves were grateful for their lives'.
They say these things to me, a black man, just as if they can't see who I am. It is insulting and infuriating.
I will deal with these statements and issues in real time through the writings of William Lloyd Garrison at a later time.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 14, 2007, 04:38 PM
Kara, my dear daughter, your statement, "  None of us are qualified to judge her", raises some interesting issues.

The fact is she was judged negatively in her day and black women are judged negatively today as a direct result of the way slave women were viewed.
For those that say black folks need to just get over slavery, I say you're just not aware of the stereotypes black women live with today as a direct result of the deliberate, calculated portrayal of black women (slaves) as sexual beast with no control and as caricatures of women with feelings maybe a little above that of a dog or cow, but certainly not more than just chattel, as opposed to the portrayal of the genteel white women of society.

Lets get this out of the way right now. The rap videos and this filthy hip hop culture plays right into the stereotype and I find it degrading and morally reprehensible and something the black community has to take responsiblility for, but here is my point, as despicable as this is, they are PLAYING INTO THE STEROTYPE,  they did not CREATE THE STEREOTYPE.

These stereotypes were created during slavery to justify the institutionalized rape of the slave women, the brutalization of the slave families, the destruction and outright rape of the sensorium of the slaves to condition them to be slaves.

Its influence is alive to this day.
I can remember growing up in the segregated south as a black youth, with the constant reminder from mothers, grandmothers, great-grandmothers, aunts, the old ladies of the community for us to 'remember our place' when we were around white people. They lived, and we kids lived, with the reality that we could be punished with impunity, all the way up to being lynched for the transgression of 'forgetting our place.'

Some of the stereotypes of black women originating with slavery:

1)Black women were portrayed as insatiable sexual beast who could not control their sexual desires and acted as sexual predators toward the men, white or black.
Contemplate that for a second. The black women were raped at will, regardless of age, or marital status, they were bred like cattle (and don't get me started on that one), but they were stereotyped as being promicuous wanting that to happen to them.

Black women today are judged by that same stereotype.

2)During slavery black women were portrayed as not caring about their children and families the same way as white women.
Contemplate that for a second too. Black women were bred with anyone the slave master choose. Uncle, brother, and/or many strangers, it made no difference to the slave master as all he was looking for was profit in selling the babies or increasing his chattel.
The children could be raped, sold, killed, whipped, put into any labor on the whim of the master, in spite of the heart rending cries of the black mothers. The slave women  had no control over their own bodies, much less their children, yet were stereotyped as not having the same measure of caring as the white women.

The same stereotype is used to judge black women today.

3)The slave women were used as labor in the fields the same as the men. The were beaten just like the men, starved and suffered any other atrocity the men did. They suffered that and still had to suffer rapes and breedings. In doing so they were considered not to be as genteel and feminine as the white women.

I harken you back to Sojourner Truth and her oratory " Ain't I a Women?"
She made that speech in answer to the accusation that women were too gentle to vote. Of course the men were speaking of the white women, but her speech made a stark contrast to the way black women were viewed as opposed to white women.
She went on the relate all the horrors she and the black women went through and
her question was "Ain't I a woman?"

Black women today suffer under the same 'not as gentle as white women' stereotype.

All these stereotypes of black women were by design, not accidental, not based in any truth about the actual makeup of blackwomen.  They were stripped of all vestiges of humanity and womanhood and then sterotyped as not having normal human traits or the capacity to be 'real' women.

Lest I be accused of just making this stuff up, I offer you a study by Hazel Carby of the Oxford University Press. She did a study on this very subject. She also shows how rape and the selling of children and the threat of separating families were used to control the  black men.
Certain personality traits were inculcated in the black slave women to control them and perpetuate the stereotypes.
And what better control and perpetuation than to inculcate these stereotypes into the the black women who, as mothers, would inculcate their children?

There are many studies to bear this out just google Reconstructing Womanhood.
For the sake of brevity and edification here is a review of Hazel Carbys paper by Sarah Whitney:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 26, 2007, 08:10 PM
I went to a white owned restaurant today. I couldn't get over how calm the white folks were acting. They weren't acting crazy or cursing across the tables. I'm just floored that white folks can behave in such a respectful manner. It was almost as if I was in a black restaurant.
I guess, finally, white people have learned to think for themselves.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on September 27, 2007, 02:45 PM
It occurs to me...that perhaps those people said/say those things (about black women)  because it is just too painful to admit that they themselves were no better than dogs to perform such atrocities.  Maybe it is their way of "explaining it away".   And just maybe that is why such thoughts about black women continue today.  How difficult is it to look back and see what white people DID to black people in the days of slavery...so if we excuse it and blame it on them in some way, maybe it is easier to accept?

I am hoping and praying that somehow this can change, and maybe IS changing.   As a nurse, I see it all as a huge infection.  If we keep it closed, it festers and will never heal.   We need to open it up, see it in all its ugliness, and then take steps to heal what we can.  It will NEVER be okay.   That bleak time in our history is forever engraved on us.  The only thing we can do, is move forward and teach our children (black & white) about the worth of ALL human beings.

Thank you Earl for raising awareness and for the courage to open up this infection and show it in all its ugliness.

And your illustration of the "white restaurant" was both humorous and sad.  I am thinking maybe you changed the words just a bit.  From black to white?   To test our sensibilities?   It is obvious with it written that way, how demeaning and patronizing such a statement is.     

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Dryad on September 27, 2007, 10:48 PM
The stuff about black women. It is shameful and it needs to be named. It's influences need to be weeded out of modern culture.

The whole "women being gentle" was always a double edged sword. As you have clearly exemplified there were always "exceptions" and the "gentleness" (purported) of certain types of women was used as an excuse to mistreat any woman who could in any way be left out of that. Sojourner Truth's eloquent speech still echoes into today. There are so many points she is making all in one - about being black, about being female, about stop making generalisations and look at the real world.

Ultimately I think they allowed themselves to believe black people (and especially black women) were so inferior because it was economically viable to believe it. That way they could have a "product" with all the intelligence and versatility of a human being but none of the rights of a human. It is so illogical not to see that black people were created by God with every dignity that any human has but they went with illogical because there was so much financial gain in believing that.

It makes me sick. It must make you even more sick being black yourself. As for white people behaving in public. That's an interesting one. A whole heap of aboriginal people (australia) were kicked out of the parklands because the rich guests in the hilton didn't like looking at them and supposedly they were drunk a lot ie because they were poor and black. Meanwhile town is full of arrogant, annoying white young men who are drunk (some of whom stay at the hilton) and who are a risk (might rape someone). Frankly I felt safer with the supposed winos.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 28, 2007, 09:50 AM
 "Ultimately I think they allowed themselves to believe black people (and especially black women) were so inferior because it was economically viable to believe it. That way they could have a "product" with all the intelligence and versatility of a human being but none of the rights of a human. "

Dryad, I have never heard it better expressed than that.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 28, 2007, 09:57 AM
Elise, demeaning and patronizing?? How dare you point that out!! You must be one of those leftist liberals out to smear me. Look, I've got a large following. You'll note over 5,000 people have read what I have to say. Can you say you have 5,000 readers? Besides, you didn't see what you thought I wrote. The only thing you need to see is what I tell you I wrote. And it has to be true because I said so.

Can anybody tell me what just happened to Elise?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on September 28, 2007, 08:39 PM
What happened is the application of willful dismissal to the benefit of the truth bender. What happened is the reversal of valid points based on one's perception of a chosen following that you appointed yourself the spokesperson over ADDITIONALLY making the 'following' partners in the crime of truth bending and dismissal. What happened is the typical response of the person that does not want to discuss relevancy or facts or perhaps can't discuss relevancy for to do so would constitute a change in the position that a person does not (willfully) want to make. What happened is what happens constantly in discussions with Limbaugh types that pronounce truth rather speak the truth.

Hi Earl and Elise. Shame on you for picking on Elise  :tongue . But I'm sure that as the intelligent person she has shown herself to be, she will grasp the point of your exercise. Perhaps an additional question should be what should others do when observing what just happened to Elise.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Sampo on October 01, 2007, 08:36 PM
Can you believe this site? --


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 01, 2007, 08:55 PM
Thanks for posting that link Sampo, but I have to confess it doesn't surprise me at all.
Anybody still want to know why there are allot of angry black people?
Anydody still think black folks should just 'get over slavery'?
Any question as to why I'm so adamant about keeping black history in the mainstream?

Read Sampo's link.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 01, 2007, 08:58 PM
COMING SOON.....An explanation to those that think I have lost my mind.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 04, 2007, 08:38 PM
No folks I haven't lost my mind. One would think so with the outrageous stupidity of my statement and the unwarranted ignorant attack on Elise.

What happened to Elise was what happens to black folks every day. It was racism plain and simple.

Two things I need to clear up.
1) Elise has no idea why this happened. She is reading my explanation for the first time same as everyone else.
I did email her to tell her I attacked her, but never said why. At the end of this explanation I'll share something of interest on the part of Elise and her nonresponse.

2) I did not make up this scenario. Every word of it is true in all its blatant ignorance, with the exception of the change of one word, BLACK to WHITE.

After Cappy asked the question 'what should others be doing while observing what happened to Elise', I put off this explanation to see just would happen.
I should have been called to task, vigorously.

This whole thing has every hallmark of what the racist does and how the racist reacts to be called out.

1st- The racist says somehing so ignorant somebody has to say something.

2nd- The racist is so caught up in his own hate and stupidity, he won't see past it to the point of recognizing it.

3rd- The racist validates his own ignorance by more of his own ignorance.
Cappy made that point when he pointed out how such 'truth benders' declare their pronunciations as truth, rather than tell the truth or listen to the truth.

4th- The racist puts up a defence by declaring he has a following that's greater than what he perceives others to have.
I can't even explain the ignorance of that other than to repeat Cappy's statement:
" What happened is the reversal of valid points based on ones perception of a chosen following that you appointed yourself the spokesperson over ADDITIONALLY making the 'following' partners in the crime of truth bending and dismissal. What happened is the typical response of the person that does not want to discuss relevancy or facts or perhaps can't discuss relevancy for to do so would constitute a change in the position that a person does not (willfully) want to make."

5th- Ever notice when you call out the racist for what he is, especially those that have a public platform, the first thing they do is accuse you of being a liberal trying to smear them? Never do they stop to concider what they said, they just stupidly attack those that report on what they said.

These things were done and said by Bill O'reilly, he has a pattern of saying these kinds of stupid things. His lack of exposure to the truth about black people is absolutely mind boggling.
His defense is black folks are too stupid to understand what he is saying. Remember when I told Elise she couldn't understand what I wrote and all she needed to see or hear is what I tell her? That's the O'Reilly (racist) defense.
Bill Bennet did the same thing when he said if you want to stop crime in America, just abort all the black babies. When black folks railed against that, they were attacked by the Limbaugh, O'reilly types as being too stupid to understand what was said.
They claim an audience validates what they say. O'reilly actually made that defense for his ignorance by saying he had more followers than Media Matters or Move on org.
Let me see if I have this right. It doesn't matter to O'reilly how dumb the things are he says, because he has an audience. If you can figure that out let me in on it.

This racist has his head so far up his nether regions and surrounds himself with the intoxicants of his own self serving crap, to the point that he suffers from (what I call) optical-rectalitis. He sees nothing, smells nothing, spews nothing but his own crap, but presents it as truth.

Black people are subjected daily to the word games played by the racists of this country. We are undervalued, underestimated and marginalised by people like O'reilly, Hannity, Borse, Limbaugh and those of that ilk. Yet we are taken to task because we stand up and call them out on their racism.

I hope all of you read the link Sampo put up. These are the good christian conservative republicans that the afore mentioned crowd believes in.
By the way, that's not my description of what they called themselves. It's their own words.


One last thing.
I need to thank Elise for her action, or non-action as the case may be. She demonstrated a valuable lesson in the way black people in this country handle racism on a daily basis.
How so?
I call your attention to one of the most prevalent defenses the racist uses when they are called out for their ignorance. They say black folks are thin skinned and just complain about everything. In other words, black folks are just supposed to accept whatever is said or done to them and sit down and shut up. They have no business or right to question the racist comments and actions of these fools.
What has that got to do with Elise?
She was attacked out of nowhere. It was unwarranted, underserved, stupid, and the only worse thing was the stupidity of the defense made as to why she was attacked, yet she chose not to respond.
Now if she had responded, would she have been called thin skinned?

In like manner black folks are attacked by racists all the time. You can bet that if they responded to all the stupid stuff people say, that's all they would be doing. So the next time you hear of black folks being thin skinned because they've responded to some outrageous nonsense, think about all the stuff they've ignored up to that point.
That is the lesson from Elise.  I'm glad she was able to demonstrate the restraint black people have to practice regularly.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on October 05, 2007, 06:28 PM
Friend that was a very interesting exercise.

I have noticed something about this thread. First let no one think I'm casting a large net and making a value judgement about people on this thread. That indeed is not the case. But here is what I've observed.

When history is posted; some little or never known fact that has impacted our entire society, by black people, the "Io's" and "ahhhh's" flow freely. That is not a bad thing in fact it reveals a deep appreciation, as has been expressed, for the enlightenment and jewels of history. But when it comes to deeper things concerning the instruction, sharing of, or however some may want to hear it, what racism is and how it comes about, then things grow eerily silent.

Racism is as sensitive as it is controversial. Racism is cultural as well. Now, I don't mean necessarily that people are racist by culture, tho that can be the case, I'm speaking of the lack of understanding or acceptance of other cultures based on the personal perception that ones culture is the only way things should be. Add that attitude to the person who is in a power position and lack of cultural acceptance transitions into perceptive racism by the affected person while the person in power goes blissfully on truly thinking that he/she is innocent of any contributory offerings to the problem at hand. Just simply well that 'person' is just too sensitive.

Add this thought which, admittedly, will take some digestion, to the deep discussions you had above and I think that I can come to some conclusions about that silence. First let me say that I don't perceive the silence as a lack of caring about the subject, rather a lack of knowledge about the subject. Subsequently people have to stop, reflect deeply, compare and otherwise search their mental files to see if they can understand and comprehend the menagerie of emotions stirred and crank up the mental horsepower it takes to grasp new concepts of thought from vastly different eyes and perspectives.

Allow me to give an example. Some amount of years ago I was talking to a very high ranking person in my organization that had completed a prestigious white-paper for a very prestigious school on discrimination. He offered it to me for review. I found several errors right off that were hidden due to culture not deliberate dismissal and pointed them out to him. Remember now this was a high level work with documented research. The problem is that it carried forward erroneous thinking only to be reproduced as fundamentally correct in another venue. The main issue was that there was no distinction between discrimination (an unlawfully activity) and racism (an immoral attitude that is actually more pervasive than discrimination). That is a story for another time. Anyway at the conclusion of our discussion he said "I can't talk to you about this." Initially I took this statement in a very negative light. However what he meant was that my personal experience of growing up in the culture of racism (remember it did not become discrimination until the 1964 Civil Rights Act made illegal many of the common cultural activities that were accepted and sanctioned by society at large) and then the turbulent 60's and 70's when society was faced with a forced change that was violently resisted by the power structure. He was saying that he could not discuss the subject on the level that I was bringing it not for a lack of want but for a lack of knowledge; a lack of having experienced, seen acknowledged that such things existed. That my life represented a whole new arena that his research did not and possibly could not, with the references he used, bring to light.

With all of that said I can reasonably conclude that the depth at which we have carried the subject perhaps has reached an uncomfortable level but equally may have revealed to others that they can learn from the discussion but for a lack of specific experiences may not be able to contribute to the discussion.

However what we all can do is recognize the continued racism that is displayed in word and deed from the aforementioned talk show and radio personality half-heads that spew such poison and then throw their hands up in the air like a two year old when confronted saying "wha. . . !! 'Wha. .� did I do?"

Truth maintains its own virtue. Pronouncement of truth when it in fact is deliberate spin to become what like minded people want to hear is yet another thing all together. It has no honor or virtue yet is cast upon the daily waters of the average black person to tread. As we 'buddy breathe' may this type of discussion bring others into the circle of understanding and share the purity of harmony.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on October 27, 2007, 11:33 AM
October 27, 1954 - Benjamin O. Davis Jr. becomes first African American general in U.S. Air Force.


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 12, 2007, 08:17 PM
Hello to everyone, and my apologies to ANYONE who thought my lengthy departure from the boards had anything to do with Earl's brilliant exercise!   It certainly did not!  I thought it was a great way to illustrate his point.   

Hats off to you Earl, for sharing your passion with us on the subject of racial inequality.  I always enjoy your illustrations.  Also, thanks to Sampo, Cappy and Witt for their input here too.  I love following links that are posted by fellow SPLASHERS.

Keep up the good work ...(someone has to so slackers like me can have something to do when we meander in here after such a long abscence!)

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Rach on November 13, 2007, 12:18 AM
It is great to see you here again, elise.  Welcome back.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 28, 2007, 06:17 PM
Thank you dear daughter for your participation in said excersise.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 28, 2007, 06:18 PM
Witt, I noticed your love of music and it seems we share a kinship in our love of old school and blues music. I ran across this site and I know you are going to love it. The historical wealth of this site is without comparison.
It's called TRAIL OF THE HELLHOUND. That by it self made me pay attention. The site breaks down the evolution of Blues music and the players by name, by site, by the particular school/style of the players. It's loaded with links to pictures and each article has links that will lead you to places and explanations of unfamiliar terms. The 'names' link will take you on a journey into the lives of several known and unknown artists with audio and some audio interviews.
Turn your speakers up load folks, blues is not to be listened to quietly.

To whet your appetite:
Booker T. Washington White was named Bukka White by a white record producer who had never heard of his famous names sake, Booker T. Washington.
Big Bill Broonzy along with Bukka White and many of the blues singers of that time used their music to sing about racism and the Jim Crow laws.

 Prepare to journey back into a time of pre-bling when music was raw, real and laid the basics for just about all musicians of our day. A time that helped move the world forward in black history.

http://www.nps.gov/history/delta/blues/people/people.htm (http://www.nps.gov/history/delta/blues/people/people.htm)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 28, 2007, 11:13 PM
Some fascinating history there Friend...makes me want to start downloading their songs!    :sunny
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 02, 2007, 02:30 AM
Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861)

Mrs. Flint, like many southern women, was totally deficient in energy. She had not strength to superintend her household affairs; but her nerves were so strong, that she could sit in her easy chair and see a woman whipped, till the blood trickled from every stroke of the lash. She was a member of the church; but partaking of the Lord's supper did not seem to put her in a Christian frame of mind. If dinner was not served at the exact time on that particular Sunday, she would station herself in the kitchen, and wait till it was dished, and then spit in all the kettles and pans that had been used for cooking. She did this to prevent the cook and her children from eking out their meager fare with the remains of the gravy and other scrapings. The slaves could get nothing to eat except what she chose to give them. Provisions were weighed out by the pound and ounce, three times a day. I can assure you she gave them no chance to eat wheat bread from her flour barrel. She knew how many biscuits a quart of flour would make, and exactly what size they ought to be.

Dr. Flint was an epicure. The cook never sent a dinner to his table without fear and trembling; for if there happened to be a dish not to his liking, he would either order her to be whipped, or compel her to eat every mouthful of it in his presence. The poor, hungry creature might not have objected to eating it; but she did object to having her master cram it down her throat till she choked.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 02, 2007, 02:36 AM
Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861)

A clergyman who goes to the south, for the first time, has usually some feeling, however vague, that slavery is wrong. The slaveholder suspects this, and plays his game accordingly. He makes himself as agreeable as possible; talks on theology, and other kindred topics. The southerner invites him to talk with these slaves. He asks them if they want to be free, and they say, "O, no, massa." This is sufficient to satisfy him. He comes home to publish a "South-Side View of Slavery," and to complain of the exaggerations of abolitionists. He assures people that he has been to the south, and seen slavery for himself; that it is a beautiful "patriarchal institution;" that the slaves don't want their freedom; that they have hallelujah meetings, and other religious privileges.

What does he know of the half-starved wretches toiling from dawn till dark on the plantations? of mothers shrieking for their children, torn from their arms by slave traders? of young girls dragged down into moral filth? of pools of blood around the whipping post? of hounds trained to tear human flesh? of men screwed into cotton gins to die? The slaveholder showed him none of these things, and the slaves dared not tell of them if he had asked them.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 02, 2007, 02:53 AM
Elizabeth Keckley, Thirty Years a Slave (1868)

When I was about seven years old I witnessed, for the first time, the sale of a human being. We were living at Prince Edward, in Virginia, and master had just purchased his hogs for the winter, for which he was unable to pay in full. To escape from his embarrassment it was necessary to sell one of the slaves. Little Joe, the son of the cook, was selected as the victim. His mother was ordered to dress him up in his Sunday clothes, and send him to the house. He came in with a bright face, was placed in the scales, and was sold, like the hogs, at so much per pound. His mother was kept in ignorance of the transaction, but her suspicions were aroused. When her son started for Petersburgh in the wagon, the truth began to dawn upon her mind, and she pleaded piteously that her boy should not be taken from her; but master quieted her by telling her that he was simply going to town with the wagon, and would be back in the morning.

Morning came, but little Joe did not return to his mother. Morning after morning passed, and the mother went down to the grave without ever seeing her child again. ONE DAY SHE WAS WHIPPED FOR GRIEVING FOR HER LOST BOY. Colonel Burwell never liked to see one of his slaves wear a sorrowful face, and those who offended in this particular way were always punished. Alas! the sunny face of the slave is not always an indication of sunshine in the heart. Colonel Burwell at one time owned about seventy slaves, all of which were sold, and in a majority of instances wives were separated from husbands and children from their parents.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 02, 2007, 04:05 AM
Very very difficult stuff to read.   What a nightmare that was.  Whether in Dachau or southern plantations, horror is still horror.  The things that man can do to man...very tough to read those things.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on December 03, 2007, 10:00 PM
I agree elise, this is very difficult to read.  The fact that this is difficult to read, might be why a lot of people find it difficult to comment within this thread.  For my own part, I think it is important to comment, if only to keep the volume turned up a little.  And, of course, to acknowledge Earl, by telling him how much I appreciate his sharing.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 04, 2007, 01:13 AM
Oh I agree totally Allen.  It is stuff that is important to know, no matter how tough it is to read.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 05, 2007, 11:50 AM
I do appreciate the acknowledgement Allen and Elise.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 06, 2007, 08:06 PM
You know Allen, you and Elise made an observation that prompts me to restate my purpose with this topic. I know these things are hard to read, allot of things in history are hard to read as Elise has so eloquently said before, but you know why I feel this is more difficult than allot of history?

With Black history, most times , people are reading what happened for the first time right here in this topic. As difficult as allot of histroy is at least it's mainstreamed so that we grow up knowing it. Allot of culture shock goes with the first timers that could have been avoided if Black History was mainstreamed as it should have been all along, yet even today Black history is still hidden and relegated to a cursory one month in school.

I have a love for history and often plan my vacations around historical places, but mypassion is for Black history. My av is a symbol of that passion. It's a  pictureof Nelson Mandela's prison cell.

My purpose is just to enlighten. I know it produces a certain amount of controversy and discomfort, but that's what this history is. I would like it to provoke more open conversation on race relations and that is most difficult.
For example awhile back I tried to explain to a person how certain things are heard in the black community as a result of our life's experience and all hell broke loose. All I was trying to do was to explain that all thoughts don't come with  just a 'white' understanding and we need to take lessons from all races as to how they feel about things in their own right.

Allot of controversy comes from people trying to make black history irrelevant (the get over it syndrome) which just infuriates me, because that says that black folks are so unimportant that one can dismiss the atrocities committed on them as if it never happened.

I would love to have more people comment in this topic. I really, really appreciate the regulars, Witt, Elise and Cappy (he packs a wallop on occasion) and all the others that have stopped by.

Though this topic has few participants it does have allot of readers, which of course is the mainstay of any information source. For that I'm thankful.
I welcome all to have a open discussion on black issues. The only thing I ask is that we have a honest discussion designed to produce thought and not just for the sake of arguing.
I don't shy away from controversy. If that's what's keeping some from participating, the difficult questions and issues are welcomed.
Ole RG made me put on my thinking cap more than once. In fact I need to acknowledge it was RG that prompted me to start this topic and keep it going. Thanks Bro.

I'm off 'da' soap box now. Thanks Allen and my dear daughter.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 15, 2007, 05:02 AM
Music- An artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner.

I thought I understood the meaning of music, but find I am sorely lacking in what music truly is, was, or could be to different people. There's a plethora of stories of how music was used by the slaves and against the slaves as well. I thought it would be educational to share some of theses stories.
There will be examples of songs we are familiar with today, but had entire different meanings in slavery times. Examples of music being used to teach about freedom and at the same time condition the slave to keep being a slave. Examples of coded music, even examples of how music was used as a form of protest all the way through the modern day civil rights movement.

Lets start with a account told by William Henry 'Box' Brown about a slave who loved to sing:

William Box Brown, Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown (1851)

The name of our new overseer was John F. Allen, he was a thoroughgoing villain in all his modes of doing business; he was a savage looking sort of man; always apparently ready for any work of barbarity or cruelty to which the most depraved despot might call him. As a specimen of Allen's cruelty I will mention the revolting case of a coloured man, who was frequently in the habit of singing. This man was taken sick, and although he had not made his appearance at the factory for two or three days, no notice was taken of him; no medicine was provided nor was there any physician employed to heal him. At the end of that time Allen ordered three men to go to the house of the invalid and fetch him to the factory; and of course, in a little while the sick man appeared; so feeble was he however from disease, that he was scarcely able to stand. Allen, notwithstanding, desired him to be stripped and his hands tied behind him; he was then tied to a large post and questioned about his singing; Allen told him that his singing consumed too much time, and that it hurt him very much, but that he was going to give him some medicine that would cure him; the poor trembling man made no reply and immediately the pious overseer Allen, for no other crime than sickness, inflicted two-hundred lashes upon his bare back.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 18, 2007, 10:14 PM
Note worthy history for today:

On Dec. 18, 1865, slavery ended in the United States as the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was declared in effect.

It took another 100 years to end segregation.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 19, 2007, 06:05 PM
One of the main ways to preserve any culture is to keep and practice its music and language. By the same token a culture is destroyed by the destruction of its music and language as witnessed by forbidding the Native Indian children from using or learning their language and music when they were taken from their families and forced into government schools.

In like manner the slaves were forbidden from using their language, their instruments and cultural music. Any slave found doing so could be flogged or killed.
The possesion or use of the drum by a slave was of particular concern to the slave master as they thought it was used to send signals.

The slaves either met in secret for 'jubilees' or sang and used the instruments granted by the slave masters. We will discuss some of the field songs at a later time.

Here's a couple testimonies from the slaves on this issue:

Solomon Northup, Twelve Years a Slave (1847)

If it had not been for my beloved violin, I scarcely can conceive how I could have endured the long years of bondage. It was my companion - the friend of my bosom - triumphing loudly when I was joyful, and uttering its soft melodious consolations when I was sad.

Jeanette Murphy, The Survival of African Music in America (1899)

During my childhood my observations were centered upon a few very old negroes who came directly from Africa, and upon many others whose parents were African born, and I early came to the conclusion, based upon negro authority, that the greater part of the music, their methods, their scale, their type of thought, their dancing, their patting of feet, their clapping of hands, their grimaces and pantomime, and their gross superstitions came straight from Africa.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on December 24, 2007, 10:09 PM
This is such an educational thread that I often wonder of I should be here. You guys are so far ahead  and I would not where to start to try to keep up with you guys.

I have seen posts that I have commented on. I have a familiarity with a lot of what is spoken about. In fact one the prior post had the sale of a young slave child in Prince Edward County I think it was. That is only a few miles from where I was raised in the south. Right in the neighboring county of my hometown slaves were taxed as chattel for the owner right up until 1868. Saw the tax receipts with my very own eyes. This is slave history territory if for no other reason than we are on the river. One must remember that the first travel in the country when people stated to expand beyond Jamestown was by water. Any town then that was born by the river historically had slavery involved to some degree.

I find it fascinating to read about all of the black history that has been concealed for eons and still denied by some even after it is revealed.  :poet I too have been in situations were people define themselves by their past yet tell me I have to forget mine. I was in a diversity class some years ago. There was this lady (white) that described her life experience during the race riots in Detroit in the sixties. She said that as a result of that she could never trust black people. That was ok and understood by the people there I told them about my childhood, not simply one terrifying experience, a lifetime. Though some understood the sympathy and understanding went to the woman's fears without much realization of what transformations I had to go through just to be able to stand there and represent myself as a man. Something more important than I was taught at an early age. . . being less important than the family pet of some households.

Well I’ll be around and hopefully can contribute on the occasion  to such a wonderful thread.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 26, 2007, 06:24 PM
Christmas time for the slave is an interesting study. Even this time of year which all the good christian slave holders held to be so sacred, was used to keep the slave in a slave mentality.
It was a complicated affair for the slave holder and slave alike.
The slave was given a few days off to visit family and get away from the sun to sun labor, with its hunger, whippings and rapes, but the masters had to devise ways to make sure an 'idle' slave didn't turn into a thinking slave.

It's interesting how the few days off because of Christmas was used as bait, something to look forward to if you will, to make the slave work harder through the year. The slave also worked harder in hopes of not being sold or seeing their family sold off this time of year. Winter was often the time to settle debts and the slave, as property, had value. The holiday was also a time of great revelry among some of the masters or family members, drinking bouts and gambling were common and the slave could simply be gambled away.

What better way to see what Chrismas meant to the slave than through the eyes and words of a slave.

Life of Josiah Henson:
About Christmas, my master would give four or five days' holiday to his slaves; during which time, he supplied them plentifully with new whiskey, which kept them in a continual state of the most beastly intoxication. He often absolutely forced them to drink more, when they had told him they had had enough. He would then call them together, and say, "Now, you slaves, don't you see what bad use you have been making of your liberty?

***This gives a clue about how the masters used the holidays to control the slave. He supplied the whiskey to the slave. The slave is now enslaved to the whiskey and the master makes the argument of why they don't deserve more free time because of the bad use that make of it.

Jacob Stroyer(slave):
Both masters and slaves regarded Christmas as a great day. When the slaveholders made a large crop they were pleased, and gave the slaves from five to six days, which was much enjoyed by the Negroes, especially by those who could dance. Christmas morning was held sacred both by master and slave, but in the afternoon or in a part of the next day the slaves were required to devote themselves to the pleasure of their masters. Some of the masters would buy presents for the slaves, such as hats and tobacco for the men, handkerchiefs and little things for the women, these things were given after they had been pleased with them, after either dancing or something for their amusement.
When the slaves came up to their master and mistress the latter would welcome them, the men would take off their hats and bow and the women would make a low courtesy. There would be two or three large pails filled with sweetened water with a gallon or two of whiskey in each, this was dealt out to them until they were partly drunk.

***The slaves were still used for the master's pleasure on Christmas and notice again the use of whiskey.

Frederick Douglas gives a most stirring and detailed accounting of what Christmas was to the slave.

Frederick Douglas:
But to the holidays. Judging from my own observation and experience, I believe those holidays were among the most effective means in the hands of slaveholders of keeping down the spirit of insurrection among the slaves.

To enslave men successfully and safely it is necessary to keep their minds occupied with thoughts and aspirations short of the liberty of which they are deprived. A certain degree of attainable good must be kept before them. These holidays served the purpose of keeping the minds of the slaves occupied with prospective pleasure within the limits of slavery. The young man could go wooing, the married man to see his wife, the father and mother to see their children.

The holidays were pleasures of memory, and they served to keep out thoughts and wishes of a more dangerous character, freedom.
These holidays were also used as conductors or safety-valves, to carry off the explosive elements inseparable from the human mind when reduced to the condition of slavery. But for these the rigors of bondage would have become too severe for endurance, and the slave would have been forced to a dangerous desperation.

Thus they became a part and parcel of the gross wrongs and inhumanity of slavery. Ostensibly they were institutions of benevolence designed to mitigate the rigors of slave life, but practically they were a fraud instituted by human selfishness, the better to secure the ends of injustice and oppression. Not the slave's happiness but the master's safety, was the end sought. It was not from a generous unconcern for the slave's labor, but from a prudent regard for the slave system. I am strengthened in this opinion from the fact that most slaveholders liked to have their slaves spend the holidays in such manner as to be of no real benefit to them. Everything like rational enjoyment was frowned upon, and only those wild and low sports peculiar to semi-civilized people were encouraged. The license allowed appeared to have no other object than to disgust the slaves with their temporary freedom, and to make them as glad to return to their work as they had been to leave it.

*** Note, again, the use of whiskey.

I have known slaveholders resort to cunning tricks, with a view of getting their slaves deplorably drunk. The usual plan was to make bets on a slave that he could drink more whiskey than any other, and so induce a rivalry among them for the mastery in this degradation. The scenes brought about in this way were often scandalous and loathsome in the extreme.
Whole multitudes might be found stretched out in brutal drunkenness, at once helpless and disgusting. Thus, when the slave asked for hours of "virtuous liberty," his cunning master took advantage of his ignorance and cheered him with a dose of vicious and revolting dissipation artfully labeled with the name of "liberty."

We were induced to drink, I among the rest, and when the holidays were over we all staggered up from our filth and wallowing, took a long breath, and went away to our various fields of work, feeling, upon the whole, rather glad to go from that which our masters had artfully deceived us into the belief was freedom, back again to the arms of slavery. It was not what we had taken it to be, nor what it would have been, had it not been abused by us. It was about as well to be a slave to master, as to be a slave to whiskey and rum. When the slave was drunk the slaveholder had no fear that he would plan an insurrection, or that he would escape to the North. It was the sober, thoughtful slave who was dangerous and needed the vigilance of his master to keep him a slave.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 26, 2007, 06:34 PM
Earlier there was a discussion on Harriet Jacobs and her struggles as a slave. We learned about her being in hiding for seven years in the crawl space over the porch of her uncle's house. Not even her children could know she was there. Harriet recounted how she could see here children through a small crack in the wood, but couldn't talk to them, touch them, nothing.

Here is her story of her first Chrismas hiding in that crawl space.

Harriet Jacobs hiding in an attic above a porch for 7 years. Her account of the first Christmas there:

Christmas was approaching. Grandmother brought me materials, and I busied myself making some new garments and little playthings for my children. Were it not that hiring day is near at hand, and many families are fearfully looking forward to the probability of separation in a few days, Christmas might be a happy season for the poor slaves. Even slave mothers try to gladden the hearts of their little ones on that occasion.
Benny and Ellen had their Christmas stockings filled. Their imprisoned mother could not have the privilege of witnessing their surprise and joy. But I had the pleasure of peeping at them as they went into the street with their new suits on. I heard Benny ask a little playmate whether Santa Claus brought him any thing. "Yes," replied the boy; "but Santa Claus ain't a real man. It's the children's mothers that put things into the stockings." "No, that can't be," replied Benny, "for Santa Claus brought Ellen and me these new clothes, and my mother has been gone this long time."
How I longed to tell him that his mother made those garments, and that many a tear fell on them while she worked!

On this occasion, I was warned to keep extremely quiet, because two guests had been invited. One was the town constable, and the other was a free colored man, who tried to pass himself off for white, and who was always ready to do any mean work for the sake of currying favor with white people. My grandmother had a motive for inviting them. She managed to take them all over the house. All the rooms on the lower floor were thrown open for them to pass in and out; and after dinner, they were invited up stairs to look at a fine mocking bird my uncle had just brought home. There, too, the rooms were all thrown open that they might look in. When I heard them talking on the piazza, my heart almost stood still. I knew this colored man had spent many nights hunting for me. Every body knew he had the blood of a slave father in his veins; but for the sake of passing himself off for white, he was ready to kiss the slaveholders' feet. How I despised him! As for the constable, he wore no false colors. The duties of his office were despicable, but he was superior to his companion, inasmuch as he did not pretend to be what he was not. Any white man, who could raise money enough to buy a slave, would have considered himself degraded by being a constable; but the office enabled its possessor to exercise authority. If he found any slave out after nine o'clock, he could whip him as much as he liked; and that was a privilege to be coveted. When the guests were ready to depart, my grandmother gave each of them some of her nice pudding, as a present for their wives. Through my peep-hole I saw them go out of the gate, and I was glad when it closed after them.
So passed the first Christmas in my den.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Burk28 on December 26, 2007, 07:42 PM
Penn, Robert (African American)Medal of honor recipient

Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 October 1872, City Point, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 501, 14 December 1898.

Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iowa off Santiago de Cuba, 20 July 1898. Performing his duty at the risk of serious scalding at the time of the blowing out of the manhole gasket on board the vessel, Penn haulted the fire while standing on a board thrown across a coal bucket 1 foot above the boiling water which was still blowing from the boiler.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 26, 2007, 08:10 PM
Thanks  Burk28 and welcome to the thread. What an interesting addition. I have never heard of Robert Penn.
You peaked my interest so I found this link. It contains some images of Robert Penn and a few more details.


I hope to see more of you Burk.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Burk28 on December 26, 2007, 08:37 PM
Thanks  Burk28 and welcome to the thread. What an interesting addition. I have never heard of Robert Penn.
You peaked my interest so I found this link. It contains some images of Robert Penn and a few more details.


I hope to see more of you Burk.

Thanks friend, my grandfather was stationed aboard this ship during world war one, during my research on the ship i found this information, it would n=be interesting to know who the first african american medal recipient was... might you know???
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 28, 2007, 06:46 AM
Here's the answer to your question Burk.
As usual with Black History it comes with an interesting twist.

Born a slave Feb 29 1840 in Norfolk, Va. (about 190 miles from my home) was William Carney. His mother belonged to Major Carney, thus his last name. There were no programs to teach slaves to read or write, but William learned by attending a secret school and he determined he wanted to be a minister. Upon the death of Major Carney, William was emancipated and they moved to Bedford, Mass. William set about preparing for his ministry when the call came in 1862 for blacks to join the Union army. William put aside his plans and joined after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation went into effect Jan 1863.

Fast forward to Fort Wagner, South Carolina July 18 1863. He is now 23 year old Sergeant William Carney and he, with 600 other Blacks of the 54th Mass Colored Troops, found himself lying in the sand about to prove the worth and courage of all Colored Troops by leading the assult across open ground on heavily defended Fort Wagner.

They were for the most part untested, having been denied combat because of prejudice, but they realized the weight they bore for the whole of blacks serving in the Union army. Union General� Ullman later said of the men in the all black units, "They are far more earnest than we...They know the deep stake they have in the issue."

Evening came... the order was given... the 54th charged across open sand. Musket fire, cannon fire, shot and shell cut men down by the dozen. Sergeant John Wall bore the Regimental 'colors', when he was hit by a rifle ball, Sergeant William Carney hoisted the colors before the 'colors' hit the ground. Sgt. Carney was shot in the leg, but led the charge and gaining entry into Fort Wagner planted the flag not realizing he was alone. All of his unit was dead or wounded.
Oh! what a battle it was, but it was far from over for Sgt. Carney.

Have I whetted your appetite? Finish the glorious story here:
http://www.homeofheroes.com/hallofheroes/1st_floor/flag/1bfa_hist5carney.html (http://www.homeofheroes.com/hallofheroes/1st_floor/flag/1bfa_hist5carney.html)

Sgt. William Carney was the first 'Colored Trooper' to merit the Medal of Honor for his actions at Fort Wagner July 18 1863.

Now the twist.

Black soldiers and their heroic deeds often went totally unrecognized, or ignored for many years. Sgt. Carney's action on July 18 1863 made him the first Black American to merit the Medal of Honor, but it was over 20 years on May 23 1900 before he actually received his medal.

Enter now Robert Blake born a slave in Virginia. He escaped from bondage and was Contraband USN on board the U.S. Steam Gunboat Marblehead off Legareville, Stono River, 25 December 1863, in an engagement with the enemy on John's Island.
Serving the rifle gun, Blake, an escaped slave, carried out his duties bravely throughout the engagement which resulted in the enemy's abandonment of positions, leaving a caisson and one gun behind. For his action Blake was awarded the Medal of Honor April 16 1864.

His story:

http://www.celebritygenius.com/Robert-Blake/biography.html?title=Robert_Blake_(Medal_of_Honor_recipien t)#Biography (http://www.celebritygenius.com/Robert-Blake/biography.html?title=Robert_Blake_(Medal_of_Honor_recipient)#Biography)

Sgt William Carney was the first to MERIT the Medal of Honor, but Contraband USN Robert Blake was the first to actually RECIEVE the Medal of Honor.

***Escaped slaves who came to the Union camps were not concidered freemen or citizens of the north. Their official status was merely contraband, meaning they were goods whose importation or exportation or possession of is prohibited by law. The reason is the Union at that time didn't know what to do with them, nor did they know what their status would be after the war, in spite of the promise of freedom for their service.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Burk28 on December 28, 2007, 02:04 PM
Thanks very much for this info. at times it blows my mind to think of the mind set that it took for white americans to treat these people that way.I will never, ever understand that mentality.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 01, 2008, 04:13 PM
The slaves used music as a way to lighten their load while working. The masters saw the slaves working in cadence with the music and it seemed to keep the slaves working, so they allowed it.

But were the slaves singing because they were a bunch of 'happy Negros'?
Consider this.

The slaves were deliberately kept ignorant. It was against the law for anyone to teach them to read or write. They could even be whipped or killed if caught reading the Bible.
But by no means did that mean they were stupid. The salve devised ways to communicate among themselves in code. They could communicate from Plantation to Plantation.

One way of doing this was with music, singing.
For example we've all heard the old negro spiritual 'Swing Low Sweet Chariot'. The masters thought the slaves were singing about a chariot from heaven coming down for them, but to the slave it was a signal from Harriet Tubman that the underground railroad was about to make another trip.
The chariot was the 'train', looking over Jordon was the slaves looking to the north as their heaven, or freedom.  The line 'coming for to carry me home', home was a safe place, or safe house along the Underground Railroad.

One such safe House, or station was a Place called Ripley which stood on a hill by the Ohio river. Since the river was hard to cross, the escaping slaves had to wait for a signal so they would know when it was safe to cross. Thus the line 'I looked over Jordan and what did I see/ Coming for to carry me home/ A band of angels coming after me”.
'Jordan' was the north side of the river, Ripley was the safe place, or 'home', and the 'Band of angels' were the people from Ripley/underground railroad, that would come for the escaping slaves when it was safe to cross.

The line "if you get there before I do, tell my friend I'm coming too" was the slaves telling other slaves, 'if they get north and free first, tell other family members they see that they are coming too.

** There is a discussion on the Underground Railroad further back in the thread.

Want to see what it was like on the Underground Railroad? Want to get a feel for the planning, the fear?
Do you realize there are two sides to planning an escape and you have to choose to go or stay?
Want to see what either decision was like?
There are decisions you have to make while escaping, such as when to hide and when to go on.
What happens in either case?
Look for food, or not look for food?

The state of Maryland has put together a most stirring interactive that carries you through each step, and what it was like to choose to escape or stay. It is narrated beautifully and as you go through place your mouse over the pictures for more details of what you see.
If my opinion carries any weight at all, I'd say this is the most detailed, emotional rendition I've ever seen and I highly recommend it.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 02, 2008, 07:06 PM
Inoculation - During the smallpox epidemic of 1721, Onesimus, a Boston slave, instructs Cotton Mather, a Puritan cleric, about the African techniques of inoculation - this is the earliest recorded use of the technique in America, but a common practice in Africa.

Rice - Africans introduced the rice plant to North America and taught the English settlers how to cultivate and irrigate the crop. Rice became so important to South Carolina's economy that it continued to be the colony's major crop long after the rest of the South had turned to cotton farming in the 19th century.

These are some facts that can be learned using the black history time line interactive on  bio.com. The interactive starts with the importation of the first slaves in 1619 and runs through 2005. There is a drop down box that allows you to click on any year in between.

http://www.biography.com/blackhistory/black-history-timeline.jsp (http://www.biography.com/blackhistory/black-history-timeline.jsp)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Burk28 on January 02, 2008, 08:05 PM
What about the hero of clevelend harbor, a black gentlemn who invented the first viable gas mask, his invention saved workers in a tunnel explosion way back when, sorry not sure of the dates i think back in the 20s or 30s
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Burk28 on January 02, 2008, 08:08 PM
speaking of the underground railroad... MY grandfather remarried a woman, who had a relative that was a gate keeper for a tunnel leading to lake erie, there was password that was to be spoken to hi prior to letting any one enter the gate and their way to freedom, years later on his death bed he was asked what thepassword was and even then refused to divulge it, there are still remants of the underground railroad in my hometown of erie pennsylvania.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 02, 2008, 08:18 PM
Burk, the person you speak of is Garrett Morgan 1877-1963. Not only did his gas mask save the lives of those in Cleavland, but he saved untold lives with the use of his gas mask in WWI and WWII.


Thanks for the story on the underground r/r in your area. It's a testament to the secrecy of the movement and how sacred that trust was to those that held it. The secret nature of the underground r/r makes it difficult to study, but more and more information is being revealed.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Burk28 on January 02, 2008, 09:34 PM
yes quite intrigueing, the last section of tunnel before hitting lake erie in ERie pa, runs right down state street which is the main drag... They closed the tunnels for good back in the 70s, they however pulled some artifacts from the openings before sealing them
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 04, 2008, 08:02 PM
Charles Ball was a slave sold from Maryland to South Carolina to Georgia. He finally managed to escape and in 1837 wrote his autobiography. The State of Maryland has produced an audio of part of Charles Ball's life. In it he is describing a particular torture used on the slaves as punishment. The torture, by design, was meant to degrade as much as it was to inflict pain.

Note the absolute striking similarity to waterboarding. In fact I now wonder if the modern day water boarding torture the USA employs today, was born in slavery. It is no secret the slave masters would devise all kinds of ways to inflict toture on the slave so that he would not so damage the hapless wretch as to render him useless for work.

You can read the account or click the speaker icon and have it dramatically read to you:

http://pathways.thinkport.org/eyewitness/ball.cfm# (http://pathways.thinkport.org/eyewitness/ball.cfm#)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on January 05, 2008, 01:30 AM
I just finished listening to this, as I read along.  For me to comment on how well it was narrated, might conceivably denigrate the atrocious power of the narrative itself:  However, my connection to the story was greatly enhanced by this multimedia collaboration.

Thank you very much for posting this Earl.  I would very strongly recommend, that everyone take a few minutes to listen and read by clicking on the link.  If you don't have the time now, then bookmark it and come back later.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 05, 2008, 06:31 PM
Thanks for stopping by and the support Allen.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 31, 2008, 09:34 PM
We are about to enter another Black History month. The interst in black history is evident by the near 8000 hits this topic has taken so far.
I'm planning on continuing the musical theme to explain more of the slave songs and codes.
I would love to have more participation from you fair readers, so I'd like to try something new.
We'll call it 'stump the chump'. Put a little known black history fact in the form of a question and lets see who gets it first. I'll even be the official chump (as time allows).

A question from the chump. Were there any white slaves as opposed to indentured servants? Did a change of language help or hinder said people?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on February 03, 2008, 08:48 PM
Once again, I come up to the plate, bat very shaky, because I realise I have poor knowledge of your question.  The little I know about white slavery relates to activities in 19th century England, and children being abused or enslaved, often for sexual purposes.

Other than that, I am afraid to admit, that I do not have an answer to your question.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 04, 2008, 11:36 AM
It seems that I remember reading something about that, but you know me--history isn't my strong suit. Answer?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2008, 01:21 AM
Answer from Da' Chump.

Here's an ad seeking a runaway slave in 1847:

A beautiful girl, about twenty years of age, perfectly white, with straight light hair and blue eyes.  1847 Hannibal MO.

A little while ago we discussed the 'one drop rule' (partus sequitur ventrem), which means any child born of a slave mother is a slave. The child could be white as snow, first generation of the white father, and still be a slave. In fact the color line and the change in language that came with it made it possible for white fathers to enslave their own children. The children were called mulattoes, quadron, octoroon and various other names to establish they were less than genetically white.

Quote from a 1839 news article:

"A Missouri newspaper proves that a white man may, without a mistake, be adjudged a slave. "A case of a slave suing for his freedom, was tried a few days since in Lincoln county, of which the following is a brief statement of particulars: A youth of about ten years of age sued for his freedom on the ground that he was a free white person.... Upon his trial before the jury, he was examined by the jury and two learned physicians, all of whom concurred in the opinion that very little, if any, trace of negro blood could be discovered by any of the external appearances. All the physiological marks of distinction, which characterize the African descent, had disappeared. His skin was fair, his hair soft, straight, fine and white, his eyes blue, but rather disposed to the hazel-nut color; nose prominent, the lips small, his head round and well formed, forehead high and prominent, ears large, the tibia of the leg straight, and feet hollow. Notwithstanding these evidences of his claims, he was proved to be the descendant of a mulatto woman, and that his progenitors on the mother's side had been and still were slaves: consequently he was found to be a slave."
A white person that could not establish his lineage could be kidnapped and sold as a slave by the criminal opportunist of the day. If another white person didn't speak for him/her, then by virtue of the fact he/she was accused or claimed as a slave, that white person could not speak for him/herself.

The sad truth is these children were sold at higher prices because the were more desirable to have as house slaves and the girls were more desirable for prostitution and sexual abuse because of their light skin tone.

A factual detailed discussion in real time in all its misery:

http://multiracial.com/site/content/view/460/27/ (http://multiracial.com/site/content/view/460/27/)

Just as an aside here. I take curious note that several places in this article the sickening sight of white slaves being sold turned many slave supporters into abolitionists. I'm glad that something woke them up, but the same people couldn't see the same sickening horror in having black slaves.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2008, 01:25 AM
Another question.

What black history event took place in Sunday's Super Bowl ?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 06, 2008, 11:34 AM
Thanks for the answer.

Now, I must ponder the next question. Maybe I shouldn't be coming here so early in the morning. My brain doesn't seem to function at this hour.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 07, 2008, 07:52 PM
No Takers??
Superbowl XLII had the first ever African American head official.  Mike Carey is the gentleman's name.

Short bio:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 10, 2008, 01:56 AM
Edited By Allen:-  To those joining us for the first time, welcome.  Scroll back to the begginning of this thread to learn more about Black History.
Please feel free to participate

One of the code songs sang by the slaves was Follow The Drinking Gourd. As with other code songs the masters thought it was just a Negro religious song that kept the slave quiet and content to work.
To the slave it was something entirely different.

You see there was a one leg sailor known as  Peg Leg Joe. He made a living going from Plantation to Plantaion doing odd jobs and while there he would befriend the slaves and secretly teach them (at great personal risk of death) some of the coded slave songs.
Wade in the Water was one, but we will focus on Follow The Drinking gourd. (maybe we'll do a story on his life later on if you guys would like)

Seeing as the slaves knew nothing of astrology, nor could they read, they had to have recognizable symbols to look for. They knew nothing of the Big Dipper, but the Big Dipper resembled a drinking gourd.
Thus begins the journey. The song taught what season to leave, which way to go and what to look for. The trail was marked with the outline of a foot and a circle. The marks a peg legged man would leave while walking and the slave knew it to be from Peg Leg Joe. Brilliant!!!

The Detroit News on Tuesday 25th of February 1997 after some study published this full interpretation of the song:


When the sun comes up and the first quail calls, follow the drinking gourd.
For the old man is a-waiting to carry you to freedom,
If you follow the drinking gourd.

(With the beginning of winter on Dec. 21, the sun starts climbing higher in the sky each day. And in winter, the call of migratory quail echoes across southern fields. So Peg Leg Joe's ingenious song advised slaves to escape in winter and head north toward the Big Dipper -- code name, drinking gourd. A guide will be waiting at the end of the line. )

 The riverbank makes a very good road.
 The dead trees show you the way,
 Left foot, peg foot, travelling on
 Follow the drinking gourd.

(This verse directs fugitives to the Tombigbee River, where special "Peg Leg" markings on fallen trees will show they're on the correct northerly course. Travelling under cover of darkness, slaves could find their way along a river even on nights too overcast for the Big Dipper's stars to shine through.
The Tombigbee River, which empties into Alabama's Mobile Bay on the Gulf of Mexico, originates in northeast Mississippi. Perhaps as many as 200,000 enslaved people lived near that river, according to Gloria Rall, producer of a children's planetarium show, Following the Drinking Gourd, about the escape route. )

    The river ends between two hills.
    Follow the drinking gourd.
    There's another river on the other side,
    Follow the drinking gourd.

 (When the Tombigbee ends, the runaways who'd memorized the song knew to walk north over a hill until they came to another river, the Tennessee, then go north on it as well. )

    Where the great big river meets the little river,
    Follow the drinking gourd.
    For the old man is a-waiting for to carry you to freedom,
    If you follow the drinking gourd.

(The song ends by instructing slaves that at the end of Tennessee River they must cross over to the north side of the big Ohio River, where someone from the Underground Railroad would ensure their passage to the first of a string of safe houses reaching all the way to Canada. )

Now how were the slaves to cross the Ohio River? Swimming was impossible, but it was calculated that the escape would take about a year to get to that point. They would start their escape in the winter and by the time they got to the Ohio River it would be winter again and the river would be frozen over, so the slave could walk across under the cover of darkness.

About a 1/4 of the way down this link is a audio of this song:
http://ctl.du.edu/spirituals/Freedom/coded.cfm (http://ctl.du.edu/spirituals/Freedom/coded.cfm)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 14, 2008, 08:17 AM
Question from Da' Chump.

What role did Jack Benny play in Black History?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 17, 2008, 04:31 AM
Anybody collect postcards?  Fun stuff, cute stuff, nice pictures. You know, postcard stuff.
Here is a link to a flash film about a collection of post cards. It may just shock you in its reality.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 18, 2008, 08:32 PM
Another slave code song was 'Wade In The water.' This song has long been used as a gospel song in the black churches, but its origin was to teach the slaves how to escape, how to find their way to certain areas and how to cover their tracks.

The problem with trying to decipher these songs is increased by the nature of their inception. The slaves had to be secretive in order not to be discovered and they couldn't read. even the ones that could had better not be caught doing it.
So the songs were handed down in the oral Arfican tradition. It is true that exact translations may not be possible, but enough references are found and studies done to lead to conclusive evidence of the song's intent.

This song would lead the slaves toward rivers and other flowing springs where they could follow certain marked paths north, actually walking/wading in the water to hide their tracks and smell from the dogs and 'patty-rollers' ( the slave prononciation of patrollers)

The songs also references the 'Jordan' as the freedom land. Jordan was north and to the slaves it meant freedom. In this case it was Canada.

The line 'It chills my body, but not my soul' reffered to the intense sufferings one would under go during escape, but let their faith carry them on.

Here are the lyrics. The Gospel versions may have some variations:

Wade in the water (children)
Wade in the water
Wade in the water
God's gonna trouble the water

If you don't believe I've been redeemed
God's gonna trouble the water
I want you to follow him on down to Jordan stream
(I said) My God's gonna trouble the water
You know chilly water is dark and cold
(I know my) God's gonna trouble the water
You know it chills my body but not my soul
(I said my) God's gonna trouble the water

(Come on let's) wade in the water
Wade in the water (children)
Wade in the water
God's gonna trouble the water

Now if you should get there before I do
(I know) God's gonna trouble the water
Tell all my friends that I'm comin' too
(I know) God's gonna trouble the water
Sometimes I'm up lord and sometimes I'm down
(You know my) God's gonna trouble the water
Sometimes I'm level to the ground
God's gonna trouble the water
(I Know) God's gonna trouble the water

Wade in the water (children)
Wade out in the water (children)
God's gonna trouble the water

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 18, 2008, 08:34 PM
You guys want more time to tackle those questions, or are you ready for the answers?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 19, 2008, 11:41 AM
Yes, I'd like the answers. Does the Jack Benny question involve Rochester?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 19, 2008, 10:50 PM
Right you are my dear Witt.

I must say this one took me by surprise.
Jack Benny and the Rochester character came up in a conversation. At first I was going to do a biography on Eddie Anderson, (to which I will put up a link) but I found some interesting facts about Jack Benny.

To begin, all the minstrel shows and shows that had black characters, those roles were portrayed with the stereotypes of that day. The buffoonery, the bug eyed frightened men that had to be led by little white girls, the yas'sum maid.

During some of the early stage shows it was not unusual to have the blacks referred to as nigger.
In fact I can remember a time when you were called nigger on the job or anywhere and you had to take it, but I digress. It came a time during radio and early TV when that became unacceptable for proper folks in public, so boy became the new depreciatory term.

Enter on the scene Jack Benny. I've taken to listening to his early shows on satellite radio and the thing that stands out in stark contrast is he never refers to Rochester (Eddie Anderson) as 'boy.'  Funny how I didn't pick up on that before.
Eddie Anderson played Rockester, Jack Benny's valet. As was the custom in those days blacks played subservient roles, but Rochester's role was never treated as secondary to the show. In fact in the give and take of the show, often it was Rochester that got the better of Jack Benny. A black man getting the better of a white man during those days was just unheard of.

In Jack Benny's posthumous autobiography, "Sunday Nights at Seven", it was noted there was a conscious decision between Jack Benny and the writing staff during WWII to lessen any racial humor at the expense of Rochester. At the time the Holocaust was being revealed in all its horror and Jack Benny didn't find such humor to be funny anymore and made a conscience effort to stop it.

Jack Benny lived his new found convictions. He would tour during WWII, but not with Rochester (Eddie Anderson) because discrimination at the time would have made Rochester stay in separate living quarters. Jack Benny would have none of that.
Stateside, a similar incident was defused by Jack Benny when, according to reporter Fredric W. Slater, Eddie Anderson was denied a room at the hotel where Jack Benny and his staff were staying in St. Joseph, Missouri. When it was announced that Anderson could not stay there, Jack Benny replied "if he doesn't stay here, neither do I." The hotel eventually allowed Eddie Anderson to remain as a guest.

Even the humor on Jack Benny's show was historical. There were some elements of racial humor, but it was not at the expense of the black character, rather it would be initiated by Rochester. It was on the level of the self-deprecating humor Jack Benny would use. Again, unheard of in that time.
Once during an episode, Jack Benny and Rochester (Eddie Anderson) were sparring and Rochester hit Jack Benny. Now that was just too much to bear for some, a black man hitting a white man and Jack Benny did get letters of protest. Jack Benny answered," it wouldn't have been funny the other way around."

Jack Benny. A hidden giant in black history. Who knew???

Here is a link to Eddie Anderson's bio and more information on this story:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 20, 2008, 10:54 AM
Yes, I remember the show very well. I guess I didn't understand all the subtleties. I'd love to see those shows again.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 26, 2008, 05:27 PM

More about code words used in slave songs.

The slave had no power over what they were to eat, where to live, how to live,  their children, wives, or even their own bodies.  Can you imagine how angry you would be? I'm sure you would protest such treatment, but you could be killed or beaten for doing so.

Here's some of the punishment if you dare protest. The lash was applied often. Many plantations had whipping days (from my research that day was mostly on Sunday after the masters had gone to church) where all the slaves had to gather and witness the beatings.  Man, women or child were stripped naked and whipped up to 200 lashes, sometimes whipped to death.
Many that survived such whippings would have salt rubbed into the open wounds and left tied to the post out in the elements for days.

Often after whipping a male slave, his ear would be nailed to the post and ripped off.
The slaves witnessing this were expected to show approval for this treatment or they could be punished. Most certainly a slave could not protest the proceedings.

Slave or nonslave the human spirit finds ways to be defiant. On occassion a slave could fiend sickness or work slow, but that came with a very real danger of being beaten, whipped or sold.
All the slave had was what was in his/her mind.

There was a protest song the slave would sing under his breath so the overseer couldn't hear.
See if you can pick out the words of protest:

No more auction block for me
No more, no more
No more auction block for me
Many thousands gone

No more driver's lash for me
No more, no more
No more driver's lash for me
Many thousands gone

No more whip lash for me
No more, no more
No more pint of salt for me
Many thousands gone

No more peck of corn for me
No more, no more
No more peck of corn for me
Many thousands gone

No more mistress call for me
No more, no more
No more mistress' call for me
Many thousands gone

No more auction block for me
No more, no more
No more auction block for me
Many thousands gone
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 26, 2008, 06:49 PM
The slave were allowed to sing 'work' songs. If the overseers saw no threat in them, he allowed it because it seemed put the slaves into a work cadence. However, many times what the overseer was hearing, was not what the slaves were actually saying.

This link has some of those songs in audio. Most fasinating!!!
Set your mind to working and imagine what you would be feeling.

You'll need to have flash player ( a free download) to listen:
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/february03/worksongs.cfm (http://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/february03/worksongs.cfm)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on March 01, 2008, 04:06 PM
Earl, I am also sorry about your sister.

I am Reading all of your posts, with great attention.  I am unable to answer the questions, but, relish reading the answers.  As I have said, so many times, I truly enjoy reading, and learning, with you.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 02, 2008, 08:25 PM
Reading the slave narratives is an education all to its own. One has to be careful not to read them with a modern sense of things.
For example one will read where the slave will say 'those were good days' and then in the next sentence tell about beatings and sellings or working from sun up to sun down. One must remember these were ex-slaves and they were conditioned to say what they thought the white interviewers wanted to hear. Even the boldest among them were careful not to go beyond what they were conditioned to be 'their place.' And who among us does not strive to remember some part of our past with fondness? But the remembrance these individuals had of childhood were from slavery.

Read and listen with that understanding.

"Of the approximately four million Americans enslaved in the United States freed at the conclusion of the American Civil War, only the stories of a few thousand have been passed on to future generations through word of mouth, diaries, letters, records, or written transcripts of interviews.

Only twenty-six audio-recorded interviews of ex-slaves have been found. This collection captures the stories of former slaves in their own words and voices. Little biographical information about them is available.
Apart from their voices, photographs have been found only for the seven individuals below. Look at their faces as you listen to them talk about their lives, describing what it was like being a slave and becoming free." [quoted from the article]

Hear the voices of exslaves taking you on a journey as only they can:

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/voices/vfssp.html (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/voices/vfssp.html)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 06, 2008, 08:10 PM



*******  Today in Black History March 6, 2008  *******   

1479 - The Treaty of Alcacovas is signed.  This will establish the

      territorial domains of Portugal and Castile (Spain) along a

      longitudinal line 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands.

      Spain thereby, recognizes Portugal's rights to explore the

      African coast.  Portugal becomes the first European nation to

      exploit the West African slave trade.

1775 - Prince Hall and fourteen other African Americans are initiated

      into British Military Lodge No. 441 of the Masons at Fort

      Independence, Massachusetts.  Hall is a leather-dresser and

      caterer.  On July 3, 1775, African Lodge No. 1 will be

      organized in Boston by this group of African American Masons.

1857 - The U.S. Supreme Court rules against citizenship for African

      Americans in the Dred Scott decision. The Court rules that

      Dred Scott, a slave, cannot sue for his freedom in a free

      state because he is property and, as such, "has no rights a

      white man has to respect."  This ruling also opens up the

      northern territory to slavery.

1862 - President Lincoln sends message to Congress recommending

      gradual     and compensated emancipation of the slaves.

1901 - Virginia State University in Ettrick, Virginia (Outside of

      Petersburg), is founded.

1923 - Charles Ethan Porter joins the ancestors in Rockville,

      Connecticut. A student of the National Academy of Design in

      New York City, the first African American artist in the

      United States to graduate from a four-year school of art,

      and member of the Connecticut Academy of Fine Arts, Porter

      did not receive the recognition that contemporaries Edward

      Bannister and Henry Ossawa Tanner won. He will be best known

      for the paintings "Still Life (Crock With Onions),"

      "Strawberries," and "Daisies," but there will not be a major

      retrospective of his work until 1987.

1941 - Wilver Dornel "Willie" Stargell is born in Earlsboro, Oklahoma.

      He will become an all-star baseball player for the Pittsburgh

      Pirates.   He will hit 475 career home runs - twice leading

      the National League with 48 in 1971 and with 44 in 1973.  He

      will drive in 1540 runs, score 1195 and have 2232 hits with a

      lifetime batting average of .282.  He will be inducted into

      Baseball's Hall of Fame in 1988.

1944 - Mary Wilson is born in Greenville, Mississippi. In 1959, she

      will begin singing with a group called the "Primettes", a

      sister group to a male group, The Primes." The Primes will

      become "The Temptations" and the Primettes will become "The

      Supremes."  The Supremes will become the only American act to

      have five consecutive number one hits!  From their beginning

      to the end of the group, the Supremes will have 33 songs

      reach the top 40. After the group disbands in 1977, Mary

      Wilson will become a successful businesswoman, author,

      lecturer, actress, and singer of not just pop music, but

      Jazz, Rock, R&B, and Dance.   She will author the best-seller

      "Dreamgirl-My Life as a Supreme."  In 1988, Mary Wilson will

      become the first female rock star to accept her lifetime

      achievement award from the Rock N' Roll Hall of Fame.

2000 - Three white New York police officers are convicted of a cover-

      up in the brutal police station attack on Haitian immigrant

      Abner Louima.

For those that would like to have  daily information on Black History events use this link:

http://www.informationman.com/today.htm (http://www.informationman.com/today.htm)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on March 07, 2008, 11:53 AM
Very interesting, FRIEND. Thanks.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 10, 2008, 07:55 PM
For those that think because Obama is running for president  blacks have 'arrived', read this.
The fight goes on.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 22, 2008, 05:28 PM
As a lad circa 1958, I walked through the colored only doors and into our segregated theater. Sitting down and (as I reflect back) expecting the usual fare of buffoonery and scared black faces, or entire tribes running in fear from the yell of a single white man in the trees (young folks, that was Tarzan), or the scenes of the yas'sm happy negroes, bowing and singing happy slave songs, I was quite pleased to see something a little different. Before us played a movie unlike any we had ever seen before. Black faces in leading roles, that were not just simple minded buffoons.

There was Hattie McDaniel and James Baskett on the big screen. Oh they still were in subservient roles, but they were the movie. James Baskett not only played a leading role, but was the voice of several of the animated characters. James Baskett played an ex slave, but also that of a wise story teller with a voice rich and full. When he sang his song, it was to be a song for the ages. The song was full of cheer and I can remember the old folks singing it no matter how tough times were. (find myself humming it even now)

The song? Zip-Pa-Dee-Doo-Dah.
The movie? Song Of The South.

And just who was James Baskett? None other than Uncle Remus and the voice of Brer Fox and the talking Butterfly. He even was the voice of Brer Rabbit during the Laughing Place scene.

Now I know you young folks probably know nothing of him or the movie, so here's a little background.
He was born 2/16/1904 in Indianapolis, In. His passion was pharmacology, but had no money to pursue that. His acting career started in Chicago before he moved to New York to join Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson's company.

In 1945 James Baskett answered an ad looking for a voice for the talking Butterfly in a new Walt Disney movie, Song Of The South. Baskett was hoping to get a bit part as one of the animal voices, but after hearing Baskett's voice Walt Disney wanted to meet him personally, even though he was auditioning hundreds of actors at the time. After interviewing James Baskett Walt Disney said, "He's my man." Not only did Baskett get the job as voice of the Butterfly, but he got the part of Uncle Remus and several other voice parts.

When Walt Disney hired James Baskett in his role as Uncle Remus, Baskett became the first actor to be hired by Walt Disney for a full-length, live-action film.

As well received as the movie was, James Baskett could not attend the premiere of the movie in 1946 in Atlanta, Ga. due to the racism of the time.
Quoted from a 15 October 1946 article in the Atlanta Constitution, columnist Harold Martin noted that "to bring Baskett to Atlanta, where he would not have been allowed to participate in any of the festivities, would cause him many embarrassments, for his feelings are the same as any man's."
In 1948, an honorary Academy Award for his role as Uncle Remus was bestowed upon him, but he was not there either for the same reason.

James Baskett died July 9 1948 at the age of 44 of heart problems.

Unfortunately Song Of The South can no longer be viewed in the U.S.A. but there are some myths and confusion as to why.

Here are some clarifications:

1)In 1946 the NAACP did protest the movie because of the perceived stereotypes of black folks being happy slaves.
Actually the movie's time frame was after the Civil war and after the Emancipation. It is said Walt Disney assumed folks would know history so he never made a public statement to that fact.

2) Even though the NAACP protested the movie it was not banned because of that. It played up to 1986. In 1986 Disney Inc. decided own its own not to re-release it possibly because of the racial stigma it had, but there are no documented records of complaints due to the 1986 theatrical release.

3) The movie is not available anywhere now which is a business decision made by Disney Inc.

4) The NAACP now takes no official position on the movie.

In fact there is historical context to the movie and the character Uncle Remus. Christian Willis wrote an article in 2001 on the subject and I don't agree with everything he writes, but I highly reccomend this article.

http://www.songofthesouth.net/movie/overview/defense.html (http://www.songofthesouth.net/movie/overview/defense.html)

Want to hear some audio form the movie? Read about the characters? Use the same page and click on the links to the left. You will espcially enjoy the Lyrics link. It has the words to some of the songs and audio as well.

So you can have a view of both sides, here is a link to folklorist Patricia A. Turner's view of the NAACP's objections. As you read this keep in mind the whole picture from the black point of view:

http://www.snopes.com/disney/films/sots.asp (http://www.snopes.com/disney/films/sots.asp)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on March 23, 2008, 11:25 AM
I did not KNOW all this! I loved that movie. I can still see him singing with the little animated bluebird. What a shame for a movie as wonderful as this to be lost to posterity because of these reasons. It is what it is.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 02, 2008, 01:49 AM
Thank you for your response my dear Witt. I loved the movie as well, but we both are looking at it through lenses in a much later time. Although I agree with you, I feel this deserves more discussion.

In 1946 the NAACP was building to a climax. It was 8 years before Brown V Board of Education and years before a number of events such as the Birmingham bus Boycott and the church and home bombings of black people. It was also 38 years before the 1964 civil rights act and 39 years before the voting rights act.

So the 1946 NAACP was spearheading a fight for civil rights in a time that was raw with lynchings and brutality, justified by the stereotypes of black people and bolstered by white supremacy.
They were fighting in an era that had to expose and protest any and all such inequities and  stereotypes. To do less would render any one of those things acceptable and the purpose of the NAACP was to expose and fight it all. They had to have what we now call a 'scorched earth policy' with regard to the unfair treatment of black people.
The 1946 NAACP did acknowledge the artistic merits of the film , but protested the impression it gave of the 'idyllic slave-master relationship.' They could not ignore that, because those were the stereotypes they were fighting.

One thing I find of note is Disney re-released the film in 1956, but kept it out of circulation all through the 1960s during the turbulent civil rights era. They did this on their own, without any prodding from the NAACP. This tells me that Disney did indeed recognise the racial stereotypes in the movie.

If anyone missed this, I'm re posting the link that explained NAACP's stand:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 02, 2008, 01:59 AM
I found this 1671 case law ruling. It shows just how treacherous the slave holder was and the absolute hopelessness of the slave.

In 1671 the case of an orphaned child who had inherited Black slaves prompted the decision on how to rank slaves. If treated like real estate, the slaves could not be disposed of until the child was 21. But if the slaves were considered as hogs or other livestock which might die and lose their value, then the child could sell the slaves now. The court ruled that the latter was more reasonable to protect the interests of the child.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 02, 2008, 02:16 AM
Drapetomania.  Anybody know what this word means?  I'm as hardcore as they come and I have to tell you I was absolutely stunned when I ran across this word. When ever I think I've seen the worst in the slave holder, up pops something more hideous.

Here's the definition from Wikipedia:

A Ride for Liberty  The Fugitive Slaves c. 1862, by Eastman Johnson (1824-1906) In psychiatry--
 [1], drapetomania was a   mental illness  described by American physician Samuel A. Cartwright in 1851 that caused black slaves to flee captivity.
[2] Today, drapetomania is considered an example of pseudoscience,
[3] and part of the edifice of scientific racism.
[4] The term derives from the Greek (drapetes, "a runaway [slave]") +  (mania, "madness, frenzy").

Samuel Cartwright, 1793-1863, described the disorder  which, he said, was "unknown to our medical authorities, although its diagnostic symptom, the absconding from service, is well known to our planters and overseers" in a paper delivered before the Medical Association of Louisiana that was widely reprinted.

He stated that the malady was a consequence of masters who "made themselves too familiar with [slaves], treating them as equals. In Diseases and Pecularities of the Negro Race, Cartwright writes that the Bible calls for the slave to be submissive to his master, and by doing so, the slave will have no desire to run away.

In addition to identifying drapetomania, Cartwright prescribed a remedy to cure the malady. His feeling was that with "proper medical advice, strictly followed, this troublesome practice that many Negroes have of running away can be almost entirely prevented." In the case of slaves "sulky and dissatisfied without cause"  a warning sign of imminent flight  Cartwright prescribed "whipping the devil out of them" as a "preventative measure."
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 10, 2008, 08:14 PM
I see someone is suing rapper 50 Cent for a crime as a result of his promoting the gansta lifestyle.
This sould be interesting. It is my opinion that all the rappers and this filthy hip-hop culture should be included in a class action suit. Now that's just my opinion, but it certainly doesn't come from a vacum. We bear witness everyday to the degradation and  destruction of  black youth and black culture as a result of it.

To me it's the same as the old Al Jolson black face routines. It was insulting and no amount of dressing it up could save it. A pig in make up is still a pig. I feel rap and hip-hop is so steeped into self destruction it can't be cleaned up.
Here's the news story. I'm going to try to follow it:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 16, 2008, 06:20 PM
Recently I had a friend point out that I haven't mentioned the Freedom Riders that were so instrumental in the civil rights era. I really must apologise for this oversight.

I will do some research to see what interesting stories I can find. There are some that are well known, but remain outside of the mainstream recall of important dates in history, such as what happened in Philadelphia, Miss. We'll revisit some of those events.

Anyone have any stories or experiences with the Freedom Riders they want to share?

In the mean time here's an interesting article of events going on right now in the great state of Tennessee. Just goes to prove we still have a very long way to go. I'd like some feedback on what you think on this article:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on April 18, 2008, 04:48 PM
First ...Yes Drapetomania is ridiculous/sad/angering I was shocked reading about the word. It shows how ignorant people can be and have been throughout America's history. Not saying Ignorance doesnt plaque other countries, but in our historyit seems ignorance was the starting point. Being a women, I am somewhat reminded of the term hysteria, penis envy, and female hysiteria etc.  Anyway, its gut wrenching really. To put yourself in a place in time when people actually swooshed this ridiculousness in their head and said oh yes...yes this makes sense....and rejected the smothered truth in their souls. Its painful to put yourself in any mindset whre a human being in not treated like a human being. Sometimes I just have to recoup, becaue so much goes on here on this planet....the negativety is very draining. I read the last article you posted and it is clear the wrong desicion was made, if i understood the article correctly .  Its obvious in this case it is neccessary to honor the honorable. I question the boards merit.

"At our first stop in Virginia . . . I [was] confronted with what the Southern white has called `separate but equal.' A modern rest station with gleaming counters and picture windows was labelled `White,' and a small wooden shack beside it was tagged `Colored.'"
-- Freedom Rider William Mahoney
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: WordFaery on April 20, 2008, 11:38 PM
Here is a link to an interview conducted April 14th at the Colored Musicians Club in Buffalo, NY

http://www.thinktwiceradio.com/sue-marie/sue-marie.html (http://www.thinktwiceradio.com/sue-marie/sue-marie.html)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 21, 2008, 12:08 AM
MistressofSolace-- To put yourself in a place in time when people actually swooshed this ridiculousness in their head and said oh yes...yes this makes sense....and rejected the smothered truth in their souls.

Mistress, first of all welcome back and thank you for the statement from William Mahoney.

Secondly, you have got to give me permission to use your words quoted above. It puts a serious description to such sad events, but it rings to me as one of those funny timeless quotes that will be hard to ignore.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 21, 2008, 12:19 AM
WordFaery, that is a great link. I'm listening to it as I type. It's also loaded with other great interviews from musicians and poets. I reccommend all you jazz lovers give it a look. Turn your speakers on.

Thanks WordFaery, and don't be a stranger.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: WordFaery on April 21, 2008, 12:34 AM
My pleasure

Here's the link to the Colored Musicians Club.  More information contained there.

http://www.coloredmusiciansclub.org/ (http://www.coloredmusiciansclub.org/)

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: hcscable on April 21, 2008, 07:29 PM
Hello Friend. May I ask you a favor? Would you please read my post A Texas Sunday Walk? It is based on my mother`s nanny while the family sojourned in Arkansas. There is more to this,but I still have not figured out how to get "there".
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 21, 2008, 07:36 PM
I would be happy to Ms Cable. What heading is it under?  I can' t find it for some reason.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: hcscable on April 21, 2008, 07:43 PM
It is buried three quarters of the way down the first page of The Axe. Thank you!!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 22, 2008, 03:32 AM
T7L welcome to Black history forum. You've made some good points as to the origin of rap, but that's not where we are now. I fully respect your opinion, but I'm not convinced there is any merit left in hip hop.

Let's start with your last statement about the 1st amendment.

1) hip hop is not a religion

2) freedom of speech is not in question here. The issue is not if rappers have a right to what they say, the issue is are they free from the consequences produced by what they say.
The answer to that is no. There are numerous examples of that. No one can stop you from yelling fire in a theater, but there are consequences. No one can stop you from cursing a cop, but there are curse and abuse laws. No one can stop you from exciting a crowd, but we have inciting to riot laws.  There is case law that holds individuals and/or organizations accountable for the consequences of their speech. So the 1st amendment argument is a nonstarter.

"then came the corporations white suburbia and money. Where hip hop has evolved is not the rappers fault They are simply products of the environment"

You are correct in asserting the influences of corporations and money, but the rappers are 100% to blame for what rap has evolved into.  There are various reasons, but the biggest reason is the ignorance of being a sellout. No amount of money, no amount of evolution could make a rapper or the women that allow themselves to be debased in those videos, say and do the things they do. When a black man calls another black man niggah and dog, that's disgraceful and down right ignorant. There is no applying dignity to that. They choose to denigrate themselves and degrade our black women.

I defy anyone to show me a culture that degrades themselves like we black folks. People died, they were lynched, homes and churches bombed. People were beaten, attacked by dogs, and jailed fighting the the powers that kept us down. And for what? So we can portray ourselves as ignorant thugs all over the world?  So we can portray our young women as bitches and whores?

The influence of this hip hop culture on our young folks is a complete travesty. We have a whole generation that can't write a complete comprehensive sentence. Critical thinking is lost. They don't even recognize when they are insulting there own mothers and sisters. All due to the desensitizing influence of rap.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 22, 2008, 07:36 PM
I typed out a long response and pushed the wrong key.... poof, all gone
I am simply just too pissed off to rewrite it all.

I will though, just not tonight.

Ok I'll admit that I am one of those sulking in the background quietly enjoying all of the information and stories. Wow! I am completely out of my league but I do enjoy it so.

I must ask, in all respect, why are you pissed off? I have to assume it is because of the response to rap that you previously posted. With out repeating what Friend has said, though admittedly I could never have stated it so well, I must say Friend is more than 100% correct. Let's have a look at something by comparison.

There is a demographic of our society that profits mightily everyday. Expensive high dollar autos are sold. Houses and businesses are supported. People make good money and are hailed as people to follow. Corporations contribute to the demographics success because they reap huge profits and sell too or , more appropriately, sell out to anyone that brings the green. There is no consideration given to the harm that the products sold causes as long as money is shared in the market. People are encouraged by corporations that soak up the swill. Corporate efforts makes a thing clean and produces legitimate front faces while attracting many into the business.

No I'm not repeating what Friend said about rap. The point is that you have blamed corporations for the propagation of rap as if the rappers bear no personal responsibility for their crime against society and to blacks in particular. Yes the drug culture by comparison, and how corporations prostitute themselves to the money is no different than the rap culture and how corporations prostitute blacks.

To somehow not see the harm in deference to some type of reality boggles me. Is it really our reality or our creation that our women are hoes? Is it our reality that our men are niggas and dogs or our creation? Is your mother that reality or any other female in your family? Yet this is the reality that you defend rather than being pissed that your female relatives are filtered through the messages of contemporary rap. I would find that rather confusing.

Rap is trash and harmful. It is made to denigrate. Our young women aspire to be 'ho's' in rap videos. Our young men aspire to be 'niggas' in rap videos. Our emulating them has not made living better for blacks. It has not produced a positive dream that fosters effort at becoming a successful productive citizen. The problem is that we are doing this to ourselves and secondary to that not smart enough to know it or stand against it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on April 22, 2008, 08:45 PM
A-Friend: I sent you a message, not sure if you got it. Basically, it said use my quote if your going to use it in a kind way of course. I couldn't tell if you liked it or disapproved. I also have to say i somewhat agree with you on hi-hop culture. Not all rap songs demean women or glorify crime but the majority does. You know I'm a fan of pointing out the human-race and not picking out a certain ethnic group. So I'd have to say that the worlds young people are being further corrupted by the garbage spewed out of speakers and TV"s. Hip-hop sells its what is in, its what kids want and to identify with. Our society is becoming one based on secondary relationships, and with this you get a lack of compassion this coupled with the messages in the media are really misdirecting today's youth. A lot of content in these #1 hits glorifies that lack of comapassion and is so narcissistic.  I do have to say its horrifying as a women to think about the young  impressionable minds soaking up all the defaming of a women's mind and body. Women back in the day, and women today fight hard to keep afloat so to speak, and  hip-hop artist, and children today, don't seem to have any respect for their brothers and sisters  trials and tribulations of the past. Its almost like a requirement in hip-hop that you have to talk about whores and bitches and power over females. Yikes that's all I have to say. I don't mind grooving to a hip-hop beat , there are good ones out there, but I have to say very good points are being made here A-freind and Cappy. Sorry, just a few random jarbled thoughts, certainly not meant to offend anyone. I will always be here reading whats happening, as I have always taken an interest in Black-history, history in general, and the evolvement of the humanrace. A-friend you always keep it informative and interesting.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: hcscable on April 22, 2008, 08:55 PM
As an attempt to lighten the mood here somewhat, I relate the following from a black British comedian.

I went to one those Muslim churches this week. Just to check it out, ya know?
The guy was real happy to see me and started telling me how the white man took all our peoples diamonds and gold. I stopped him when I said, "I been watching all them rap videos on TV.....and it looks like we got most that stuff back!"
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 23, 2008, 03:11 AM

1) I was pissed off that I accidentally deleted a well thought out response, so your assumption is wrong.

2) My point has been lost on you.

3) wrong again

In fact I see so much wrong in this post....

For fear of stirring the pot, and redirecting the focus on a thread ,that I feel is very educational and an asset to this community (SplashHall), which I assume is predominately white, I will refrain from picking this post apart.

All I will say in regards to the lawsuit that is being pursued against the rapper 50 cent is:

"Don't shoot the messenger"

The problem that exists with to days youth, of any race, is far bigger than any rapper out there.

OK you lost your post, sorry. However to make a statement that your point was lost on me is something I can readily agree with. I will not agree with anyone that defends the filth that rap places on black people. Please don't hide behind the thought that most people here are white. I'm not; Friend is not and we are the ones taking you to task for the filters that rap allows young folks to think through.

It is disturbing that your choice of response is not to say that you are offended by rap labeling the female members  of your family in denigrating terms instead your grasp of my response is that I don't seem to understand the label. Yes that is lost on me. Don't hide behind the "larger problems of society" when you in fact ignore and defend the very dynamics that contribute to the larger probelms. You can't see much if you refuse to look. On the other hand not looking does not change the problem that main stream filth produces.

Don't shoot the messenger? Would that be your thought process if that messenger, regardless of whom it may be, were standing on the corner talking to your mother the way that you defend talk in rap? You really need to think about that. If it is acceptable to generalize about our black women as sex toys, if it is acceptable to encourage shooting our black men, if it is acceptable kill police, glorify dope, be a 'dog', be a 'ho, a gangbanger and a myriad of other messages; then you are saying to us that it is acceptable for any or all of this to affect your family.

I don't mean to offend but the truth is harsh. Rap is harsher. My women and people deserve better, are better than this filth involved in mainstream rap. One last point. I know that there are some hip-hop artist that keep it clean. Don't hide behind that either.

Now I get to see the end result of the culture when they appear before me with pants hanging at their knees and cannot formulate a proper sentence looking for a professional position. No. . no my friend. The messenger IS culpable. It is his message.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 23, 2008, 03:21 AM

Ok I'll admit that I am one of those sulking in the background quietly enjoying all of the information and stories. Wow! I am completely out of my league but I do enjoy it so.

I must ask, in all respect, why are you pissed off? I have to assume it is because of the response to rap that you previously posted. With out repeating what Friend has said, though admittedly I could never have stated it so well, I must say Friend is more than 100% correct. Let's have a look at something by comparison.

There is a demographic of our society that profits mightily everyday. Expensive high dollar autos are sold. Houses and businesses are supported. People make good money and are hailed as people to follow. Corporations contribute to the demographics success because they reap huge profits and sell too or , more appropriately, sell out to anyone that brings the green. There is no consideration given to the harm that the products sold causes as long as money is shared in the market. People are encouraged by corporations that soak up the swill. Corporate efforts makes a thing clean and produces legitimate front faces while attracting many into the business.

No I'm not repeating what Friend said about rap. The point is that you have blamed corporations for the propagation of rap as if the rappers bear no personal responsibility for their crime against society and to blacks in particular. Yes the drug culture by comparison, and how corporations prostitute themselves to the money is no different than the rap culture and how corporations prostitute blacks.

To somehow not see the harm in deference to some type of “reality” boggles me. Is it really our reality or our creation that our women are ‘ho’s’? Is it our “reality” that our men are ‘niggas’ and ‘dogs’ or our creation? Is your mother that “reality” or any other female in your family? Yet this is the “reality” that you defend rather than being “pissed” that your female relatives are filtered through the messages of contemporary rap. I would find that rather confusing.

Rap is trash and harmful. It is made to denigrate. Our young women aspire to be 'ho's' in rap videos. Our young men aspire to be 'niggas' in rap videos. Our emulating them has not made living better for blacks. It has not produced a positive dream that fosters effort at becoming a successful productive citizen. The problem is that we are doing this to ourselves and secondary to that not smart enough to know it or stand against it.

1) I was pissed off that I accidentally deleted a well thought out response, so your assumption is wrong.

2) My point has been lost on you.

3) wrong again

In fact I see so much wrong in this post....

For fear of stirring the pot, and redirecting the focus on a thread ,that I feel is very educational and an asset to this community (SplashHall), which I assume is predominately white, I will refrain from picking this post apart.

All I will say in regards to the lawsuit that is being pursued against the rapper 50 cent is:

"Don't shoot the messenger"

The problem that exists with todays youth, of any race, is far bigger than any rapper out there.

I would like to know your thoughts however. So please pick my post apart. I value your thoughts. I think they are very wrong and have explained why but I value you as a person to express them.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on April 23, 2008, 04:33 AM
cappy- I liked what u said and it is true. The issue is so intertwined with other issues involving the media and trends that get shoved down our throats for money making purposes. We will always have something to fight for here on Earth, so much negativity to overcome. I will pray that the trends change and new artists with a more positive message will rise up from the ash. It's down right scary whats happening around here I am enjoying the conversation. It is nice to read your intelligent well thought out, thoughtful responses.

Having artists realize and take responsability for the bad messages they send out is only a small part of the battle I have to agree.

anyway, see you all around
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 23, 2008, 10:14 AM
As an attempt to lighten the mood here somewhat, I relate the following from a black British comedian.

I went to one those Muslim churches this week. Just to check it out, ya know?
The guy was real happy to see me and started telling me how the white man took all our peoples diamonds and gold. I stopped him when I said, "I been watching all them rap videos on TV.....and it looks like we got most that stuff back!"

You 'gotta love it!   :dblu
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 23, 2008, 10:37 AM
cappy- I liked what u said and it is true. The issue is so intertwined with other issues involving the media and trends that get shoved down our throats for money making purposes. We will always have something to fight for here on Earth, so much negativity to overcome. I will pray that the trends change and new artists with a more positive message will rise up from the ash. It's down right scary whats happening around here I am enjoying the conversation. It is nice to read your intelligent well thought out, thoughtful responses.

Having artists realize and take responsibility for the bad messages they send out is only a small part of the battle I have to agree.

anyway, see you all around

Thank you. The issue is actually very simple. Remove the association to the word 'artist'. Disconnect rap from music. Think of the language as everyday conversation then go out and use that type of speech in the work place. You would be fired. Use that language to your friends sister, you would be in a fight. Say those things in rap to your mother, your father would stick his foot . . . well you know where.

Yet somehow language that incites violence, insults, and is sexually demeaning transcends all of the known meaning of the words, when repeated in rap, to something to be desired. Mind you now, we are talking mainly about the 'cleaned up' versions on TV. The uncut versions that you hear coming out of cars driving by and in the homes where our kids soak it up like a sponge is beyond belief. Morality becomes short circuited as we look through the eyes of the 'artist' and accept gangrape as the 'norm; accept oh so many things. Then slink from the components of the probelm perpetrated on society by simply saying the problems are larger than rap. Now that is circular thinking. Sort of like saying my car has a flat tire but since the larger problem is that it also needs a tuneup then the flat tire is not contributing to the overall problem with my car. Nonsensical.

Clean art is one thing. Even art that may not be my moral taste may not necessarily be harmful. But abject filth that demoralizes an entire ethnic group to the point where our reference to each other is what our mothers and fathers bled and died fighting, is quite another thing.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: MistressofSolace on April 23, 2008, 01:38 PM
Well I didn't mean to offend, and in efforts not to offend anyone I referreed to rapper's as artists:) Which is okay for the boards right now I feel. Whether I personally consider them artist is another story and to be just I would have to evaluate the individuals work. I'm sure they could put there energy into something more positive since they can appease the masses by giving the junk youth is demanding. I completely grasp what your saying and I agree. As a singer songwriter I couldn't imagine encouraging that sort of violence and filth. :rose Theres nothing for us to debate about my friend. Thanks for responding
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 23, 2008, 02:09 PM
Well I didn't mean to offend, and in efforts not to offend anyone I referreed to rapper's as artists:) Which is okay for the boards right now I feel. Whether I personally consider them artist is another story and to be just I would have to evaluate the individuals work. I'm sure they could put there energy into something more positive since they can appease the masses by giving the junk youth is demanding. I completely grasp what your saying and I agree. As a singer songwriter I couldn't imagine encouraging that sort of violence and filth. :rose Theres nothing for us to debate about my friend. Thanks for responding

Oh my friend I was not offended or debating your point. Perhaps it was my use of the pronoun "you" that made it seem as if I was debating you instead of using a term that was more general. Actually I was re-enforcing your point. I thought your post was valid and right on the mark.   

I especially appreciate that as an artist you can see the responsibility of your influence through the arts. My hat is off to you.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 23, 2008, 07:27 PM
Mistress, I didn't get your message for some reason, but thanks for your consent to use your quote.
I've been following your posts and you are right on the money. I especially like your attitude about artists taking responsibility for their work.  In every art venue the artist enjoys the influence of their art, but somehow in the hip-hop world we are suppose to believe they can spread their influence yet be divorced from it at the same time.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 23, 2008, 07:30 PM
Cappy, nothing I can add to your post. One can't ignore the logic of them. Of course if one is indisposed to listen, then that's another story.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 23, 2008, 11:47 PM
As far as the 50 cent case goes...

This is a tricky can of worms. He is an entertainer, whether you choose to be entertained by him or not.
Where do we draw the line? If Robert Deniro or Samuel Jackson decide to put a hole in someones head,
or even one the many people that have seen their movies, for example, "Goodfellas", and "Pulp Fiction"
Do we legally pursue Martin Scorcese, and Quentin Tarantino?

You ask a good question. The truth of the matter is that many fields of entertainment have found themselves at the bench of a civil case defending their contribution to whatever was influenced by the entertainment. Oprah Winfrey, the talk show host  (can't think of her name) where after the show a guest went home and killed another guest, producers of violent games. There are many private citizens that are held accountable for their behavior and how their neglect of their children has affected their behavior. The where do we draw the line is not a question of solution when one problem is being addressed as opposed to other problems that should be addressed.

What about folks who commit a crime and say they were just following the likes of Farrakhan? or the Klu Klux Klan?
What about someone like Timothy McVeigh who blamed his actions on influences from society, and the Government?

It stops at the point that they do harm. By extention are you saying that the columbine killers should not have been intervened until they killed? The signs were there. Guess what--- violent rap. Other free speech web sites that fed their hate. None of that had an influence? None of those incitements are culpable? Certainly the ones that committed the act are guilty. But the driver of the getaway car after a murder is complicit in the murder.

Where does it stop? I think it stops at the 1st amendment. Maybe I'm wrong, butI willingly sat by as the Patriot Act was passed, and regardless of all the good that might have come from it, we have to be really careful when we decide to modify our rights.

I quickly acknowledge anyones freedom of speech under the first amendment. However in civil law though you have a right to produce things, use the guise of art as an expression or even speak poetically to express yourself , you are not entitled to boundaryless protected speech. Remember my example a couple of post ago? The one where I pointed out that if a person were to use the vernacular of the rap artist talking to their mother, a friend or at work and how the freedom of speech would lead to immediate negative consequences. Free to say something is not a defense to lower the moral radar to the degree rap does.

Or else, we could wake up in a country where we are not even allowed....to hold this discussion.

That, my friend, is a hell of a lot scarier, to me, than any rapper's influence.

I know you mean well but I must speak freely and say that is a strawman defense. When we are challenged in a manner that comes up on a daily basis but the challenge is something we want to defend then all of the sudden we are going to be living in a country where our speech will be regulated. I hate to tell you this but it already is. There are cursing in public laws, there are laws against hate crimes based on speech that incites to riot or kill. You can't yell "fire" in a public building. You can't hold a conversation while in a court room observing a trial. There are English only moves that regulate other people's freedom to speak in their language. Actors, politicians, private citizens, ethnic leaders, clergymen and women, teachers, policemen, mayors even people on this forum have been held accountable not for their freedom of speech but for the content of that speech. And yet the 1st amendment survives.

Rap does not enjoy an immunity from the same type of societal scrutiny that we all have a right to bring especially if that scrutiny is brought about to protect the common good of that society. Yes it is just that serious. Not seeing that is what scares me.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 24, 2008, 12:25 AM

My point was/is: money is the source of all evil. I wasn't defending all thats wrong with rap, and there is plenty.

Ok I can accept that to a degree. Here is where I differ. Even though money is the draw selling out for that money to do what the artist do is still not a justifiable reason to denigrate our people. I'm happy to hear that there are somethings about rap that you are not defending.

I am not defending the dynamics that contribute to the larger problem, nor am I hiding behind larger problems of society, in fact I was trying not to separate the two. What I was defending was the culture of hip-hop and its origins, and that in its current state, its obsession with violence, and degradation in essence defeats its own purpose for existing in the first place.

Yes I remember your explanation of the culture and it's origins. I really appreciated that and your expressions of how hip-hop has morphed into what it is today. I appreciate what you are saying above but you are not consistent with that. An example is below.

That messenger was on my corner, hanging out with me, and yeah certain slang was used when talking amongst ourselves, but these same people had enough sense to separate  "shit talking" with being respectful when it came to our mothers, sisters, grandmothers, girlfriends, wives, and daughters. To try to explain the verbal dynamic, and its complexities, for me, right now, just seems to be an area that I really don't want to dive into, a lot of folks wouldn't understand, no matter how much I typed.

Here is the example. You admit to your own involvement to the degree  that I'm assuming you use the language of 'rap'. If that is so I'm saying to you that is part of the general acceptance for the denigrating language that is commonplace among us. If it is not something you would want said to your mother why is it something that is ok as an art form to be said about everyone's mother? There are no verbal complexities. The verbal dynamics mean what they say everytime they say it.

This whole hiding thing, I dont understand that, have I not tried to voice my opinion in the wake of opposition? I am here, writing to you, and agreeing with many things you say: African Americans certainly do deserve much better than what most of todays hip-hop culture portrays, and the ill effects it is having on all youths, of any color.

Yes you have and have done a much better job of doing that in the last couple of post. Hiding is saying one thing that may or may not be true that attempts to diminish the first point of discussion. As an example. Freedom of speech is a very solid right of all people. Using freedom of speech to propagate hate is hiding behind freedom of speech. The larger point is what does the speech accomplish not rather or not a person has a right to speak. That is what I mean.

I am pretty adamant about this and I know that comes across as rigid. I'll explain that more below.

Are we relying on the rapper to educate our children, to be role models, to teach them how to act in public, or in a professional atmosphere. Is it easier to point at them, instead of ourselves? And what about what corporate America has done? They do it with skinny models in magazines, they do it in sitcoms, in advertisements. We live in the technology era, where we are bombarded every day by corporate America telling us what to wear, what to drive, what to eat, and how to go about these things. We are being told how to live.

This is what I mean. See the dynamic is there. You mentioned skinny models, have you seen all of the backlash in the news lately? There was even one country that has outlawed skinny models. (I read it can't remember where) Have you seen any backlash at all about advertisements targeting children? When was the last time you saw a cigarette advertisement?

I don't disagree with what you are saying per-say but rather we are relying on rappers or the others that you mentioned as role models, they in fact are. They do not exist in a vacuum.

I believe that it is time for more than just rappers to take personal responsibility for their influences on people, young and old.

Bravo!! I could not agree more!

I am not hiding behind this, I'm living smack dab in the middle of this nonsense, trying to sift things through, and raise my children the right way.

I apologize if my response to you came off negative. Maybe,... there wasn't a lot of wrong in your post,
maybe a lot of opinion, and you have your right to that.

Maybe I was looking for a little bit more...on personal responsibility. We live in the times of instant gratification, and we love to put the blame on everyone else.

I guess at the end of the day it starts with the individual, I mean we cant change others, only ourselves.

And we have nothing else, we always have choice.[/color]

I wish you success with your children. These are scary times to be raising a family. Times are different but we are the ones that have made them different and that is not always a good thing. Yes if we can simply do the right thing as individuals then we can have a positive effect on us as a whole. We can't change others but we don't have to accept something that is bad either. At the end of the day this person(s) that filed the suit will have their day in court. 50 may win. If he does I consider that a collective loss for the rest of us.

Lastly I can appreciate a person standing their ground even if I think they are on the wrong ground. You are ok in my book.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on April 24, 2008, 12:48 AM
I have deleted my previous posts. I apologize for having intruded in this thread.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on April 24, 2008, 04:38 PM
I have deleted my previous posts. I apologize for having intruded in this thread.

I really wish you would not feel that way. A-Friend has done a wonderful job along with the others to have an information/discussion thread about black history and issues that affect black people. Some of those issues are very controversial and people will differ at times strongly with each other.

When I communicate I try to use good reason backed-up by examples and real time situations to at least give my point a sense of creditability as being something other than my personal opinion. I'd like to think that as  I speak facts are presented as well as having the ability to see the other points of view. However seeing or understanding another point of view does not constitute acceptance of it. We debated strongly. It is not personal and I wish you would not take it that way. I would love to see you around here. Fact is I'm rarely here myself as a poster but I sure enjoy the education all of these folks bring.

Don't leave. . .contribute.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on April 24, 2008, 07:00 PM
I just saw the gangsta grandmother video,
I really don't know what else to say.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 24, 2008, 07:45 PM
T7L let me assure you there was no intrusion on your part. This is the place to discuss these types of issues. I invite controversy so it can be hashed out.

Since you've decided to take your posts down there is no need for me to comment other than to say I wish you hadn't. You presented an argument that the public at large doesn't see. By extension you provide the platform to see the opposing view.

Just a word of advice from an old man. Don't take your marbles and go home in the heat of battle. The conversation was respectful, which is what I require, but forceful.  When you are advocating your side and in the heat of battle you just leave, that weakens your stance.  One side or the other is going to have more merit, but that is decided by the facts in the debate.

I applaud you for taking a position, but one must realize their position can be wrong. Either side.

I IMd Cappy just to see what his background is. He's the HRO for the fire dept in his city. He is trained in and has to enforce policies and laws that involve free speech and all the varied situations that comes into play. What you see in his posts will be some of the arguments that will come up in the 50 cents trial.  It won't be a trial based simply on 'I have a right to say it'.

I welcome your participation anytime T7L.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on April 24, 2008, 08:52 PM
Well, for the sake of "my marbles" it doesn't change the fact that I am disappointed to where this genre has evolved.
Why argue about its integrity, when its apparent, for the most part, things just aren't the same anymore.

Also, I suppose your both right in regards to freedom of speech, it is limited.
But what bothers me most is the lost opportunity this genre had for positive change.

For what its worth, its just big business now, over shadowing more important issues.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 25, 2008, 06:26 PM
T7L you are right, it is big business. Where we disagree is rap and hip hop are not over shadowing more important issues, it is the issue.

It's the big business draw, the money, that causes our young people to sell themselves out to this degradation. That's the sad part. Our youth are so demoralized by this culture they can't even see their own self destruction.

I'll restate my open challenge for anyone to show me any other ethnic group that willingly degrades and disgraces themselves on the level as our black youth.

One other thing is being overlooked.
There have been references made to Samuel Jackson and his violent movies. How about Marlin Brando, well just name any actor. When they come off the set, they take that 'cloak' off. They don't leave the set and go to the club acting like gangstas and being fools in general. Shootings, gang fights, disrespecting the public, other patrons and even the workers in those establishments. Their behavior ranges from low class to no class.
The women don't leave that set and go out in the streets dressed the part of whores that they played in the movies.

That's a huge difference. Our youth are already influenced negatively by these videos, but to have the same characters in the clubs and streets acting the same way our youth see them in the videos shows no separation, no distinction between what they are falsely claiming as art, and real life.

West coast against east coast rap, he disrespected me in his lyrics, this is my turf, I'm a thug and my women are no more than hoes and bitches... this is how they act in the videos and they never take that cloak off.

Toupac died for what? All those other rappers that have pulled time or got killed died for what?  Snoop dog is banned out of some airports and countries because he and his crew can't even travel without acting like straight fools.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 25, 2008, 07:02 PM
Once again we have solid proof that the value of a black man's life in New York city is zero.
The courts have sanctioned open season on black men, again. Is there any wonder why we have so much black anger out there?

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 29, 2008, 02:26 PM
On April 16th in post #349, I posted an article about the Tennesse Board of Regents denying the freedom riders honorary Doctorate Degrees. They gave some lame excuse for not doing so.
Here is the link to that article:
http://news.yahoo.com/s/usatoday/20080415/cm_usatoday/historicfreedomridersdeserveadegreeofrespect;_ylt=AhyZFbVe9TOuo9xAqCFzbWSs0NUE (http://news.yahoo.com/s/usatoday/20080415/cm_usatoday/historicfreedomridersdeserveadegreeofrespect;_ylt=AhyZFbVe9TOuo9xAqCFzbWSs0NUE)

These freedom riders were expelled from the college they were attending and were never even notified as to why. They were denied their education and who knows what kind of lively hood because of Tennessee' support of the racism of the time. The freedom riders were punished for their support of the freedom movement and their actions.

A moment of salute to those freedom riders. They knew the difference between participating in an event and a movement. Anyone can support a single event, but these freedom riders put their lives on the line. They put their futures on the line as well as their education. They could have just as easily been murdered like so many others were during the civil rights movement.
The deserved to be honored with these doctorate degrees for their bravery, leadership and sacrifice. The board of regents totally ignored the choice the freedom riders took set this country on a path that benefited all Americans, including them.

I am happy to announce that on april 25th the board of regents reversed their decision. They did so without comment as to why, but I'll tell you why. They were inundated with protests demanding they do the right thing. The howls of protests, bad press and bad publicity could not be ignored.
One cannot hold onto the vestiges of racism, using it to justify continuing punishment for actions taken that were proved to be right and righteous.
At some point doing the right thing has to be demanded and wrongs have to be made right. Demanded it was and the Tennessee Board of Regents heard the public outcry loud and clear.

http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2008/apr/25/tenn-board-regents-reconsiders-honors-freedom-ride/ (http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2008/apr/25/tenn-board-regents-reconsiders-honors-freedom-ride/)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on May 04, 2008, 07:36 PM
Amen to this! "At some point doing the right thing has to be demanded and wrongs have to be made right."
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 05, 2008, 02:04 AM
Thanks for stopping by dear Witt. If only that were practiced more.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 11, 2008, 08:08 PM
Back in the late 70's I met a lady that became a dear friend. Her name is Pam and she, her sons, husband, and mother became close family friends. Some time in the 80's I met Pam's Uncle Larry.
He was well to do, but an unassuming everyday Joe. He had a heart as big as all outdoors and we took to each other immediately.
He came to West Virginia one time to help Pam move. I'll never forget when he got to a stop sign on a steep hill, he couldn't get the truck going. Just wasn't used to a truck on a hill with a clutch.
I got in the truck, he got in my car we we drove over to the WVA turnpike where we parted ways.

I heard from him through Pam on several occasions, but in Nov 1993 I got a call that uncle Larry had passed. I was saddened by the news, but I hold many good memories of Uncle Larry.

This is where history is so important when we speak of people, cultures, places, ect.
This unassuming regular Joe that I knew as Uncle Larry was none other than Capt. Lawrence Earl Flint, Jr. USN retired.


Now who was Capt. Flint? Here's an excerp from 'Flightdeck Friday' about a program that was call 'PROJECT TOP FLIGHT'...
Two programs were established based on altitude � Operation Skyburner for the high altitude events and Operation Sageburner for the low altitude. Skyburn commenced on 9 Dec 1959 with an attempt at the world altitude record (Operation Top Flight). Taking off from Edwards AFB, the second YF4H-1, piloted by CDR Lawrence E. Flint, USN performed a zoom climb to a world record 98,557 feet (30,040 m). The previous record of 94,658 feet (28,852 m) was set by a Soviet Sukhoi T-43-1 (prototype of the Su-9 Fishpot). CDR Flint accelerated his aircraft to Mach 2.5 at 47,000 feet (14,330 m) and climbed to 90,000 feet at a 45 degree angle. He then shut down the engines and glided to the peak altitude. As the aircraft fell through 70,000 feet, Flint restarted the engines and resumed normal flight. To put this in perspective, the maximum altitude of the U-2A, then being secretly flown over the Soviet Union, was 75 � 80,000 ft. In 1960, records were set over closed courses of 500 km (311 mi) and 100 km (62 mi) respectively with speeds of 1,216.78 mph and 1,390.21 mph.

http://steeljawscribe.com/2007/03/23/flightdeck-friday-the-yf4h-1-phantom-ii-operations-skyburner-and-sageburner (http://steeljawscribe.com/2007/03/23/flightdeck-friday-the-yf4h-1-phantom-ii-operations-skyburner-and-sageburner)

WOW!!!     Uncle Larry???
He also holds the world altitude record of 98560 feet.
The� National Naval Aviation Museum Foundation has this record of his achievments:

Capt. Lawerence Earl Flint Jr. USN June 24, 1920 - November 16, 1993.
Fighter Pilot WWII
World altitude record of 98,560 feet.
Awarded two Distinguished Flying Crosses, seven Air Medals, Asiatic/Pacific Theater (6 Stars), Korea (2 Stars), Vietnam Service Medal.

He never talked about it. I just recently learned the history of this great man through my friend Pam.
What a lesson on the importance of history. What a great man he was, but we just called him Uncle Larry.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 17, 2008, 03:04 AM
There was a note worthy black history event that took place recently. I'm fairly certain it will be a
Black History fact that will make its way into triva games for years to come.

To wit, Morehouse College, the only all male historically black college in the USA.
Morehouse has a long history dating back to 1867, two years after the civil war. It was first established in the basement of a church in Augusta, Ga., and now resides in Atlanta, Ga. The establishment of an all male black school was necessitated by the racism of the time, right up to segregation, prejudice and classicism in our modern times. Morehouse has been a leader in making America a better place by educating and graduating strong black men, including Dr. Martin Luther King.

The legacy of Morehouse College:
http://www.morehouse.edu/about/ (http://www.morehouse.edu/about/)

Fast forward to said  recent events and focus your attention on a 22 year old young man by the name of Joshua Packwood.  He was a Rhodes Scholar fianalist and recieved a full scholarship to attend Columbia University.  Joshua turned down Ivy League scholarships to attend Morehouse College.
Joshua's interest was in African American Studies and he felt Morehouse was the place to give him the best opportunity in that endeavor.
Joshua's childhood was not easy, but it lead him into choosing Morehouse and ,once there, he became very popular, being elected dorm president and to class council during his freshmen year.
His experience was not totally peaches and cream, but he mantained a 4.0 GPA which was outstanding to say the least.
His diligence and hard work paid off and this week he started his first job with the prestigious investment banking firm Goldman Sachs on Wall Street.

Impressive, but not the note worthy history I was speaking about.

On June 18 2008 Joshua Packwood will be back at Morehouse College to attend the graduation ceremonies. He will walk across that stage being the center of attention and recieve his diploma as the class Valedictorian.

Joshua Packwood...the first white male Valedictorian in the 141 year history of an all black college.

Black History before your very eyes:
http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/05/16/white.valedictorian/?iref=hpmostpop (http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/05/16/white.valedictorian/?iref=hpmostpop)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on May 17, 2008, 03:24 AM
This is a truly beautiful event:  I hope that the numerous important lessons that can be learned, will be learned.  I hope that this event, which is one in a sea of changes, will resonate.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 17, 2008, 04:43 AM
Well hey there Allen. Welcome back.
You are right about lessons being learned from Joshua Packwood. He got his place in black history the old fashioned way; he earned it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 19, 2008, 11:00 PM
Take a look around you. Look at your neighbors, the merchants and the other people you do business with, the minister at the church on the corner, the people who teach your children. Now, go a little further afield. Look at the people you see on the evening news: the executives of corporations who put profits before public health concerns, the drug dealers, the sex offenders and child abusers. Imagine that all of these people were allowed to own other people. Think about it. Let it really sink in. Anyone of them could own a person who, if she ran away, could be tracked down by the police and returned to her owner They could own people who would not be allowed to testify against them in court, no matter what they did. And they would automatically own the children of the women who were their property.

So it was in time of slavery. Any one or combination thereof could own slaves. There were no laws, no social stigmas, no protections in place for the slave. Man, women, or child could be subjected to the most horrendous things and be whipped, sold or even killed for complaining.

The above eye opening quote and many other interesting facts can be found in this study:

http://www.theblackmarket.com/slavefaq.htm#The%20Black%20Migration%20West (http://www.theblackmarket.com/slavefaq.htm#The%20Black%20Migration%20West)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on May 20, 2008, 03:11 AM
Back in the late 70's I met a lady that became a dear friend. Her name is Pam and she, her sons, husband, and mother became close family friends. Some time in the 80's I met Pam's Uncle Larry.
He was well to do, but an unassuming everyday Joe. He had a heart as big as all outdoors and we took to each other immediately.
He came to West Virginia one time to help Pam move. I'll never forget when he got to a stop sign on a steep hill, he couldn't get the truck going. Just wasn't used to a truck on a hill with a clutch.
I got in the truck, he got in my car we we drove over to the WVA turnpike where we parted ways.

This clearly demonstrates that you can never assume anything about people. How many times have we seen an older person bent over from life and get impatient with them for being in the way. How about the person on the corner that we think is little more than a wino. So many people have impacted our nation or town and never get accolades for their quiet manner of serving mankind for the sake of serving mankind.

What a lesson we can learn from this.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 21, 2008, 08:18 PM
Awhile back I promised to do a series on the life of the female slave. I will start to post excerpts and I encourage comments. I'll put them in quote boxes so you'll know they are not my words.

The first subject matter will be about breeding. Yes breeding, the black women was seen the same as one would any other livestock. Cow, pig, horse, ect...

The death-rate amongst slaves was high. To replace their losses, plantation owners encouraged the slaves to have children. Child-bearing started around the age of thirteen, and by twenty the women slaves would be expected to have four or five children. To encourage child-bearing some population owners promised women slaves their freedom after they had produced fifteen children.

Young women were often advertised for sale as "good breeding stock". To encourage child-bearing some population owners promised women slaves their freedom after they had produced fifteen children. One slave trader from Virginia boasted that his successful breeding policies enabled him to sell 6,000 slave children a year.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 23, 2008, 05:38 PM
Charles Ball was married and living in Maryland when he was sold to a master in South Carolina.
Following is an excerpt form his account in the slave narratives.

About sunrise we took up our march on the road to Columbia, as we were told. Hitherto our master had not offered to sell any of us, and had even refused to stop to talk to any one on the subject of our sale, although he had several times been addressed on this point, before we reached Lancaster; but soon after we departed from this village, we were overtaken on the road by a man on horseback, who accosted our driver by asking him if his niggars were for sale. The latter replied, that he believed he would not sell any yet, as he was on his way to Georgia, and cotton being now much in demand, he expected to obtain high prices for us from persons who were going to settle in the new purchase. He, however, contrary to his custom, ordered us to stop, and told the stranger he might look at us, and that he would find us as fine a lot of hands as were ever imported into the country - that we were all prime property, and he had no doubt would command his own prices in Georgia.

The stranger, who was a thin, weather-beaten, sunburned figure, then said, he wanted a couple of breeding wenches, and would give as much for them as they would bring in Georgia. He then walked along our line, as we stood chained together, and looked at the whole of us - then turning to the women; asked the prices of the two pregnant ones. Our master replied, that these were two of the best breeding-wenches in all Maryland - that one was twenty-two, and the other only nineteen - that the first was already the mother of seven children, and the other of four - that he had himself seen the children at the time he bought their mothers - and that such wenches would be cheap at a thousand dollars each; but as they were not able to keep up with the gang, he would take twelve hundred dollars for the two.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 26, 2008, 10:24 PM
Was there any value placed on the virtue of the slave women? Let me amend that, the female slave, as it didn't matter the age of the female if those in power wanted her.

Bear witness to:

Olaudah Equiano, The Life of Olaudah Equiano the African (1789)

While I was thus employed by my master, I was often a witness to cruelties of every kind, which were exercised on my unhappy fellow slaves. I used frequently to have different cargoes of new Negroes in my care for sale; and it was almost a constant practice with our clerks, and other whites, to commit violent depredations on the chastity of the female slaves; and these I was, though with reluctance, obliged to submit to at all times, being unable to help them.

When we have had some of these slaves on board my master's vessels, to carry them to other islands, or to America, I have known our mates to commit these acts most shamefully, to the disgrace, not of Christians only, but of men. I have even known them to gratify their brutal passion with females not ten years old; and these abominations, some of them practised to such scandalous excess, that one of our captains discharged the mate and others on that account.

And yet in Montserrat I have seen a Negro man staked to the ground, and cut most shockingly, and then his ears cut off bit by bit, because he had been connected with a white woman, who was a common prostitute. As if it were no crime in the whites to rob an innocent African girl of her virtue, but most heinous in a black man only to gratify a passion of nature, where the temptation was offered by one of a different color, though the most abandoned woman of her species.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 03, 2008, 09:39 PM
 W. L. Bost, aged 88 from Asheville, North Carolina, interviewed as part of the Federal Writers Project in 1937.

Plenty of the colored women have children by the white men. She know better than to not do what he say. Didn't have much of that until the men from South Carolina come up here and settle and bring slaves. Then they take them very same children what have they own blood and make slaves out of them. If the missus find out she raise revolution. But she hardly find out. The white men not going to tell and the nigger women were always afraid to. So they just go on hoping that things won't be that way always.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 06, 2008, 12:20 AM
During the last week of August 1619, just twelve years after the James Town Virginia colony was founded, the first twenty slaves were bought. So began America's participation in the era of the Middle Passage, ergo, the slave trade. During any one year more than seventy thousand slaves would be transported across the Atlantic to America. Millions were transported, but up to 20% of the slaves would die during the journey and would be thrown overboard. Some slaves would jump overboard to escape their fate. Hundreds of thousands died. Sharks quickly learned to follow the slaves ships.

Power point presentation:
http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/Altoro-33001-Slavery-Capture-Middle-Passage-Destination-Auction-Seasoning-Beginnings-United-Sta-as-Entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/ (http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/Altoro-33001-Slavery-Capture-Middle-Passage-Destination-Auction-Seasoning-Beginnings-United-Sta-as-Entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/)

Fast forward to 1808.
America outlawed the importation of slaves. Even though slaves were still imported, thus ended America's participation in the Middle Passage.

Fast forward to 1865.
Slavery was outlawed at the end of the Civil War, however, laws do not abolish evil. The evil and ignorance of racism soon stole back all the hard earned rights of the ex salves and that steadily evolved into segregation, lynchings, murders, KKK and all the evil racism brings.

http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/blackcodes/a/blackcodes1865.htm (http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/blackcodes/a/blackcodes1865.htm)
As newly freed slaves would soon learn, freedom was not as they had anticipated. White Southerners were anxious to regain power over them and used the law in order to achieve that objective. In 1865, Southerners created Black Codes, which served as a way to inhibit the freedom of ex-slaves. Codes controlled almost all aspects of life and prohibited African Americans from the freedom that had been won.

Fast forward to WWII.
A black soldier was shot in the head charging a German machine gun nest. At the time there was an experimental surgery for head wounds and the Army needed people to try it on. This black soldier was operated on with no anesthesia. The steel plate did save his life, but he always said he knew the experimental surgery was more important to the Army than him living.
This black soldier went on to win two purple hearts and the Bronze Star for Valor.
When he came home he still was not a full citizen of the country he served so gallantly. He couldn't go in a front door, couldn't even drink from a public water fountain.
I watched him get arrested one day for yelling at a white man who ran a stop light and almost hit his car right in front of the cop.
This black soldier was my father.

Fast forward to the civil rights movement.
The freedom riders, the church bombings, the four little black girls blown to bits during church service in Alabama. The murder of the civil rights workers in Philadelphia Miss. The murder of Medgar Evers, Doc Martin Luther King, the lynching of Emmit Till. The beatings, the dogs, the water hoses, being jailed, Selma, Al., the march on Washington DC...on and on for what seemed to be an endless battle just for black people to be called citizen.

Fast forward to 1964 and the passage of the Civil Rights Act.
It was a glorious day with celebrations and back slapping, but had black people arrived to full citizenship? No!! The only way one can be a full citizen is to have the right to vote. Black people still had no unimpeded right to vote.

Fast forward to 1965 and the passage of the Voting Rights Act.
For the first time my father (over 25 years after being shot in the head and used as an experiment in war) and black people became full citizens.

What is my point? Through all the struggles from slavery until 1965 we as black people were not full citizens. It has only been 43 years, just 43 short years since citizenship. The memories are still clear for black people who fought in this struggle.�
Those of you that still think 'we' should get over it need to reflect on that. The black struggle just to be recognized as full citizens of this country cost many lives, sufferings, destroyed families...all the pains one could imagine in many multiples, from 1609 to 1965. This is fresh raw history, not some ancient abstract history that needs to be forgotten.

In the 200 years from 1808 to 2008, and especially the last 43 years, look at the steps black people have made.
For the first time in history, Tuesday June 3, 2008 a black man has been nominated for the highest office in the United States. The son of a rice farmer is in line for the most powerful office in modern times. This is monumental history.
I wish my father was alive to see this. If you see black people smiling and celebrating, yes, it's personal.
To see this day is very emotional for us.

Does this mean black people have finally arrived? Is this the end of the evil racists and racism? No. Anyone that thinks it is, just listen to Bill O'Riley, Limbaugh, John Gibson, Hannity (a bigger idiot and liar than Limbaugh, if that's possible) and all the regular haters on Fox news or on the internet. They are apoplectic!!!
What this means is one black man has made a difference. History is made by those that stay awake, not those that are lulled into a cozy comfort zone.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: WordFaery on June 14, 2008, 06:20 PM
The Colored Musicians Club has an updated website

http://www.coloredmusiciansclub.org/ (http://www.coloredmusiciansclub.org/)

also here's a link to an interview with folks from the Colored Musicians Club

http://www.thinktwiceradio.com/sue-marie/audio/080414.mp3 (http://www.thinktwiceradio.com/sue-marie/audio/080414.mp3)

The Colored Musicians Club and the Buffalo Music Hall of Fame will benefit from a special show this evening

   " On Saturday, June 14, 2008, three Buffalo based bands invite you to spend an evening at the Tralf located in Buffalo's Theatre District downtown at 622 Main Street Buffalo NY 14202 (716) 852-2860 to benefit the Buffalo Music Hall of Fame and the Historic Colored Musicians Club. "  from the press release 
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 15, 2008, 02:20 PM
Word, that was very enjoyable. Thanks for posting it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 18, 2008, 08:00 PM
Well here's one that came out of nowhere while I was reading another link.
Anybody remember the Lindy Hop?  For you youngsters, that's a dance.
Where did the Lindy Hop come from?
What influence did it have on other popular dances that we love so dearly now, such as the West Coast Swing?
What does any of this have to do with Black History?

Here's a good start on researching the links between dance and Black History:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 28, 2008, 02:36 AM
I was going to do a study on dance and black history, but I had an email recently that made me want to see what different people, both modern and late, said about racism. We'll do a study about dance later.

I'll post some quotations from various people just for thought. Some I'll comment on, some I won't, but I hope to spark some honest dialogue about racism.

We should have learnt by now that laws and court decisions can only point the way. They can establish criteria of right and wrong. And they can provide a basis for rooting out the evils of bigotry and racism. But they cannot wipe away centuries of oppression and injustice however much we might desire it.

I have often said laws do not and can not abolish evil. The only thing that can abolish evil is people. Us, we, they, them and all that 'people' entail, can move from the cultural conditioning of racism, and forward to a mindset of inclusiveness.

Who is this quote from? Hubert Humphrey 6/1/1966 in a Whitehouse conference speech.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on June 28, 2008, 02:53 PM
This is a very insightful, and well thought out comment.

Of course, in a country such as 21st century America, with its enormous opportunity; ultimately, and with few exceptions, it will be enlightened individual choice which will lead the way to a better life experience for all.

Nevertheless, as Mr. Humphry states, society and its law-makers have an obligation to lead, and set high expectations for its people.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on June 28, 2008, 04:47 PM
To me it is the parents that fuel racism. It seems to get passed down through the generations. Once people have children of their own, and those children aren't influenced by Grandma or Aunt Biddy, then perhaps the children can learn to accept people for people and not perpetuate the evils.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 28, 2008, 09:19 PM
Allen, the operative words of your sentence are 'enlightened' and 'choice'. You are so right!! If only we could develop a society that does not fear doing either.
Unfortunately we still have narcissistic organizations that breed racism, but it 'ain't' as bad as it was.

Witt, you defined precisely how racism is perpetuated. It's taught. We are all born innocent to such hate and nonsense and its shameful how one generation after another passes it on.

"The false teachers of churchianity justify interracial marriages in order to keep the White race blind to administering God's laws."--KKK

I need some help on this one. The only thing I can think of is not all stupid people are racist, but all racists are stupid people.

I found this quote by Eric Hoffer who was a U. S. philosopher. He was speaking on the human condition:
Sometimes we feel the loss of a prejudice as a loss of vigor.

This helps me to better understand the KKK quote.
I haven't the mental capacity to grasp the inner workings of the racist mind, but it seems Hoffer is saying there are those that are energized by prejudice.
Racism feeds on itself, but I can see where Hoffer is also implying that prejudice makes one lazy. After all how much work or effort does one have to put into preconcieved notions? One doesn't have to bother to think about the positives of other cultures. Its easier for the racist to invigorate himself by not having to inconvenience himself with the art of thinking, and assigning the same qualities to others that he sees in himself.
Which brings me back to my original conclusion, right?

All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will, to be rightful, must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal laws must protect, and to violate would be oppression.� --Thomas Jefferson

It never ceases to amaze me that such stalwart citizens could recognize the need for freedom and constitutionally assigned rights for themselves, but could not see the outrage of owning slaves.

"Don't be in a hurry to condemn because he doesn't do what you do or think as you think or as fast. There was a time when you didn't know what you know today."---Malcom X

One can connect the dots from slavery to modern times with this quote. Every vestige of humanity was stripped from the slave, yet he was condemned for not being human. But what was it in the lack of the slave holder's own humanity that he did not know?

Women condemned as too weak or uneducated to vote. Condemned, even in our day, as mere sex objects to be owned, but what is it in the sexist he does not know that allows such feelings?

Segregation, classism, oppression, lynchings, the glass ceiling, ...all the things that were designed and implemented to keep minorities down, a step behind and ignorant. Yet because the results of the designed systems of oppression manifests itself in real people trying to catch up, they are condemned as being too slow, unworthy, or dumb. Yet, what is it in those that designed and perpetuated the racists systems they do not know that allows them to revel in the pathetic conditions they created?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on June 29, 2008, 01:30 PM
I put this in the Sweet & Short section, but I think that it fits appropriately here as well.

The blind see what they want to see.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 30, 2008, 05:23 PM
June Jordan (1936-2003) was a poet, civil rights activist, Prof. of African american studies at Berkley University, Director of English and Poetry Director of The Poetry Center at Stony Brook, and she was in the English faculty at City College of New York, Yale University, Sarah Lawrence College, Connecticut College.

From those credentials I give you this quote:
In America, the traditional routes to black identity have hardly been normal. Suicide (disappearance by imitation, or willed extinction), violence (hysterical religiosity, crime, armed revolt), and exemplary moral courage; none of these is normal.

Ohh the essays I could write from this.

Anybody get the meaning of what she's saying? I'm open for any dialogue on this one.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 30, 2008, 05:34 PM
The common goal of 22 million Afro-Americans is respect as human beings, the God-given right to be a human being. Our common goal is to obtain the human rights that America has been denying us. We can never get civil rights in America until our human rights are first restored. We will never be recognized as citizens there until we are first recognized as humans.
Malcolm X

All the blood, deaths, and sacrifices made by generations of black men, women and children on the precipice of being wasted by this generation's lack of knoweldge about where they came from.
Black on Black crime, this filthy Hip-Hop culture, drugs, the ritualization and glorification of our young women as sex objects...just on and on.
How do we ask others to respect us, if 'we' don't respect ourselves?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 10, 2008, 05:11 PM
This morning I sat down at my local eatery and while perusing the local paper I almost fell off the stool. Here I am reading history in real time that I never thought I'd live to see.

Let me tell you a short story.
1951, Prince Edward County, just 41 miles from where I was raised.
We were in the heart and heat of segregation and things were about to get hotter. The heat was turned up by Barbara Johns, then 16 years old.  She was fed up with the substandard separate but equal laws of segregation. At the time she attended Moton High school in Farmville, Va.
On April 23, 1951 she led a walkout to protest segregation.

She had no idea what would happen, but this was the beginning of the events that would lead to the Supreme Court ruling in 1954 on Brown V. Board of Education which ruled segregation as unconstitutional.
This led to what the state of Virginia called massive resistance, because in 1959 Farmville, Va., Prince Edward County and others simply closed their schools rather than follow the law. Prince Edward County's resistance was used by schools all over America as a way not to follow the law. You all will recall it was not until 1964, ( ten years of state sanctioned criminal behavior and no one yet has been called into account) after many more murders, lynchings, blood shed, marches, misery, ect, that the civil rights act forced the intergration of schools.

Well today I read where Prince Edward County is not only apologizing for that traversty of justice, but are putting a civil rights memorial and perpetual light on the State grounds to honor those first 17 students that walked out  in 1951.
The truth of this walkout being recgonized with a historical monument in this area is just unhearded of. I applaud the 7 that voted for this apology and call on the 1 that didn't to move into 21st century with the rest of us.

Here is a link to the story:


A link to the chronological events leading to Brown V. Board of education including real time audio and newspaper clips:


Justice delayed to one, means it could happen to any one of us. One cannot change what has already happened, but one can show contrition at any point in time for the sake of healing. Contrition has no staute of limitations and, when it happens, it should be recgonized and applauded.
Here is just such an event. I missed this article from 2005:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on July 10, 2008, 07:37 PM
"One cannot change what has already happened, but one can show contrition at any point in time for the sake of healing. Contrition has no staute of limitations and, when it happens, it should be recgonized and applauded."

Truer words have never been spoken!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 11, 2008, 02:01 PM
Thank you for the feedback my dear Witt.  Sometimes I wonder if I'm saying things the right way to reach the heart. It's nice to see that once in a great while I succeed. Ohhhh to have the linguistic skills of an English professor.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on July 12, 2008, 02:27 AM
I too remember the debacle well. At the same time Lynchburg closed all of the public pools and filled them with fill dirt rather than de-segregate the pools. There were two Olympic sized pools white only and one much smaller pool that was for “coloreds” but whites could go there if they wanted too.

The scars on the landscape still exist in the Riverside Park where part of the aqua-blue wall whites only pool protrudes above ground resembling a tombstone. It serves as a constant reminder of the cruelty of an era not that far in the past. Several of my classmates where turned away on a July 4 holiday where the pool was to be opened and hot dogs served as a celebration. But that was meant only for whites.

Later during the summer a “colored” boy drowned in the James River at a local watering hole. The local newspaper took great pleasure in blaming the NAACP and local meddlers for causing the drowning of the child. After all if they had not tried to enter the whites only pool then the pools would not have been closed and the little boy would have had a place to swim. This editorial was agreed too by the then city manager. By the way no sympathy was expressed to the parents of the drowned boy.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 12, 2008, 03:13 PM
Thanks for the post Cappy. This is real history.

I found this link this morning. It has pictures in real time at the County seat in Farmville, Va.
The article is short, but the pictures sets the mood of the times.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on July 12, 2008, 03:23 PM
Thanks, cappy, for the reminder. I practically grew up at the public pool. Or, should I say that I'm lucky that I grew up at all because I usually stayed at the bottom of the pool, so my mom tells me. She was always having to fish me out. I finally did learn to swim, however and was there at the pool every chance that I got. Every morning and every afternoon. We had to rest at lunch time due to polio. (That was before the vaccine. That dates me, doesn't it?)
Anyway, our town did the same thing. They filled over the pool for the same reason. I remember crying and crying. I couldn't understand why because I sure didn't mind who came to swim. We could all play together. To this day when I go back home for a visit, I drive by where the old pool was and wish that people didn't have such hate in their hearts. The children sure didn't!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on July 13, 2008, 12:30 AM
Thanks for the post Cappy. This is real history.

I found this link this morning. It has pictures in real time at the County seat in Farmville, Va.
The article is short, but the pictures sets the mood of the times.


I can remember when the family drove through Prince Edward County that Dad was extra careful not to draw attention to us. Being so young at the time I was confused about what all of the ruckus was about. Why close schools? Where would everyone go to school? There was much discussion in all of the black communities as you can well imagine.

I am pleased that Farmville is doining this. No healing can take place without it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on July 13, 2008, 01:33 AM
Thanks, cappy, for the reminder. I practically grew up at the public pool. Or, should I say that I'm lucky that I grew up at all because I usually stayed at the bottom of the pool, so my mom tells me. She was always having to fish me out. I finally did learn to swim, however and was there at the pool every chance that I got. Every morning and every afternoon. We had to rest at lunch time due to polio. (That was before the vaccine. That dates me, doesn't it?)
Anyway, our town did the same thing. They filled over the pool for the same reason. I remember crying and crying. I couldn't understand why because I sure didn't mind who came to swim. We could all play together. To this day when I go back home for a visit, I drive by where the old pool was and wish that people didn't have such hate in their hearts. The children sure didn't!

Wow that is the first time that I have heard that another locality did this. Somehow this never occurred to me.

Any way there is a postscript to the story. The city built an Olympic pool right in the same place that the other was filled in. After all of these years I find that I could not go to that pool. I was angry that the city sold this preposterous idea that they were doing something good for the citizens.

This year I had an opportunity to get to know a city council woman that was heavily involved with the rebuilding project. I talked with her about her experience with getting the pool project moving and her feelings about why the pool was filled in. She was not from this area when that happened. Her motive in fact was to do something good. This was the first time in over forty years that I was faced with my own thought process of hate for that location. The first time I had a reason to think differently than what happened in 1961.  The encounter was revealing, interesting and cleansing. I’m thinking of paying that place a visit.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 14, 2008, 03:30 AM
Well I'm sure glad you managed not to stay at the bottom of the pool too long Witt.

Cappy, take the plunge. Sorry I just couldn't resist the pun.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 14, 2008, 03:34 AM
"I could never adjust to the separate waiting rooms, separate eating places, separate rest rooms, partly because the separate was always unequal, and partly because the very idea of separation did something to my sense of dignity and self-respect."  1958
Who? Martin Luther King.

"Segregation...not only harms one physically but injures one spiritually...It scars the soul...It is a system which forever stares the segregated in the face, saying 'You are less than...' 'You are not equal to...'"
Again Martin Luther King. I couldn't verify the date.

King's position was one of nonviolence. Was it the right position and if so, why?
"Hate begets hate; violence begets violence; toughness begets a greater toughness. We must meet the forces of hate with the power of love...Our aim must never be to defeat or humiliate the white man, but to win his friendship and understanding."  1958
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 20, 2008, 03:42 AM
Take a look around you. Your house, car, where you work, the bridge over the river, that fancy grill in your back yard. How about some components in your TV or stove, all those buildings that make a distinctive sky line. All these things from the most elaborate war machines and the space shuttle right down to the fishing gear in your tackle box have one thing in common... STEEL.

William Kelly of Eddyville, Kentucky in 1847 is largely credited with the invention of steel. Later on Henry Bessemer is credited with reinventing Kelly's method. They make a nice story, but its fiction.

Want to know the origin of the metal that makes our life so pleasant today?
An African tribe known as the Haya's. They had been making refined steel 2000 years before William Kelly.

A most enlightening audio or script link:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on July 23, 2008, 03:40 PM
That is truly fascinating, Earl.  I would never have known that.  Infact, if i was playing one of those "truth or bluff" games, I would surely have lost this one.

Once again, I learn something.  Absolutely brilliant.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 24, 2008, 06:47 AM
Thanks for the feed back Allen. I came across this while looking for something else. I'm continualy amazed by these tidbits as well.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on July 24, 2008, 02:57 PM
Very interesting!
Isn't it amazing how people can spin things to be the way they want them to be?  Most of us don't have a clue to most everything. Hey! Is that a Witt's witticism or what?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 24, 2008, 04:21 PM
Yes that's a Witt witticism. In fact your witticism touches on the true nature of the problem it addressed. Those that control the pen, control what is written, ergo the spin. We are just touching the tip of the iceberg.

Thanks for following along.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on July 26, 2008, 04:28 PM
26 July 1948 Executive Order 9981 was issued by President Harry Truman. For the first time in American history a legally binding order was set forth to desegregate the Armed Forces.

But, as with so many events in Black History, this order was delayed for quite some time. It wasn't untill 30 September 1954 that the last all black unit was abolished.
Was the military then in full compliance with Executive Order 9981?  No!!  It would take the military an additional nine years to comply by the issuanceof Department of Defense Directive 5120.36 on 26 July 1963.
This policy, issued by Secretary of Defense Robert J. McNamara, expanded the militarys responsibility to include the elimination of off-base discrimination detrimental to the military effectiveness of black servicemen.
It took a full 15 years to impliment Harry Truman's order to desegregate the military, but to the credit of the military, even though they came to desegregation kicking and screaming, they were ahead of the country at large by being 1 year ahead of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and 2 years ahead of the Voting Rights Act.

Today is the 60th anniversary of this event. Here is a link to a very interesting e-book about the chronological events on intergratiing the military. It's long, so may I suggest you bookmark it to puruse at your leisure?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 07, 2008, 03:04 PM
August 4

On this date in 1890 Sam T. Jacks play Creoles opens.

The Haverhill, Massachusettss production is the first time African-American women are featured as performers on stage.

-The African American Atlas

August 6
On this date in 1936, the Wake Robin Golf Club of Washington, D. C., was formed. This was one of the first all-Black Women Golf Clubs in America.

Read the story of harassment, exclusions and taunts. Could golf be played on a city dump? If so why and why would anyone take pride in such a course? Who laid the ground work for the new comers like tiger Woods?


August 6
On this date the American Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed into law. The most sweeping reforms were embodied in the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Witt, you're going to love this one:
Ernestine "Tiny" Davis was born August 6 in 1907. She was an African-American jazz trumpeter and vocalist.

We know Louis Armstrong and Eddie Duram. Now lets meet Ernestine Davis.
Read about her work for orphans, tours during the war and the strange racial makeup of her band. And this little ditty here:
"When they did tour the Deep South, the three or four white women in the group would paint their faces dark so the police would not remove them from the bandstand and arrest them."
Thats the opposite of everything we know about that time.  Read the history of 'Tiny' Davis and her all girl band:


Satchel Paige, in my opinion, was the greatest baseball pitcher of all time. He could strike out any hitter, anytime. Satchel, just to show off,  would call in all the outfielders so only he and the batter were on the field, because he knew he was going to strike the batter out. He was just that good.

Enter Maceo "Breed" Breedlove, an African-American Negro League baseball player born on August 7 1900.   The stage was set. Maceo and Satchel squared off with no love lost between them. The wind up...the pitch...

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 15, 2008, 05:31 AM
Ever wondered where the Banjo originated?
Thomas Jefferson gave us a clue;
"In his 1785 notes on the State of Virginia, aptly remarked that the slave instrument of choice, "is the Bonjar which they brought hither from Africa."
You say you want details?

The Door of No Return. Was there such a place? Does it still exist?

Now here's something I just learned. When I was growing up there was a cartoon show featuring
Aesop's fables. The old folks would tell stories from Aesop's fables too. They were designed to entertain and teach. I never gave much thought that this was a real person, much less of him being a slave.
Interesting read:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on August 15, 2008, 09:28 AM
Thanks, MY-FRIEND. I'll have to read these when I get the chance. I've heard the "banjar" story and the Aesop one. Now I'll learn about the door.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 30, 2008, 05:40 PM
We had a great time. There were three couples, we rented a van and set off on the 1094 mile drive across the Va mountains, Tn mountains, Ak mountains, but the highlight was the Ozarks in Mo. What a sight.

It was rather humorus when we stopped in some places in the back woods of Mo. in the Ozarks. Everything came to a standstill when we walked in. Those guys just weren't used to seeing black people. Fact is, once we went past Little Rock, Ak. we didn't see but a hand full of black folks either.

We laid over in Memphis, Tn. Had BBQ (mine is much better) and went down on Beale street, the capital of the Blues. B. B. King's club was really rocking, but this place was full of music clubs, street singers and venders. We had the pleasure of running into a women's club called the Red Hats. To my understanding they are older women who are divorced, widowed, or otherwise single and they support each other, which includes taking trips. Let me tell you, these 'older women' got the party started. They rocked not only the house, but Beale street.

It was the end of Elvis week that friday night. Lord!! we saw all kinds of Elvis'. Old ones, fat ones, tall ones, young ones, and even baby ones. I'm here to report, much to my dissapointment, I saw no black ones. Humm, mabe next year I could...nahhh.
There was this one outdoor stage that invited Elvis up to sing. We looked around and here came this guy that had to be in his 80s all dreesed up like Elvis, bent over, had to be helped on the stage, but he was in his element. He was pretty good too. It was almost like he morphed into a younger him. Actually as I think about it, it was a beautiful thing to see him enjoy himself so at his age.

Branson, Mo. was a nice place. They have more entertainment venues that NYC. Their population is around 6,000 and their whole industry is tourism. As with any tourism place it was rather expensive. We stayed at a five star resort, thanks to a friend of mind who is an owner. It was beautifull.
The rest of the week was filled with laughter (mostly at my expense), shopping, clubs, shopping, site seeing, shopping, the Branson, Mo. senic R/R, shopping, lakes and parks, we even went on an old fashioned picnic. Ohhhh, did I mention shopping?

They had a replica of the Titianic that had artifacs from the ship and details of the ship's wreck. The detail was amazing, from the period dress of the guides, to the different angles the ship would have been at different stages of sinking, right down to a bowl of water that was tempt controlled to keep it the same as the sea water would have been at the time of the wreck. They invited us to put our hands in to see how long we could take it. I held out for 22 seconds. By then my hand was burning it was so cold. It was the most interesting thing we did, but it was both sad and frightening to have that kind of reality hit you all at once.

On the trip back we laid over in Knoxville, Tn. so we could tour some of the Gatlinburg, Pigeon Forge area. The real reason why the wives wanted to go??? you guessed it...shopping.

We got home safe and sound with renewed friendships, pictures, memories and flat broke.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on August 30, 2008, 07:48 PM
Wow!! What a great trip! I didn't know that they had a Titanic Museum. I'll bet that was fascinating!
I can do with a room full of blues. Just love it!
The only thing that I don't envy about your trip is the money part. I'll bet you unloaded a bunch, but the memories will be worth it.
I'm sure that there are some poems hiding deep down in that "criminal" mind!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on August 30, 2008, 08:01 PM
Witt and Friend: Two things

First going back a bit, I visited the pool we had talked about two weeks ago. The head of the pool from the recreation division of the city escorted me personally. I can't tell you what that meant. Anyway it was a strange emotion filled trip over 40 years till now.

Second, Friend, buddy I hate to do this. I know you and the gang had a really good time and all of you want to remember the good times. On the other hand here, on this board especially, you might consider, you know, telling us. . . .
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 30, 2008, 08:48 PM
I'm waiting to see if the Chamber of Commerce is going to respond to me. Six working days will be next Tuesday. I wanted to put up their response at the same time. If they don't respond by then, I'll post the incident without it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on August 31, 2008, 02:43 AM
What a great vacation.  That is fantastic.   What is money for, but, to be spent to allow our women to shop?  Or so my wife has would have me believe.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 31, 2008, 02:49 AM
Amen Allen. We are well trained aren't we.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on August 31, 2008, 08:16 PM
Joseph Philippe Lemercier Laroche, an African born in Cap Haitien, Haiti May 26 1886. Not much is known about Joseph's young life, except he was a excellent student. At the age of 15 he decided he wanted to be an engineer. Haiti had no such schools so Joseph was sent to Beauvais, France in the company of a teacher the Lord Bishop of Haiti, Monseigneur Kersuzan. Joseph was allowed entry into to high school, excelled, and became a serious promising student in the engineering school.

Life went on and March 1908 Joseph married Juliette Lafargues, the only daughter of a white upper class wine seller. They set off on their journey through life with the expectation of finding good employment as there was many opportunities for a young man with his education and abilities, but the ugliness of racism was alive and well in France. He did find work, but was paid poorly, the excuse ranging from being too young or inexperienced. ( sound familiar?)

They made do for a time and a year later on Feb 19, 1909 a daughter, Simonne, was born. Another year passed and a second daughter was born prematurely July 2, 1910. She was named Louise and she had many health problems. Joseph and Juliette were dedicated to their children and could no longer except or live on the substandard wages he was being paid, because of the medical bills for Louise. By 1911 they decided to move back to Haiti for better employment. By that time Haiti was a growing nation and the opportunities for qualified engineers held much promise. The matter was discussed and the move was planned for 1913.

As fortune would have it Juliette discovered she was pregnant in March 1912. The trip was moved up to make it more comfortable on Juliette and Joseph's mother in Haiti bought the tickets as a welcome home present. The trip was booked for April 20 from Le Harve to New York and then to Haiti, but there was a complication. The ship had a policy that required children to stay in the nursery, even at meal times. Juliette and Joseph would have none of that, so they transferred to another ship and left tens days earlier on April 10, 1912. They would sail to Cherbourg, then to New York and then to Haiti and the beginning of their new life.

They were booked on second class passage, which was unsatisfactory to Juliette coming from an upper class family and being used to first class accommodations, but they made do.
Sailing day was sunny and pleasant. The accounts of their time on board becomes a little muddled at this point. Some accounts have them as quite sociable and excepted on the ship, other accounts say they were shunned because of Joseph's race.
I believe both could be true, as we see that even to this day, but it wouldn't matter in time. Just four days into the trip on April 14 the ship met with disaster. 
As Joseph put his pregnant wife and two daughters on the life boats he kissed them and said, I'll see you in New York.
They never saw each other again. Joseph, at the age of 26, died at sea.

Joseph Philippe Lemercier Laroche, the only black passenger, died  during the sinking of the Titanic.
In fact he was the only black person to die aboard the Titantic. There were no black workers on board. They were mostly Irish.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on September 01, 2008, 03:16 PM
Fascinating, FRIEND. I didn't know that. You teach me well.

I learned something yesterday that made my jaw drop that I must share. You KNOW how much I  love spirituals and the blues. Here's what I learned: American Negro spirituals were composed using the pentatonic, or five note, scale. This scale was referred to as the slave scale. Those are the black notes only on the piano. There is a video out there, youtube, I guess, where Wintley Phipps explains that spirituals were sung using only those five notes of this scale. He explains that the melody of the famous hymn Amazing Grace was West African. I believe that mostly everyone knows that the writer of the lyrics, John Newton, was the captain of a slave ship, who had repented. Credit for the melody is given as "unknown." Phipps does a wonderful rendition of the song! Perhaps you can find it. I don't have the "power" to watch youtube on my old pooter, but I was lucky enough to see it on TV. You may want to expound on this information.
I think that I shall now go play with the black keys on my piano!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 01, 2008, 04:37 PM
Thanks Witt for that insight.
Great minds think alike huh. I wanted to expand on just that topic and I had a lot of research on it, but found myself lacking the where-with-all to put it together, not being of a musical persuasion.

I deleted all my short cuts out of frustration, but I may go back and try again. Perhaps I'll just post the links, but I'll still need to explain what I'm trying to do.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 08, 2008, 05:23 AM
Wednesday, August 27, 2008 - Subject: Star Jones' reply to Bill O'Reilly (FOX) about Mrs. Obama]

Say or think whatever you want about Star Jones but she got it right this time. Please Read!!!!!

Date: Wednesday, August 20, 2008, 5:43 PM

Star Jones Reynolds responds to Bill O'Reilly/Fox News about Michelle Obama!

Below is Star Jones' informed and provocative response to Bill O'Reilly's comment about 'having a lynching party for Michelle Obama if he finds out that she truly has no pride in her country.'

Bill O'Reilly said: 'I don't want to go on a lynching party against Michelle Obama unless there's evidence, hard facts, that say this is how the woman really feels. If that's how she really feels - that is a bad country or a flawed nation, whatever - then that's legit. We'll track it down.'

Star said: 'I'm sick to death of people like Fox News; host! , Bill< BR>> O'Reilly, and his ilk thinking that he can use a racial slur against a black woman who could be the next First Lady of the United States, give a half-assed apology and not be taken to task and called on his crap. What the hell? If it's 'legit,' you're going to 'track it down?' And then what do you plan to do? How dare this white man with a microphone and the trust of the public think that in 2008, he can still put the words 'lynch and party' together in the same sentence with reference to a black woman; in this case, Michelle Obama? I don't care how you 'spin it' in the 'no spin zone,' that statement in and of itself is racist, unacceptable and inappropriate on every level. O'Reilly claims his comments were taken out of context. Please don't insult my intelligence while you're insulting me. I've read the comments and heard them delivered in O'Reilly's own voice; and there ! is no r ight context that exists. So, his insincere apology and 'out-of-context' excuse is not going to cut it with me. And just so we're clear, this has nothing to do with the 2008 presidential election, me being a Democrat, him claiming to be Independent while talking Republican, the liberal media or a conservative point of view. To the contrary, this is about crossing a line in the sand that needs to be drawn based on history, dignity, taste and truth.

Bill, I'm not sure of where you come from, but let me tell you what the phrase 'lynching party' conjures up to me, a black woman born in North Carolina. Those words depict the image of a group of white men who are angry with the state of their own lives getting together, drinking more than they need to drink, lamenting how some black person has moved forward
(usually ahead of them in stature or dignity! ), and had the audacity to think that they are equal. These same men for years, instead of looking at what changes they should and could make in their own lives that might remove that bitterness born of perceived privilege, these white men take all of that resentment and anger and decide to get together and drag the closest black person near them to their death by hanging them from a tree - usually after violent beating, torturing and violating their human dignity. Check your history books, because you don't need a masters or a law degree from Harvard to know that is what constitutes a 'lynching party.'

Imagine, Michelle and Barack Obama having the audacity to think that they have the right to the American dream, hopes, and ideals. O'Reilly must think to himself: 'How dare they have the arrogance to think they can stand in front of this nation, challenge ! the st atus quo and express the frustration of millions? When this happens, the first thing that comes to mind for O'Reilly and people like him is: 'it's time for a party.' Not so fast...don't order the rope just yet.

Would O'Reilly ever in a million years use this phrase with reference to Elizabeth Edwards, Cindy McCain or Judi Nathan? I mean, in all of the statements and criticisms that were made about Judi Nathan, the one-time mistress turned missus, of former presidential candidate Rudy Giuliani, I never heard any talk of forming a lynch party because of something she said or did.

So why is it that when you're referring to someone who's� African-American you must dig to a historical place of pain, agony and death to symbolize your feelings? Lynching is not a joke to off-handedly throw around and it is not a metaphor that has a place in poli! tical c ommentary; provocative or otherwise. I admit that I come from a place of personal outrage here having buried my 90 year-old grandfather last year. This proud, amazing African-American man raised his family and lived through the time when he had to use separate water fountains, ride in the back of a bus, take his wife on a date to the 'colored section' of a movie theater, and avert his eyes when a white woman walked down the street for fear of what a white man and his cronies might do if they felt the urge to 'party'; don't tell me that the phrase you chose, Mr. O'Reilly, was taken out of context. To add insult to injury, O'Reilly tried to 'clarify' his statements, by using the excuse that his comments were reminiscent of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas' use of the term 'high-tech lynching' during his confirmation hearing. I reject that analogy. You see Justice Thom! as did mean to bring up the image of lynching in its racist context. He was saying that politics and the media were using a new technology to do to him what had been done to black men for many years -- hang him. Regardless of if you agreed with Justice Thomas' premise or not, if, in fact, Bill O'Reilly was referencing it, the context becomes even clearer.

What annoys me more than anything is that I get the feeling that one of the reasons Bill O'Reilly made this statement, thinking he could get away with it in the first place, and then followed it up with a lame apology in a half-hearted attempt to smooth any ruffled feathers, is because he doesn't think that black women will come out and go after him when he goes after us. Well, he's dead wrong. Be clear Bill O'Reilly: there will be no lynch party for that black woman. And this black woman assures you that if! you co me for her, you come for all of us.'

-- Star Jones Reynolds

I posted this just as I recieved it. My comment, good for Star Jones!!!� I ,for one, am sick and tired of the racist blow hards like ORiely, Limbaugh, Hannity, ect, saying these types of things then offering a half hearted apology as if black people are to stupid to know what they're really up to.

I invite everyone to send this to all your email contacts.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 08, 2008, 05:56 AM
A couple post back I mentioned I was waiting on a respose from the Chamber of Commerce.

I wrote the chamber of Commerce of Branson, Mo. about an incident that happened while we were vacationing there. I wanted to put their response up with a description of the incident, but Branson's Chamber of Commerce has chosen not to respond.

As mentioned before, there were three couples of us on vacation together. We chose Branson, Mo because it's advertised as a family friendly fun place to be. On a tuesday night we all were at a putt-putt course located on one of the main streets, well lit, with a lot of traffic and plenty of people. Our group was at the third hole, street side, when suddenly we heard a loud pickup truck approaching. The jacked up 4-wheel drive red Ford with a Confederate flag and state flag flying from the rear stave holes. As these young white men drove by they yelled, "a bunch of back M---fs" at us. We were the only black couples there so it was no mistaking who it was directed at. One could pass that off as singular ignorance, but it wasn't but a few minutes that a black pickup truck of the same descript drove by and yelled, " a bunch of niggers" at us.

 I wrote the the Chamber of Commerce and told them I know they can't police every incident that happens, but these young men were in very public places doing this and they obviously had no fear of consequences. They did it with such ease that it tells me this has happened before and no one sees fit to make an example out of this kind of behavior.
There is no excuse to allow this kind of behavior to go on to the extent that these young men have no fear of punishment. We drove 1094 miles and spent good money just to have, not only us guys insulted, but to have our women endure the worst kind of insult you can direct against black people. But beyond that, there were white familys playing the course behind us, with small children, that were exposed to that kind of language.

I reminded the Chamber of Commerce that they advertise themselves as family friendly and I would presume that means black familys too.

Well they chose to ignore my email. After ten working days, one would think at least an acknowledgement would be forth coming. Their ignoring my email tells me they don't care one bit about those young men and that specific type of behavior. That being the case and based on this experience, it is my recommendation that Branson, Mo. be taken off any vacation plans.
I especially reccomend this to my black people. If Branson, Mo. sees no need to respect us, I see no need to spend our money there.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Marsupial Man on September 08, 2008, 11:50 AM
It never ceases to amaze me that there are people out there who so vehemently hate other people because of skin color.
There's so much I want to say, but I don't have the time to express it all.
Simply put, I hate racists. Maybe I'm reducing myself to their level by "hating" them, but I do. Certainly, when I encounter a four year old child who's been raised to use the Nigger word, it's sickening. It begs the question, will racism ever go away? I doubt it. Despite all of our progress as a society, too many people commit violence against those of another color just because of their color. The verbal assaults. Seemingly, it's never ending.  As you expressed in an earlier post, an apology just can't cut it.

Take care of yourself A-Friend,

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 08, 2008, 03:18 PM
I appreciate your respose Paul. It amazes me as well. My father always taught us if you don't like some one, just leave them alone. It takes effort and energy to accost people you don't like, whereas leaving them alone requires zero effort.

I could tell you stories of when I was in law enforcemnt trying to save some racist from harm, even death at times, just to be blasted with all kinds of racial slurs. For the most part I can let it roll off, but I don't know a single man, including racists, that would stand by while their wife is being insulted.

You take care of yourself as well my friend.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on September 08, 2008, 06:02 PM

 I wrote the the Chamber of Commerce and told them I know they can't police every incident that happens, but these young men were in very public places doing this and they obviously had no fear of consequences. They did it with such ease that it tells me this has happened before and no one sees fit to make an example out of this kind of behavior.
There is no excuse to allow this kind of behavior to go on to the extent that these young men have no fear of punishment. We drove 1094 miles and spent good money, just to have, not only us guys insulted, but to have our women endure the worst kind of insult you can direct against black people. But beyond that, there were white familys playing the course behind us, with small children, that were exposed to that kind of language.

I reminded the Chamber of Commerce that they advertise themselves as family friendly and I would presume that means black familys too.

Well they chose to ignore my email.  After ten working days, one would think at least an aknowledgement would be forth coming. Their ignoring my email tells me they don't care one bit about those young men and that specific type of behavior. That being the case and based on this experience, it is my  recommendation that Branson, Mo. be taken off any vacation plans.
I especially reccomend this to my black people. If Branson, Mo. sees no need to respect us, I see no need to spend our money there.


What else can be done? ACLU? Did you get their license plate number? Did you file an incident report with the local police?

I did a google search on Branson Missouri/ racism, first results, and first click I read this:

 From forty miles away in the neighboring state of Arkansas, the billboard with the portrait of Bobby Vinton, his eyes an eerie steely blue, beckons the roadside traveler. Soon the billboard faces are so frequent it is like watching an old-fashioned "movie" precursor, where you flip the pages of a book rapidly and it seems like the image is moving, the lady dances, the pinwheel spins. The long lost images of one performer after another ad infinitum applaud the wonders of the city ahead. Between the Lutheran churches and dusty flea markets on Route 65, hub of the Ozarks, home state of our president -- the enormous likenesses of people from a world you thought had long gone by decorated the highway alongside the proverbial dead skunks and other roadkill. Sidekicks from TV shows in the sixties, one-hit wonders of the early seventies, characters you didn't think actually existed -- except you keep hearing on late night commercials that they sold More Records than the Rolling Stones and The Beatles Combined (and no one could figure out where since no one in your neighborhood ever heard of them) names you thought you would never glance upon again, with the exception of an article entitled "Whatever Happened To..."; They are all here. You cross the state line. The celluloid roadside portraits reflect real people who are not only alive and well, they are stars here, replete with their names in huge, blinking, multi-colored neon lights. Welcome to Branson, Missouri.

I am from Boston; my family and I were city Yankees staying in northern Arkansas for the summer of l996. We had never heard of Branson, let alone had any awareness that it was the Las Vegas of the Bible Belt, the entertainment center of Middle America, with a strip to rival that of the infamous city in Nevada, albeit without the gambling, prostitution, or accepted consumption of large quantities of alcohol. This is, after all, a Christian city, and you will not forget that gambling and sex are still sins here. Although liquor is legally sold, you won't see anyone at a bar nursing their third martini without lunch. Many of the surrounding counties are dry, double shots are unheard of and alcohol is actually referred to as "booze." There will never be a movie called "Leaving Branson." The entertainment is strictly G-rated, suitable for the whole family. Nestled in between the numerous motels that line the highway (all of which feature pools with a view of the action on the Strip) are Go Kart tracks, miniature golf, skeeball joints, family dining with checkered tablecloths, Wal-Marts, waterparks, and theaters named after everyone you forgot or vaguely remembered died fifteen years ago of a disease that had foggy social ostracization capabilities even in trendy college towns.

There are no women with naked oversized breasts to appeal to your prurient pleasures. There are no same sex couples casually holding hands as they wait in line to bungee jump. A quick overview reveals there are no other races but the one that requires a minimum of SPF-15 sunscreen for protection. Diversity here means they have pancakes and waffles for breakfast.

Speaking of food, sushi is not an option. All-you-can-eat buffets (and it looks like many of the patrons did) with names like Dixie Stampede, are the norm. Danish pastries, English muffins, and French fried potatoes are as ethnic as it gets, with an occasional Chinese restaurant furnished with oversized Polynesian chairs and featuring exotic dishes with flames burning underneath the omnipresent eggrolls and spareribs accompanied by a scorpion bowl with six straws.

The local attitude is Southern Drawl friendly. No one will argue with your second amendment rights, although the fifth and eighth are subject to argument. The politics are definitely anti-commie and decidedly conservative. An eye for an eye, as the Bible says; the death penalty is big business in this territory (and abortion is not). Whether the defendants are juveniles or mentally incompetent is of no consequence. However an exception may be made for sports legends. The general opinion here is OJ was innocent, and justice was served; he was a great football hero which in Kansas City Chiefs country overrides the "problem" that he married a white woman and beat her for good measure.

The Confederate flag from that war -- etched in our consciousness by scenes from 'Gone with the Wind' but referred to here as "The War of Northern Aggression" -- the symbol of the Confederacy that was brought down by the surrender 131 years ago in Appomattox, the official banner of Dixie, lovingly referred to as 'Stars and Bars' here, still appears frequently on license plates and T-shirts. Indeed on the way up from Arkansas, past the towns with the confederate flag flying proudly over City Hall, almost a century and a half after that war was won by the Union (a fact which seems to have been forgotten), the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan adopted (represented by official state signs) part of highway 65 as part of their civic duty to clean up the litter.

This is Easy Rider country -- the End of Easy Rider country -- where one can imagine, even in l996, a freak with long hair and a red-white-and-blue-flag-painted vehicle -- especially if it had bumper stickers proclaiming tendencies toward and affiliations with social justice, environmentalism, Judaism, and Harvard -- could get you blown to smithereens by a Redneck in a pick up truck with a chip on his shoulder and a shotgun by his side. "Redneck" is not an insult here, but a label one wears with the dignity and respect the label "liberal activist" brings in the college-infested cities on the coasts.

Branson Missouri, population 3700. Each year this figure swells to accommodate 7 million middle-class patriotic tourists, from Texas, Arkansas and Oklahoma as well as those in terminal Misery (as Missourans occasionally pronounce it), who come with their families (as well as tour busses for which Branson is the number one destination) and spend their time and money on that annual extravaganza immortalized � la Chevy Chase's Summer Vacation. And business is definitely thriving.

There are a total of five rush hours in Branson -- the usual commuter ones (the afternoon commute is made worse by the matinee traffic) -- as well as before and after showtime. Highway traffic is diverted down lesser traveled routes during peak jams at one-two PM, seven-eight PM and again at 10:30-11:30 when the last encore and jauntily-placed-straw-hat ragtime shuffle is finished and all the shows get out simultaneously. The traffic is bumper to bumper against the starlit sky and blinking neon for at least one third the distance of the Boston Marathon. Broadway move over! Branson has arrived!

The variety and number of shows is astonishing. In Boston, there might be three or four shows playing on any given night. In Branson, there are over fifty. Big names too. Remember Tony Orlando? He's here. (Dawn, however, seems to have been misplaced.) Ray "the Streak" Stevens? Yup. Steve Lawrence -- ex-husband-of-skier-killer-Claudia-Longet? Present. The Osmond Brothers play here every night with the second generation! Apparently even Wayne Newton has left Vegas for the glories and sequins of the midwest. Elvis, Marilyn, Roy Orbison, and Michael Jackson impersonators perform every night next to the wax museum and Ripley's Believe It or Not, and they are not considered Camp, but Respected Entertainers to be taken seriously. Anyone who ever got to say a line in a commercial, has a first name that is the same as a mode of transport (for example, Boxcar, as in Boxcar Willie) or scored big for what we thought was fifteen minutes of undeserved fame with the cultural ditty of the year, now has a nightly show and a theater named after them in Branson Missouri. Even those that never had that Andy Warhol prerequisite nationally, are enjoying fame and fortune. Jennifer (apparently so famous that like Cher, Madonna, and Eljay, she doesn't need a last name to be recognized) is back for her fourth sensational season with her fantastic band, the Prime Time Pickers. Frederick, unbeknownst to the rest of the country, is America's Newest Piano Sensation (his credentials include a stint with Bob Hope). He plays two grand pianos simultaneously at "Waltzing Waters" the "liquid fireworks" show guaranteed by the brochures to be the most spectacular attraction of your trip. And remember folks, feel free to light up. Every section of the theater is a smoking section. (In fact, smoking is OK everywhere here -- gas stations, restaurants, hotels, so if you have emphysema or a compelling urge to express your non-smoker's rights, just hold your breath).

Our first glimpse of Americana's answer to the West End was on a steamy Sunday night. Wayne and Tony (referred to as "Oh, Tony O!" on the billboards, since we all know the "O") were off so we went to see that icon of the early seventies AM radio where his one hit medley could be regularly heard every week in the summer of '73, on Casey Kasem's top forty countdown. Yes, I am talking about none other than Jim "Spiders and Snakes" Stafford. Jim plays seven nights a week at the appropriately and imaginatively named Jim Stafford Theater.

For those of you who are wondering, the years have been kind to Jim. He must be pushing 55 now and has gained about thirty pounds, but still has those dimples. His southern accent is more pronounced now than it was during his brief illustrious musical career (so much so that some of the jokes are hard to understand, much like when you try to understand what the Rolling Stones are talking about during an interview in what is presumably English). But, like those British rock stars, you can always understand Jim when he sings.

During the show, the fully packed theater audience, ranging in age from two to the omnipresent bus of senior citizens, enthusiastically responds to Jim's questions and hoo and ha appreciatively at his jokes. Many of the jokes are 'set up' and helped along by a carefully placed usher 'stooge' masquerading as an innocent dumb, loud member of the general public. Mr. Stafford's style of humor carefully avoids being political in any way -- "How many people here have been called Democrats?" (scant scattered applause) "How many have been called Republicans?" (general thunderous ovation) "How many have been called Independents?" (my fiance clapped alone) -- is as partisan as Jim gets. He did tell three or four jokes that made it perfectly understood that homosexuality was not OK in this wholesome atmosphere -- not that there's anything wrong with that... -- but keep your kissin' to those of the opposite gender and presumably to those of non-opposite races.

The show was very clean, not even a four-letter suggestion was uttered, except for "The Legend of Cow Patty" (which us city folk call manure). My six-year-old son found it hilarious and my five-year-old daughter clapped in rhythm with Jim's catchy numbers. My fiance, who fancies himself a worldly sophisticate, chuckled throughout the performance. (I, of course, adored every moment of the show, having been a teenybopper in love with Jim during his fifteen minutes of fame and for years beyond). A Very Big Deal is of course made of his megahit "I-don't-like-spiders-and-snakes-but-that-ain't-what-it takes-to-love-me-like-I-want-to-be-loved-by-you". It is now a multimedia extravaganza, with fluorescent puppet accompaniment and an elaborate laser-light show. (You can also, after all these years, finally purchase a T-shirt or hat with the reptilian and arachnid likenesses that appear in the song.)

During intermission, Jim signs autographs and poses for pictures with his loyal fans. Two rotating dancing chickens make balloons for the small fry. We even got a Lettermanesque brush with fame when Jim Stafford's wife's poodle chased -- and almost bit -- our children Spike and Coco, in the lobby. (Spike tried unsuccessfully to fend off the offending dog with his sword balloon).

The crowd seemed happy, sober and satisfied as their special night out ended and they merged with the Anita Bryant patrons in the parking lot (from the appropriately and imaginatively-named Anita Bryant Theater next door, which shares Jim's parking lot). There is no loud rock music blaring outside, nor is anyone angry (or unduly happy), as the drivers and their families patiently sit in their domestic manufactured cars on Route 76 amidst the kids on bumper rafts and kids-of-all-ages on Go Karts, on their way to what will be their home for tonight. Perhaps this is a prozac-induced scene of the nineties, or maybe it was the placating influence of one of those many Sunday morning Christian services that are advertised on each block as open to all.

If you're not up to Disneyworld and want a wholesome good-ol'-boy-tie-a-yellow-ribbon-round-that-old-American-tree experience, pack your family up in the paneled camper or hop onto that senior citizen bus, and head on down to Southern Missouri. Leave the crime and racism of the urban jungle behind. Here they call a spade a shovel and a Hoe is not a disgusting Eddie Murphy punch line, but a garden tool, one that tills the soil of our country, these United States of America.

courtesy of www.webmerchants.com

Good wholesome clean fun in America's bible belt, Branson Missouri.
Come one, come all, unless of course your not white, hetrosexual, or Christian.

After reading about your experience, and this article, I would never visit Branson, unless I was on a crusade against hate issues, and had decided to put up a fight in the lions den. I certainly would not take my family there, and risk their safety, nor would I want them exposed to that type of behavior, even if they do promote a good clean atmosphere.

Id rather stay at home and huddle around the TV and watch Eddie Murphy movies, braving the occasional cuss word.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 08, 2008, 06:49 PM
I depended on the advertisments by Branson and AAA when we made that choice. Plus we had a few friends that said they loved it. They are white which means they would not have been subjected to the same things, so their report to us was honest based on their experience.

But you are right T7L. A deeper research would have helped. I keep asking myself...who knew?? In todays time it never even occurred to me to research a tourism place for racism. Lesson learned.

One point though. I'm not throwing the whole police dept under the bus alone, I'm throwing all the powers that be under there with them. These boys did this so freely that it tells me they have been doing it with impunity all along. That tells me that all the powers that be doesn't care about it. I'll be willing to bet I'm not the first or only black person to be ignored with this complaint.

They can do something about this if they wanted to.
I'll give you an example. Pigeon Forge, Tn., Seiverville, Tn. and that area is known for KKK enclaves. I can remember going through there years ago and they let black folks know not to spend the night in those places. Fast forward to the building of Dollywood in that area and the economic growth as a result. I've been there several times since and I know a lot of black people that vacation in that area. I've never had a problem with racism since they've gone into this economic boom, nor have any of my black friends had a problem.

Does that mean the KKK and racism has disappeared? Not at all. What it does mean is the powers that be have made it known one can believe what they want in private, but they will not tolerate racist people racing up and down the main streets yelling racial slurs at a part of their economic base.
They have learned that they depend on green, not just white, to thrive.

Branson has not learned that black people bring green with them just like any other group.

Your point is well taken though.

Ohhh by the way, I did have sushi in Branson.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on September 08, 2008, 10:15 PM

But you are right T7L. A deeper research would have helped. I keep asking myself...who knew?? In todays time it never even occurred to me to research a tourism place for racism. Lesson learned.

To be honest, anywhere within the bible belt, Id be especially careful. The extreme religious are usually extremely nuts.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on September 15, 2008, 06:45 PM
It never ceases to amaze me that there are people out there who so vehemently hate other people because of skin color.

ain't that the truth and Paul, it doesn't stop there. It goes
beyond skin color. People prejudge for beliefs, neighborhoods,
types of clothing, what they call "class"
I have a beautiful daughter in law who is Asian, from Eastern
Europe. She has gorgeous skin and lovely eyes. My grandchild
who will be born next year will no doubt share that along
with my son's blond hair and other features. All I can
say is I stand ready to defend that child against
anyone who dare speak out against him or her,
sorry to get on a soap box. People label people all the time
and lump them all together and that's sad. Without getting
to know a person, we never know the beauty of each human
soul and that skin color doesn't mean a thing when we
all die and go to bones or ash. It's so stupid.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 15, 2008, 08:57 PM
I stand with you Kay, every word.

By the way, you're welcome to bring your soap box here any time.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on September 15, 2008, 09:46 PM
I just may do that  :kisslady
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 22, 2008, 02:54 AM
This follows up on the previous discussion about The 1959 school closings in Prince Edward county, Va. They closed the schools rather than segregate and kept them closed until the 1964 Civil Rights Act and it took until 1966 to get them fully opened and intergrated. The county seat was Farmville, Va and from there began what would come to be known as the Massive Resistance movement against the Supreme Court ordered desegregation.

On Friday September 19 2008 a funeral was held for one Lester Edison Andrews Sr. He was 93.
Mr. Edwards was the chairman of the Prince Edward County School Board when they closed the schools in 1959. In 2004 Mr. Andrews said in an interview to the Richmond Times Dispatch, "I didn't want to close the schools, but the people were clamoring for it."

A personal observation about that quote. When he says the 'people' were clamoring for it he obviously didn't consider black folks to be people. These black non-people struggled to get places to educate their non-people children, or, in most cases, these non-people children went without an education.

I'm sure Mr. Andrews was caught up in the dictates of the Jim Crow laws of the time, so I make no judgement on him now. It is of note that he resigned from the school board later, though I can find no connection to that and the decision to close the schools.

Mr. Lacy Ward, who now runs the R. R. Moton Museum (which was the black school at the time where the civil rights struggle began in full earnest), said he couldn't say with certainty today where Mr. Andrews stood on intergration. " His funeral was not segregated. His funeral was very much intergrated."
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 24, 2008, 07:01 PM
Today in African American History:

September 24-- Desegregation of Central High School, Little Rock Ark, 1957

The Brown V Board of Education decision of 1954 held it to be unconstitutional to segregate schools, which included the ludicrous doctrine of separate but equal, and led to the 1958 decision to desegregate the high school in Little Rock, Ar. However just like Prince Edward County here in Virginia, Arkansas Gov Faubus ordered that Little Rock close Central High School, rather than segregate, in September 1958.
He also illegally deployed National Guard troops to block the 'Little Rock nine' from entering the high school under the pretense of protecting the black students.
Ponder that for a brief moment. Tax paying American citizens having the National Guard used against them to promote racism. The Supreme Court declared the National Guard deployment illegal and ordered they be removed. Eisenhower sent in 350 federal troops.

Well this caused a race riot in protest of blacks intergrating Central High and Eisenhower sent in 1000 more federal troops to surround the school and protect the 'Little Rock Nine.'
Here is a look at the school paper in real time:
http://www.centralhigh57.org/the_tiger.htm#Sept. 19

{Just as an aside, it seems we are led to believe all the race riots are by black people. Whereas there have been black race riots the news and history don't cover the white race riots with the same fervor. Greenwood, Wilmington and other places where whites rioted, killed blacks by the hundreds, even burning down whole black communities, and many times law enforcement and politicians stood by and watched or were complicit in these actions. To this day no one has been called into account for the deaths and destruction. I might do a study on this subject if you guys want it.}

"Imagine that it's the night before your first day of High School. You're filled with excitement, fear and tension. You wonder what the school will be like. Will the classes be hard? Will the students like you? Will the teachers be friendly? You want to fit in. Your stomach is full of butterflies as you try to sleep and wonder what tomorrow will be like.
Now imagine that you are a black student in 1957 preparing to go to Little Rock Central High School to attempt what seemed impossible -- the integration of public schools. . ." :


Here is a pictorial tour of what that was like.
A couple of things to note. Notice that the black girls in the first picture arrived in U. S. Army vehicles. Ask yourself, why? Not in the picture , but happening at the same time, an Army helicopter circles overhead and there are 350 federal troops surrounding the school. Ask yourself, why? In picture three, what do you think that person in the background was yelling at that black student? Ask yourself, why?
One other thing of note. The TV stations of that area did broadcast school lessons while the high school was closed. Both black and white that had TVs benefitted from that, but their were far fewer blacks that had access to a TV. The white students were sent to private schools, but most of the black students had no choice but to wait it out.


Take a look with me back in time. Put yourself in the shoes of these young black kids. See what I saw then. I well remember those images:


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on September 24, 2008, 07:16 PM
The nastiness of racism raises its head again in this political race. I expect it to get worse.
There's a flyer being left on doors that juxtaposes Barrack Obama with the leaders of other African Nations. The claim is all nations lead by black people have poor economies, has poverty, are poorly lead and have wars. I forget where it was exactly because it was about a 10 second piece on the news, but when I get more details I'll post them.

Now before anyone takes me to task and says I'm making too much of this and its not racist, concider this.
Has any white led nation been free of war? Has any white led nation been free of poverty? Just look at the U. S. A. right now. Is the economy falling down around our heads right now? Were the leaders that orchestrated the economic failures we see black or white? Have our white leaders kept us out of wars or poverty? Has the leadership of this country been peachy keen the last eight years?
One thing is for certain. The condition(s) and sad state of affairs this country has been in and out of, and back into today, cannot in any way be blamed on any black man or any women. The leaders have always been white men. Does that disqualify all other white men from leading?

Now ask yourself this.
In the light of it being true that both white and black leaders face the same problems, can anybody say it has been a black man leading this country to the disaster we face today? Further, ask if at any time a white leader of any nation has been held up to the kind of scrutiny that says no white man can be a leader of a country because another white leader failed?

I can remember all the way back to Eisenhower and I cannot recall a single campaign making an issue to disqualify all other white men from being leaders, because another white man failed.
Using this logic, surely Hitler, Stalin, David Duke, George Wallace, even George Bush would disqualify all white men from any leadership positions.

Racism at its best.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 04, 2008, 04:45 AM
Katrina Brown is a film maker  attending a historical� Episcopalian event today. 10/04/2008 will be a day marked by history as a giant leap forward for the Episcopalian church. Here's a quote from Katrina Brown about this event:
"I get push-back from whites: 'My people weren't here, and I'm not racist, so this isn't my problem. You don't have to be a bad, intentionally racist person to be benefiting from a system that still has inequities built into it."

What is she talking about? What is this history making event?

http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/E/EPISCOPALIANS_SLAVERY_APOLOGY?SITE=VALYD&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2008-10-03-21-24-50 (http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/E/EPISCOPALIANS_SLAVERY_APOLOGY?SITE=VALYD&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2008-10-03-21-24-50)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 05, 2008, 03:43 AM
Interesting how the mainstream media didn't report this.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 10, 2008, 06:38 PM
October 10, 2003 in Duluth, Minnesota, an elementary school teacher from Kingston, Washington steps up to the microphone. Choking back emotions, Mr. Warren Read begins his speech dedicating a memorial to three black men that were lynched on a June night 1920.
Elmer Jackson, Elias Clayton and Issac McGhie were dragged from their jail cell and lynched before a cheering white mob of about 10,000.
While researching his family history, Mr. Read, who is white, discovered it was his great-grandfather who led the mob in dragging these men to their deaths. Mr Read, choking with emotion, acknowledged the racial terror perpetrated on the black community and apologised for his family's participation before an attendance of 1000's.

Did Mr. Read committ this act? No. Was he even born at the time? No. What Mr. read did was to recognize the societal harm and the absolute need to apologise for what his family's action did to the black community.

For you Jazz fans, today is the birth date of Thelonious Sphere Monk in 1917.

Anybody remember the 1956 R&B hit 'SINCE I MET YOU BABY'?
This date in 1914 the R&B giant Ivory Joe Hunter was born.
Fifties era white artists such as Pat Boone often rerecorded Ivory Hunter's songs as cross over hits. In the sixties Ivory Joe Hunter made a comeback in country western music and appeared often at the Grand Ole Opry.
Ivory Joe Hunter is credited with writing more than 7,000 songs. Among them are two that Elvis Presley put in the top twenty: My Wish Came True and Ain't That Loving You Baby.

Ivory Joe Hunter developed lung cancer and died in Memphis in 1974.

Frederick Douglas Patterson was born this date 1901.
He was an African-American doctor and education administrator.

From Washington, D. C., his family moved to Texas at an early age. Frederick Douglass Patterson received both a doctorate in veterinary medicine (1923) and a Master of Science (1927) from Iowa State College; he also attended Cornell University (Ph.D.; 1932). He taught at Virginia State College in Petersburg before joining Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama (1928), where he headed the veterinary division, served as director of the School of Agriculture, and then became the institutes's third president.

He was president of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (later Tuskegee Institute; now Tuskegee University) in 1935-53. During this time (1944) he was the founder of the United Negro College Fund (UNCF). The United Negro College Fund, a fund raising organization for historically black private colleges, administered programs and granted scholarships. By the year of Patterson's death it was providing funds for 42 member colleges, aiding some 45,000 students. In the mid-1970s Patterson devised the College Endowment Funding Plan, a program that depended on funds from private businesses that were matched with federal moneys.

He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1987. Frederick Patterson educator and prominent Black leader died on April 26, 1988 in New Rochelle, N. Y.

Outside In
African-American History in Iowa 1838-2000
by Bill Silag, Susan-Koch Bridgford, Hal Chase
Copyright 2001

October 10, 1850, Francis James Grimke was born. Talk about a story full of contrast, man this is it.

On this date in 1935 Porgy and Bess opened on Broadway. This was the first American folk opera about the lives of Black Americans. The stories setting was in Charleston S.C.

It took place at The Alvin Theatre which opened in 1927 and named for Alex Aarons and Vinton Freedley who produced a string of hits such as Lady Be Good, Tip Toes and Oh Kay with other scores by George and Ira Gershwin. The Schubert Organization purchased the Alvin Theatre, and in 1983 named it the Neil Simon Theatre

That evening, Porgy and Bess was cast with Anne Wiggins Brown and Todd Duncan in starring roles.

Reference: Anne Wiggins Brown
Todd Duncan
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Burk28 on October 12, 2008, 03:05 AM
A Poet Questions
I listened to  an ignorant man speak today, A bias, racist tirade. My ears and heart stung with each syllable of hate he uttered. Is it not sad that in a day such as ours that  persons such as these still exist?

I was incensed at the mere possibility that this fool might think that I approved of such viewpoints and prejudices. But yet, I said nothing to him, I only listened to his goings on and empty justifications as to why he felt this way.

In what light then am I left in? My silence; did it fuel his racist diatribe, Or… was he a tool so that I might use it as inspiration and yet another insight to write this small but nevertheless important piece?

The tools that come to hand, come in many different forms. Our inspirations, motivations come from those areas that most times we abhor. Our outrage fuels us to action, I often wonder after such experiences, if not for them then what would I write about?

Oh yes, the Golden field’s of Autumn evenings, the lover’s hand across my chest and brow. The kindness of my fellow man, and his sacrifice. These reflections of pure light.
However, there are moments when one must write of the darkness to rid themselves of it.

Do I justify the actions of an ignorant lout who speaks hate and distrust? Never, But I find myself at an impasse of  conscience understanding, Is this hateful thing the vehicle through these words of its own destruction?

Perhaps an inflicted death blow wielded by a poor poets pen, to envision a time when thoughts such as these do not exist? What then will the poets write of, what then will be the inspiration? Is it a sin to write of these things, my fear of perpetuating the cause of this  discourse weighs heavily upon me.

Is the poet, the writer, addicted to these heartaches and dysfunctions of his fellow man,
No I think not, We are witnesses to the coming of age of this world. In our lifetimes we will walk but a short mile in it; and while here I for one will share such things.

I will battle these questions in my own time and pray for peaceful tongues and cleansed hearts. Cleansed of prejudice and hate.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: WordFaery on October 12, 2008, 12:47 PM
Historical item from today's Buffalo News.

UB researcher's work spurs honor for slave

http://www.buffalonews.com/home/story/461269.html (http://www.buffalonews.com/home/story/461269.html)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 17, 2008, 09:56 PM
Wordfaery that was a beautiful link. Thank you for sharing it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 17, 2008, 10:50 PM
Thanks for moving this here Burk. I delayed comment to give time and see what conversation it would provoke. Whereas this topic does not get a ton of responses, it does get a high number of hits. So I can assure you your post has been read a number of times.

I listened to an ignorant man speak today, A bias, racist tirade. My ears and heart stung with each syllable of hate he uttered. Is it not sad that in a day such as ours that persons such as these still exist?

Unfortunately I hear this just about everyday. It doesn't come out as a blatant tirade all the time, but the code words and subtleties sting just as bad.

I was incensed at the mere possibility that this fool might think that I approved of such viewpoints and prejudices. But yet, I said nothing to him, I only listened to his goings on and empty justifications as to why he felt this way.

In what light then am I left in? My silence; did it fuel his racist diatribe...

You touched on something here. The racist absolutely DOES believe everyone else believes and approves of his view points. They are so abused by their own inbred hate, they just can't fathom the idea of anything else. I don't find it unusual that you said nothing for a couple of reasons.
a) If you're a person given to the idea of justice and equality, these rantings take you completly off gaurd.
b) I often find myself just shaking my head in silence. How do you respond right off the top of your head to a complete fool? One realizes the futility of having a reasoned conversation and oft times all you end with is a low brow shouting match.

In what light then am I left in? My silence; did it fuel his racist diatribe, Or was he a tool so that I might use it as inspiration and yet another insight to write this small but nevertheless important piece?

Your are left in an enlightened position. What you bore witness too is the exact things we black people have to face and defend against everyday somewhere. The media, the office, the eatery, talk shows, political campaigns, the CB radio, op-ed pages, just on and on.
No your silence didn't fuel his view. What fuels this kind of hate is the collective denial that it still exist. There are numerous types of these kind of racist hate filled terrorist cells in this country just waiting for their catalysis to start a race war. Yet all we see portrayed as terroists are dark skinned people.
I won't take time to look up every quote, but I've read where those like David Duke and his types of groups are saying having a black elected as president would be their catalysis.

As to him being a tool as inspiration, well that's in interesting way to define it, but stranger things have happened. Perhaps you have a good point. If that hadn't happened, what reason would you have to think of this and give us all reason to ponder these questions?

The tools that come to hand, come in many different forms. Our inspirations, motivations come from those areas that most times we abhor. Our outrage fuels us to action, I often wonder after such experiences, if not for them then what would I write about?

It is unfortunate that more of us don't do the same. I applaud you for taking the time not only to relate this experience, but to teach lessons from this outrageous experience.

Do I justify the actions of an ignorant lout who speaks hate and distrust?

Most times we don't speak of these things out of fear. Fear that we might offend, fear that we give audience to such ugliness. However these types grow in the dark. They need exposure. The old 'give them enough rope to hangs themselves' routine.

I will battle these questions in my own time and pray for peaceful tongues and cleansed hearts. Cleansed of prejudice and hate.

Long have we black folks been doing that. We welcome all that want to join in that effort.

Good food for thought Burk. Hopefuly there will be more follow up.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 17, 2008, 11:40 PM
I have no idea who wrote this. I got it in the e-mail and in my opinion its a good answer to a dumb question.

Just Because He's Black

A white man asked his black friend, 'Are you voting for Barack Obama
just because he's black?'

The black man responded by saying, 'Why not? Hell, in this country men
are pulled over everyday just cause they're black; passed over for
promotions just cause they're black; considered to be criminals just
cause they're black; and there are going to be thousands of you who
won't be voting for him just because he's black! However, you do not
seem to have a problem with that! This country was built with the sweat
and whip off the black slaves' back, and now a descendent of those same
slaves has a chance to lead the same country, where we weren't even
considered to be people, where we weren't allowed to be educated, drink
from the same water fountains, eat in the same restaurants, or even
vote. So yes! I'm going to vote for him! But it's not just because he's
black, but because he is hope, he is change, and he now allows me to
understand when my grandson says that he wants to be president when he
grows up, it is not a fairy tale but a short term goal. He now sees,
understands and knows that he can achieve, withstand and do

just because he's black!'

By the way, when Jesse Jackson ran for president, when Al Sharpton ran, when Shirley Chissum ran and now with Obama running many people think this is an intelligent question.  Now if this is such an intelligent question, why is it one never hears this question put to white voters who vote for the white candidate?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on October 22, 2008, 02:31 PM
Excellent stuff, as usual Earl...Good to read here again...
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Marsupial Man on October 22, 2008, 02:53 PM
There's a tremendous amount of truth in those words.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Burk28 on October 22, 2008, 04:10 PM
Witt, thanks very much for your lengthy response to my piece, it is much appreciated,
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 26, 2008, 04:02 AM
Paris, Tx , stung by the public national exposure of its racist injustice in the local courts, is trying to put its best face forward on another incident that will bring well deserved negative exposure.
Anybody remember the dragging death of James Byrd in Jasper, Tx about 10 years ago? Well I'm not at all surprised to read that Paris, Tx has now joined that infamous list:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 28, 2008, 09:27 AM
A classic example of the terrorists that exist in this country that are ignored everyday in favor of only portraying people of color as terroist.

http://www.comcast.net/articles/news-general/20081027/Skinhead.Plot/ (http://www.comcast.net/articles/news-general/20081027/Skinhead.Plot/)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on October 28, 2008, 09:39 PM
A classic example of the terroists  that exist in this country that are ignored everyday in favor of only portraying people of color as terroist.



Possibly the catalyst behind your example:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on October 29, 2008, 08:48 AM
T7L now that was chilling for more reasons than one. What Palin and McCain are doing is nothing new. This is the way racists undervalue, underestimate, demonize and marginalize black people. It's cultural conditioning that sets in motion and uses fear as its weapon. They use that to play to the lowest common denominator because it has always worked. Lie, obfuscate, distort, decieve; anything to make the black man a fearsome beast undeserving of respect. And they repeat the lies over and over again in spite of all truthful facts that's readily available.

The screen shot where that idiot had a toy monkey with an Obama hat on it brought back a frightening experience in my life. Dr. Martin Luther King was in my hometown for a speaking engagement back in 1962. I was 12 years old. My mother sent me and my twin brother to the A&P store which was several blocks away. We had to walk past the city armory to get there. I'm certain mom would have never sent us if she had known the local KKK and supporters had gathered in front of the armory. As we walked by these brave citizens began jeering and shouting nigger at us while they paraded a monkey on a leash with a Martin Luther Coon sign around his neck. I can't tell you how frightening that was to a child.

You see folks, this stuff ain't no joke or play thing. The clowns on this tape thinks its funny. This crap is not funny. This is race baiting and red baiting at its finest. It is simply outrageous to claim this is even remotely related to fairness. This ginning up of racial hatred causes people to get killed. What Palin and McCain are doing is exactly what the lynch mobs did before they dragged some black person off to be murdered. The proof is a matter of historical record. Right wing radio knows it, McCain and Palin know it, the agents of hate they are appealing to knows it, and that's exactly why they are using that tactic today.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: WordFaery on November 05, 2008, 04:57 AM
Uncrowned Queens oral history on WNED AM radio

"Uncrowned Queens: Voices of African American Women," an oral history project highlighting the accomplishments and viewpoints of exceptional Buffalo area African American women began airing the first of its 13 hour long segments this past Friday afternoon at 1 p.m. on WNED-AM 970.  The first program, featuring profiles of community business woman Dee Cosby, Food Bank of Western New York founder Carolyn Thomas, and New York State Assembly member Crystal Peoples was repeated this past Sunday evening at 7 p.m.

The radio series is produced by the Western New York Public Broadcasting Association in conjunction with the Buffalo-based Uncrowned Queens Institute for Research & Education on Women, Inc.  Among the women featured are upcoming programs--all of which will be aired at 1 p.m. on Friday afternoons and repeated on Sundays at 7 p.m.--are librarian Glendora Johnson-Cooper; choir director and music teacher Ella Robinson; nurse and UB faculty member Dr. Juanita Hunter; and Executive Director of the Arts Council of Buffalo and Erie County Celeste Lawson.

Each hour-long program is introduced by Award-winning actress and The Cosby Show co-star Phylicia Rashad.  Future plans call for distributing the series nationally and encouraging other public broadcasting stations to contribute stories of their own regions' "Uncrowned Queens."

Lorna C. Hill, a playwright, actor and founder of Buffalo's Ujima Theater Company produced the series for WNED Radio, with WNED's Stratton Rawson serving as the Executive Producer.  Dr. Peggy Brooks-Bertram, Ph.D., and Dr. Barbara A. Seals Nevergold, Ph.D. of the Uncrowned Queens Institute served as Consulting Producers.  The project is funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, with support from BlueCross BlueShield of Western New York and Rich Products.

In a unique partnership with Regent Broadcasting of Buffalo, WNED is offering special abbreviated editions of "Uncrowned Queens" to air on WBLK 93.7 FM (a commercial radio station) on Sundays at 8:30 am.  The goal of the of the half hour broadcasts is to reach a audience that does not listen regularly to public radio.

For more information about the Uncrowned Queens Institute, visit their web site:

http://wings.buffalo.edu/uncrownedqueens/index.html (http://wings.buffalo.edu/uncrownedqueens/index.html)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 05, 2008, 05:51 AM
Great link again WordFaery. I'll use some of that information in the thread.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 05, 2008, 06:34 AM
Yup T7L Nov 4 2008, a day of monumental history.
America stands a little taller on so many different levels today. Race baiting and red baiting politics have been repudiated. The politics of lies and smears from such hate hags as Limbaugh, Hannity, ORilely, just to name a few, repudiated. Joe the plumber who was not only a fraud, but dumber than a rock, repudiated. A new era has dawned where people want to decide their elections based on issues rather than fall for the okey-doke and bamboozling from the right.

Black America stands taller with the quiet dignity this day affords us. Not one black person I know in my generation believed we would ever live to see a day when a black man would be president. I can't tell you the exhilaration I feel knowing I can look my own grandchildren in the eye and finally be able to say truthfully they can be what ever they want to be. Mind you, I'm not fooled for one minute into thinking black folks have arrived and the fight against racism and injustice has been won. We still have a fight ahead of us, but today America made a giant step forward.

To my black people; celebrate, crow, chest bump, revel in this unprecedented victory....today. Do so with the dignity befitting the occasion...today. Tomorrow the work starts. Don't let your guard down. Not only do we have to get behind Obama and support him because the hate hag machine will still be in full force, but we must not allow our expectation of change to fall by the wayside.
We must demand the same accountability from Obama and the new Democratic Congress as we would anyone else. No free passes for Obama or any of the others. History is one thing, living up to history is quite another story.
The issue has been decided. Lets see what Obama will make of it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 06, 2008, 12:42 AM
"I'm so proud and filled, I can hardly talk without weeping. I'm so filled with pride for my country. What do you say? We are growing up. My God, I'm so grateful.... I mean, look at our souls, look at our hearts. We have elected a black man to talk for us, to speak for us. We, blacks, whites, Asians, Spanish-speaking, Native Americans, we have done it. Fat, thin, pretty, plain, gay, straight, we have done it. My Lord, I am an American, baby."
-Maya Angelou

Today  I watched clip after clip of the tears and pride and joy from black people all over America...and the message was the same: "Now I can look at my children and grandchildren and tell them with assurity...."you CAN
be anything you want to be" and also---"now there are no more excuses---that you didn't have a father---because Barack didn't have a father"---It was a beautiful thing to FEEL them lifted...

I agree with Earl...about the "congratulating, chest bumping, celebrating, crowing, revelling...it's a historical day!

But his next sentence was profound:  "Tomorrow the work starts. Don't let your guard down. Not only do we have to get behind Obama and support him because the hate hag machine will still be in full force, but we must not allow our expectation of change to fall by the wayside."   

I believe President-Elect Obama has what it takes to be GREAT...and I have hope that change will come.   It was also great to hear how the rest of the world is celebrating with us...FINALLY they see America's spirit!  It will take ALL of us...to put aside our differences and pull America out of the muck...

Let's show em what AMERICANS are made of!   


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 06, 2008, 04:57 AM
Elise...the prodigal daughter returns. Welcome back hugsssssssssssssss. I'll save you an email and give you my take on this right here.

Being a serious student of Black History, I'm still giddy. I well remember when I couldn't walk through a front door or drink from a water fountain. I remember when I had to cross the street if a white man was on the sidewalk where I was. I remember when the last words we heard from grandma or mom before we went out the door was 'now you remember your place'. It was a warning to us not to do anything that may breech the rules of racism we had to live by. They knew the serious consequences of that. I'm only now beginning to understand the fear a black mother had for her children back then. Especially her sons, as we could be beaten or even lynched with impunity for the slightest breech of the racist code.

And here I am being a part of history that will be written about and studied for as long as American history exist. I'm thinking of my parents, aunts, uncles, my grandparents, none of them lived to see this day. The freedom riders that were murdered in Philadelphia, Miss died for this moment. Medgar Evers was murdered trying to get black folks registered to vote. Dr King's home was bombed and he was martyred for this day. Emmitt Till, those four littel girls blown up in a church in Birmingham, Al., all the dog attacks and discrimination led to this day.
I wonder what the slaves would have thought of this day. Just think, the black man was brought here the the bows of ships where so many died that the sharks learned to follow the ships during the middle passage to feed on their bodies. The survivors where not even considered full humans, just chattel. The girls and women raped at will, children and babies ripped from mother's arms and here I am actually seeing a black man as president. Its indescribable.

On the way home tonight I parked on the lot of Fort Early. This was the Fort that Robert E. Lee was trying to retreat to from Appomattox, Va. in order to continue the war and save the Confederacy. The original cobblestone lines the driveway. The original walls and breast works are still there. The building is used for weddings and such. I sat on one of the walls thinking of how this place, that's about 8 blocks from my house, had its intended purpose of keeping my people slaves. Through all the blood and tears, death and sacrifices, struggles and struggles to come, here I am owning property just a few blocks from this place, with the status of a full man and witnessing a black man going to the Whitehouse.
Contemplate that for a moment in the light of historical context. Now multiply that feeling X times and you might come close to feeling how huge this is in black history.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 06, 2008, 05:57 AM
*hugggs* to you "Dad"!!!   How could I resist?   

I heard someone say something today that struck me...they said (and I wish I remembered who it was) that Obama is where he is because he is standing on the shoulders of those who went before him...those who did their part for civil liberties...including but not limited to the slaves who suffered, died, escaped...names we don't know, and names we know...Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Martin Luther King...Rosa Parks...etc...etc ...etc.     Also the courageous white men...Abraham Lincoln, John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and others who stood up against  the system...
[attachimg=#] [attachimg=#] [attachimg=#][attachimg=#]
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 06, 2008, 09:17 PM
Thanks for the chronological pictorial Elise. Yes we need to always be gratefully to those that went against the times and tides of their day in this struggle.

Now the work begins. We shouldn't be fooled into thinking the struggle is over. You wouldn't believe the ignorant stuff that's floating around in the blogs even today. It seems their are those that just can't turn loose of the lies, ignorance and hatred that the country just voted overwhelmingly to reject. Hate radio is in full swing today. These people have no interest in seeing Obama succeed. In fact they have no reservation to do anything to bring him down even if they have to destroy the country to do so. any body remember the destruction the right tried to wrought on this country for the eight years they went after Clinton? But, like Clinton, Obama will get on with doing the nation's business and to hell with these hate hags.

Just as an example, in spite of all the systems in place, the overwhelming turnout, the electoral college count, all the stats and state systems reporting, the news organizations, even Faux news, Limbaugh yesterday was on radio saying those numbers didn't match his numbers. He is so used to decieiving others that he's actually believes his own deceptions. He really believes his numbers supersede the truth and Obama lost.

Now,� wait...hold on....wait a little longer.......now burst out in laughter at the utter stupidity of these folks.

In fact, I hope Coulter, O'riely, Savage, Limbaugh, Hannity, just all the repudiated liars of their ilk, keep up it up.
No doubt they will, because they are ruled by hate, arrogance, ignorance and they just can't learn new things. They are too stupid to realise why they have been rejected so thoroughly. The more they keep up their stupidity, the more they will be rejected, assuring us we can keep their ilk out of power for years to come.

And by the way, the election of Obama saved the Supreme Court from utter destruction for years to come.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 12, 2008, 09:26 PM
I was listening to a radio interview on the Warren Ballintine show the other day. I can't recall the guest name but he was some higher up in the KKK. He was extolling the advances of the KKK with the advent of David Duke and the other suit wearing racists that are in office on various levels. His intent was to paint the KKK and other racist organizations as just entities for preserving the white race. Now what was insulting to me was not what he was saying pre-se, but that he actually thinks we are stupid enough to believe it. Suits or no suits, they have the same agenda....hate...hate.. ..destruction...more hate. These are the groups that Obama especially has to watch out for. Obama's whole family is under the same threat any president would be watchfull for, but at no time in history has the president had to be protected from such psychotic hate coming from the KKK, skin heads and other like organizations. So we have another first in Black history, and its negative and unprecedented as black history events are wont to be.

Now for those that would argue Abraham Lincoln was targeted as a result of freeing the slaves, making him the first to undergo what Obama is facing, that is not the case. John Wilkes Booth and his co-conspirators hatered of Lincoln went back years before the Emancipation Proclamation. They hated Lincoln when he ran on the platform of keeping the Union in tact in 1860.
But I digress.

Just in case anyone thinks the KKK are just pretty suits trying to be good citizens:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 13, 2008, 04:38 AM
I pray this succeeds:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 13, 2008, 04:51 AM
This stuff makes me sad.  I have a question for everyone..."WHAT IF?"
What if...you had been born a different color?   What kind of person would you be then?  What would change?
None of us picked our skin color.   Why do some consider it a crime to be a different race?  I just don't get it.

Any comments? 
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 13, 2008, 05:29 AM
Elise made a point, a couple posts ago, extolling the work and sacrifice of white people during the civil rights struggle. She was right to do so. The civil right s struggle could never been won on the basis of the sit ins and demonstrations done by powerless black citizens. The public airing of black folks being beaten, lynched, blown up, even clubbed on courthouse steps did little to stir public sympathy or steer public opinion in favor of civil rights.

When the public started seeing pictures of the white freedom riders being bloodied it was an awakening. The white voter organizers, freedom riders and marchers sacrificed much on behalf of black people and they often don't get their due.

In my opinion (and I do my home work, plus I lived through this period of time) the white populace really started to pay attention to the violence and ongoing deaths as a result of fighting for civil rights, when those white freedom riders where murdered in Philadelphia, Miss.
James Chaney, 21, a black man, Andrew Goodman, 20, a white Jewish man, and Michael Schwerner, 24, also a white Jewish man were murdered with the help of an active duty sheriff's deputy, who was a member of the KKK.

All the sudden death, as a consequence of fighting for civil rights, had white faces and a reluctant government was awakened by an outraged, no longer complacent, white populace.
J. Edgar Hoover was no friend to the civil rights movement and had to be threatened by Lydon Johnson to even investigate the crimes. For six long weeks those white faces were front page news and their unfortunate deaths fed the outrage and brought closer scrutiny to what was happening in the civil rights struggle.
Even so, the hate and ignorance of racism caused Philadelphia, Miss officials to refuse to prosecute the criminals. The state of Mississippi refused to prosecute as well, ignoring the outrage of the American public. The federal gov had to prosecute.

Because of Elise's prompting I have been looking out for articles that will bring some prospective on the white participants in the civil rights movement. Here is a link to such an artice, and it is amazing who some of the folks are its speaking of.

One thing this article brought to my attention, that I hadn't thought of, just rocked me back in my seat. Never has there been a time in history when a significant change has been forged in the treatment of black folks in this country, that nobody died. Contemplate deeply on that for a moment. Slavery, abolition, emancipation proclamation, reconstruction, Jim Crow, segregation, civil rights movement.....not one of the forward results of these movements came without injury and deaths. Obama guided this country further and faster in the direction of equality than any time in history and did so without a single death. What an eye opener that is.

Here (finally) is the link and thanks Elise for making me look deeper into this:
http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/11/04/obama.history/index.html (http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/11/04/obama.history/index.html)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 13, 2008, 12:22 PM
"Obama guided this country further and faster in the direction of equality than any time in history and did so without a single death. What an eye opener that is."

Americans, of all walks of life, are the ones that forced this quick shift in our country in regards to equality.
Obama was/is the symbol, the catalyst, for a nation ready for change. A nation ready to heal, and to rebuild.


White 66%

Latino 14.8%

Black 13.4%

Other races 6.5%

Asian 4.4%

Multi Racial 2.0 %

Native American/Alaskian .68%

Pacific Islander .14%

This rainbow of voters, quite simply, have reinvested in hope, and become the new majority.
I am very proud to watch my children experience and see this happen early on in their life.

It seems that it is no longer a black or white thing, but more a red or blue thing.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 13, 2008, 02:21 PM
T7L------Right on the mark.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on November 13, 2008, 02:22 PM
I hate prejudice and did not vote color. For me, personally,
it's not going to matter to my savings program, my retirement
program what color someone's skin is. The economy, peace,
jobs, the list goes on and on,
I love people of all races.
But to vote for "race" makes no sense to me as a rational human being.
I'll be blunt and say I believe people from both races voted race and if they
did, that's their business. I have one African American friend who said
she only voted for Obama because he was black. Thats----not really
what a person should do. You need to KNOW who you are voting for.
Same for McCain, you don't vote for someone because they are white---
or whatever.
It's like hiring someone because they have an attractive hairdo?
Makes no sense. While I'm thrilled at the coming together of peoples,
(seemingly) that I've seen on the news so far, I'm not entirely convinced
that everyone in America is all lovey dovey yet. They want something
from this election. We have all these special interest groups
and if you think they don't expect something next year, think again.
They want help. Everyone wants help.
They want to be bailed out, gimme, gimme, gimme.
I'm not convinced that Obama has =, from this election, suddenly
made everyone love everyone else. He had a wonderful campaign,
he's a charismatic speaker, he's been working on it for years
and he had a ton of money behind him. I'm not equating "this"
with all races loving one another. I hope you're right and I'm wrong
but I don't see it ---yet.
Unfortunately,I know some very disgruntled African Americans who hate Obama
and if you think everyone loves him  and all is Utopia, well, it's just not true. Just yesterday,
they had a video from a woman teaching her AA child to curse him.
It's not universal acceptance.  These are troubled times. And its going to
take a lot of pulling together of people from all races to bring about
any kind of peace and order.

What I don't want to see and hope to God I don't see are people
lining up like pigs at a trough while they are bailed out because
they didn't pay their bills and we have to.  I hope this doesn't happen.
Just my two cents. I just think a false sense of peace is a dangerous
thing sometimes and we need to be aware.

On a lighter note, we're not equal yet. There's never been a woman President.
Show me that someday and I'll be happy.  :rose

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 13, 2008, 05:06 PM
Dear Kay,

I wish you were here.

Apparently, some people can't see the forest for the trees,
some people lack the appreciation of "hope", and the foresight.

Listen to the message, and look into the crowd:


These youngsters were protesting for the last 6 + years
Protesting against corp. control, new world orders, ballot
tampering, manufactured wars, and fear mongering.
This youth movement, challenged a nation and asked
them one question, "Can we make a difference?"

The answer:
"Yes, we can."

Do you remember this song?


Its about hope, Kay...

Hope wont pay your bills, or pay off the national debt.
Hope wont fight wars, and figure out better health care.
You cannot see hope, or touch it, or smell it, or taste it.
But you certainly can feel it, and hear it in the voices
of others, a nation of others. It starts with one person.

Obama is that symbol right now, not just in America,
the entire planet is looking toward our country.

Watching, and waiting on bated breath.

Its not because suddenly everything is perfect
It's because of hope, hope replacing fear

Dear Kay,

I wish you were here.


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on November 13, 2008, 08:08 PM
Here is Elise's reply, since she seemed to be able to say it without any problems:

It's a new day and the excitement that has been generated is valid.     I don't think ANYONE really believes that all will be perfect and rosy.  There are lots of issues to resolve in this country.   But it's a huge step...and long overdue.

that's exactly what I tried to say before. Thanks, Elise.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 13, 2008, 08:15 PM
Thanks Earl for this long overdue article.  

An excerpt:

"an entire generation of white Southerners, risked social rejection for renouncing the bigotry of their parents. Others risked their lives while leading civil rights campaigns in the Deep South. Some almost lost their belief in the inherent goodness of America because they saw so many innocent people die."  It is amazing to me that in the lifetime of my parents, (from Alabama) George Wallace--former governor of Alabama, used the "N" word in his speeches and declared to forever keep segregation in place.    And now, George Wallace's own daughter...Peggy Wallace Kennedy (age 58) voted for Obama, sported an Obama bumper sticker even though some have told her that the prospect of an African-American president would have her father "rolling over in his grave."  She knows he was wrong...it's just that simple.    

Another thing worth thinking about...is that one report noted that a large number of "so-called Republicans" voted for Obama in secret...even going so far as to say they were voting for McCain...but then actually voting for Obama...especially in the South.  Sadly, not everyone is strong enough to  stand up outwardly against their parents/grandparents.  

It's a new day and the excitement that has been generated is valid.     I don't think ANYONE really believes that all will be perfect and rosy.  There are lots of issues to resolve in this country.   But it's a huge step...and long overdue.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on November 13, 2008, 08:18 PM
Hey, does anyone know this, this is cool. Obama was seen reading Derek Walcott's poetry.
he's one of my favorite poets. I thought that was cool.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 13, 2008, 08:24 PM
After  I was preparing the above reply, I saw that two other SPLASH members has posted their thoughts.  I love that we share.   It is great to see the differing ideas and opinions.   Though we may not always agree on everything, the fact that we communicate is awesome!  I honestly don't think any of us are that far apart...

T7L...I love that video clip and John Lennon's song rings true!
Kay, I will read some of Derek Walcott's work...thanks for the heads up!


Derek Walcott
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992

Derek Walcott was born in 1930 in the town of Castries in Saint Lucia, one of the Windward Islands in the Lesser Antilles. The experience of growing up on the isolated volcanic island, an ex-British colony, has had a strong influence on Walcott's life and work. Both his grandmothers were said to have been the descendants of slaves. His father, a Bohemian watercolourist, died when Derek and his twin brother, Roderick, were only a few years old. His mother ran the town's Methodist school. After studying at St. Mary's College in his native island and at the University of the West Indies in Jamaica, Walcott moved in 1953 to Trinidad, where he has worked as theatre and art critic. At the age of 18, he made his debut with 25 Poems, but his breakthrough came with the collection of poems, In a Green Night (1962). In 1959, he founded the Trinidad Theatre Workshop which produced many of his early plays.

Walcott has been an assiduous traveller to other countries but has always, not least in his efforts to create an indigenous drama, felt himself deeply-rooted in Caribbean society with its cultural fusion of African, Asiatic and European elements. For many years, he has divided his time between Trinidad, where he has his home as a writer, and Boston University, where he teaches literature and creative writing.

Sea Grapes

That sail which leans on light,
tired of islands,
a schooner beating up the Caribbean

for home, could be Odysseus,
home-bound on the Aegean;
that father and husband's

longing, under gnarled sour grapes, is like
the adulterer hearing Nausicaa's name in
every gull's outcry.

This brings nobody peace. The ancient war
between obsession and responsibility will
never finish and has been the same

for the sea-wanderer or the one on shore now
wriggling on his sandals to walk home, since
Troy sighed its last flame,

and the blind giant's boulder heaved the trough from
whose groundswell the great hexameters come to the
conclusions of exhausted surf.

The classics can console. But not enough.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on November 13, 2008, 08:33 PM

You know its true, and Derek's poetry is amazing.
I can't remember when I began to read it.
He writes about the river like no one else can.
My favorite poet is Rita Dove.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 14, 2008, 10:13 PM

"Laugh and the whole world laughs with you...."
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 15, 2008, 12:29 AM

"....cry, and you cry alone."
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on November 15, 2008, 12:34 AM
Here's a helpful link for anyone interested in more poetic Black History.


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 18, 2008, 03:39 AM
A follow up to post #484:

There is justice.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 18, 2008, 03:43 AM
The mindless ignorance continues:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on November 18, 2008, 03:17 PM

I left the Catholic church back in the 80's and am
not really that current on a lot of what's going on there.
My church is non-denominational. But this link about
the Communion and all is wrong on so many levels.
I'm going to pass this along to my brother who is
a strong, practicing Catholic. I'm frankly shocked
that any church do something like this. My church
instructs us to pray for those in leadership (1Tim.2:1-4)
anyway, thank you for that link, it was really shocking
to me and I'm sure to others as well.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 18, 2008, 09:14 PM
That is a great link Kay. I was perusing it and came upon an audio of one of Langston Hughes' poems. I thought it was a narrator reading the poem. Can you imagine my excitement when I learned it was Langston Hughes himself explaining the impetus and reading to boot.
I heard his voice, I felt his passion. That was wayyyyyyyyyy cool.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on November 18, 2008, 10:34 PM
Yes, it's very cool. It's like sitting across listening to him telling about his poem and the history.
There are so many audios on this link. I'm glad you clicked on!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 18, 2008, 11:28 PM

I left the Catholic church back in the 80's and am
not really that current on a lot of what's going on there.
My church is non-denominational. But this link about
the Communion and all is wrong on so many levels.
I'm going to pass this along to my brother who is
a strong, practicing Catholic. I'm frankly shocked
that any church do something like this. My church
instructs us to pray for those in leadership (1Tim.2:1-4)
anyway, thank you for that link, it was really shocking
to me and I'm sure to others as well.

Universal Utilitarian ?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on November 18, 2008, 11:48 PM
No, I can't say I'm familiar with that one. I've not heard of it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 19, 2008, 07:43 PM
I found the historical context of this link to be very interesting.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 24, 2008, 05:43 PM
Previous post #459:

The nastiness of racism raises its head again in this political race. I expect it to get worse.
There's a flyer being left on doors that juxtaposes Barrack Obama with the leaders of other African Nations. The claim is all nations lead by black people have poor economies, has poverty, are poorly lead and have wars. I forget where it was exactly because it was about a 10 second piece on the news, but when I get more details I'll post them.

Now before anyone takes me to task and says I'm making too much of this and its not racist, concider this.
Has any white led nation been free of war? Has any white led nation been free of poverty? Just look at the U. S. A. right now. Is the economy falling down around our heads right now? Were the leaders that orchestrated the economic failures we see black or white? Have our white leaders kept us out of wars or poverty? Has the leadership of this country been peachy keen the last eight years?
One thing is for certain. The condition(s) and sad state of affairs this country has been in and out of, and back into today, cannot in any way be blamed on any black man or any women. The leaders have always been white men. Does that disqualify all other white men from leading?

Now ask yourself this.
In the light of it being true that both white and black leaders face the same problems, can anybody say it has been a black man leading this country to the disaster we face today? Further, ask if at any time a white leader of any nation has been held up to the kind of scrutiny that says no white man can be a leader of a country because another white leader failed?

I can remember all the way back to Eisenhower and I cannot recall a single campaign making an issue to disqualify all other white men from being leaders, because another white man failed.
Using this logic, surely Hitler, Stalin, David Duke, George Wallace, even George Bush would disqualify all white men from any leadership positions.

Racism at its best.

I bring this up to ask a question. One of those things that make you go 'hummmmmm'... questions.

There is still an ongoing conversation in many circles, papers, hate hag radio(all the usual culprits), that a black man will ruin this country. In answering the questions below, reflect on the state of the country and government right now.

We've witnessed the bailout proceedings that's going to banks and the usual buddy-buddy pocket liners.
Public hearings, late night deals, the typical lies to get the money for the bailout, then the bait and switch in changing the original purpose of the bailout to enriching the rich.
Are there black owned businesses in America?
Are there any black CEO's in America?
Has anyone seen a black business CEO before congress looking for money?
Are the CEO's that have orchestrated all these failing policies, and now looking for the tax payer to bail them out, black people?
We've all seen their faces on the news, who do they look like?
The people that are in control of the money, changing the status and original purpose of the money, flying the private jets, spending $400,000 on parties on different occasions and them giving themselves millions of dollars in golden parachutes, after they received our tax money, are they black people? Have you seen a single CEO with a black face doing any of these things?


Who really has been ruining this country???
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 25, 2008, 05:14 AM
First of all, let me say...interesting reading Earl...and well said.   I went back to read the other posts to catch up.   

More of the same thing is happening now...IGNORANT people....don't like change.  IGNORANT racists will fight everything...as evidenced in the school integrations You spoke of.  Those of us (white folks) from the south see it all around us.    But things are changing...they really are!    Just think...(to remind everyone) George Wallace's own daughter voted for Obama!!!  And proudly so.  It is way past time for whites to address the racism among their own.   But it is starting to happen!

Blacks did NOT ruin this country...they have never had a chance to.  Just remember that there are IGNORANT people everywhere saying IGNORANT things...and let it roll off when you can.   No matter WHO is President....he will take a lot of heat.   We are in awful shape right now.   It's been impressive to see Obama getting his "ducks in a row" before he takes office.

Who really has been ruining this country???

PEOPLE...they are WHITE people yes, but their skin color should NEVER be an issue...so I agree that it's IDIOTIC to say that "having a black President will ruin this country"...I mean REALLY!!!...I feel just as strongly about saying..."a WHITE President has ruined this country"  PEOPLE...affect this country.   POLITICS ...affect this country.   ISSUES... affect this country.   GREED & CORRUPTION...affect this country.  (I honestly do not believe that any certain race of a person has the corner on the "greed and corruption" market.)

Time will prove that there are WORTHY American presidential possibles from ANY race.   And isn't it time?
After all, isn't America the "melting pot" of diversity?  Then why shouldn't her President reflect that diversity.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 25, 2008, 11:06 AM


1607 English settlers set up shop in Virgina, slavery was introduced to America in the form of indentured servitude.
1654 is when chattel slavery became the law of the land
1776 is when the colonies were united, and America was born
1865 is when American chattel slavery ends
1965 Voting Rights Act passed

America is 232 years old, officially
Chattel slavery, in America, is 211 years old,
American slavery, in general, is 258 years old

143 years after slavery ended and 43 years after African American's are
allowed to vote America elected their 1st African American president

History tells us that African American leaders have not had
enough time, or chance to be found at fault with the current
state of affairs America is in right now. That being said, white
American leaders have had the corner on the market of
"greed and corruption" for over 189 years.

African American people, in political office, finally share the same
opportunities, as white folks have had, to screw up America.


Finding fault and finger pointing is a fools game. At the end of the day
regardless what color, or nationality you descend from: America's problems
are American's problems, what do you plan to do about them?


"Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." ~JFK

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Marsupial Man on November 25, 2008, 12:57 PM
I've been following this for a while; now, I'll jump into these murky waters.

I won't argue that racism doesn't exist; it most definitely does. However, it's a global problem. It's more than just the United States. The economic issues are also a global problem. Greed and corruption are not just a United States' problem; it's a part of human nature that spans the continents.

I wish Obama well. I saw him on 60 Minutes a couple weeks back. He and his wife presented themselves very well; they were very well spoken. Can he fix the problem? I don't think so. That's my pessimism shining through. The issues are so entrenched into the basic structure of our system, the system of other countries. White is greedy. Black is greedy. Greed and corruption don't know race; they know humans. Humans fall victim to their own greed.

I hope, win/lose/or draw, Obama's successes and failures aren't reduced to a race issue. He's a human being, working with other human beings, to attempt to fix our part of a global issue that was created by a miriad of colors. The biggest color though is green -- money. Money for profit. Money for weapons. Money for control. Money for personal status. The list goes on.

We, as people floating through this vast universe of over a hundred billion galaxies, need to ackowledge our collective failings as a species.

We need to do that together, regardless of the pigmentation our epidermis.

This kind of dialogue is a step in that direction.

Take care everyone,


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 25, 2008, 01:05 PM
I've been following this for a while; now, I'll jump into these murky waters.

I won't argue that racism doesn't exist; it most definitely does. However, it's a global problem. It's more than just the United States. The economic issues are also a global problem. Greed and corruption are not just a United States' problem; it's a part of human nature that spans the continents.

I wish Obama well. I saw him on 60 Minutes a couple weeks back. He and his wife presented themselves very well; they were very well spoken. Can he fix the problem? I don't think so. That's my pessimism shining through. The issues are so entrenched into the basic structure of our system, the system of other countries. White is greedy. Black is greedy. Greed and corruption don't know race; they know humans. Humans fall victim to their own greed.

I hope, win/lose/or draw, Obama's successes and failures aren't reduced to a race issue. He's a human being, working with other human beings, to attempt to fix our part of a global issue that was created by a miriad of colors. The biggest color though is green -- money. Money for profit. Money for weapons. Money for control. Money for personal status. The list goes on.

We, as people floating through this vast universe of over a hundred billion galaxies, need to ackowledge our collective failings as a species.

We need to do that together, regardless of the pigmentation our epidermis.

This kind of dialogue is a step in that direction.

Take care everyone,


Valid points
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 25, 2008, 04:38 PM
I agree wholeheartedly.   Dialogue is a start.   This subject is so touchy that I think that's why many of us hesitate to address it here...but I do know that others at least read the words, and that's a good thing.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 25, 2008, 04:47 PM
One other thing...there are racist "jokes" going around to belittle Obama...because of his skin color.  They are coming through the email in particular.   

Those of us with family and friends who help circulate this sort of thing can do our part by NOT forwarding this trash.   It is the very LEAST you can do to help.  Just do not participate.  At the most---engage in dialogue.   I for one know that this can be very treacherous...but if it wakes up just one person it will be worth the argument.   

There is a golden opportunity for us to step up and be civil rights activists---at least among our peers.   To join the ranks of the great ones like Lincoln and Kennedy (in our own small way)...by taking a stand in our own surroundings.  It doesn't even need to be heated---just take a stand---even softly.   Many of the people who are racially prejudiced claim to be the "best" Christians.  Racism is definitely NOT Christian.  Think about it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 25, 2008, 05:54 PM
wow!! Turn your back for a second and you guys will put a brother to work.
Good post all around.

MM, you said a mouthful. I wholeheartedly agree that dialogue like this is good.

Just a philosophical thought, totally from the black prospective.
We've heard and participated in this dialogue for generations, and even with the election of a black man as president we still see the need for more dialogue. No question on the advances, no question it should continue. Looking strictly through a black man's eyes, when do we get past the dialogue to not having to have it.

Now I've heard it said many times (not by you guys, nor am I implying by you guys) that its black people that don't want it to end. Which just ignores all facts and common sense. Why would the victim want to perpetuate being victimized? Yes I've heard all the arguments from the circles the put forth that idea and I could make the same specious argument and attach it to any victim on any level and it would be recognized as nonsense, but black people are still accused of wanting to be victims. What that is designed to do is absolve the victimizer of their responsibility and place the blame (solution) on the victim.
I'll bet in your profession, MM, you see that often and could probably articulate it better than I can.

I see your point about racism being a global problem to a degree, but it affects black people right here in the states, everyday, in ways that are local and even designed certain ways inside the locality they live. We can't ignore what's happening on the world scene, but black folks still have problems on the job, at the mall, down the street, at city hall. Just witness the increased level of hate crimes against black people since the election. It's well documented and we have to worry about that, not on a global scale, but right in our neighborhoods.

That's the kind of things black people still have to overcome just to get to a dialogue. I admit you guys do it very well. I've been doing this for a number of years and only had one post so egregious it had to be taken down.

Elise, dearest daughter:
PEOPLE...they are WHITE people yes, but their skin color should NEVER be an issue...so I agree that it's IDIOTIC to say that "having a black President will ruin this country"...I mean REALLY!!!...I feel just as strongly about saying..."a WHITE President has ruined this country" PEOPLE...affect this country. POLITICS ...affect this country. ISSUES... affect this country. GREED & CORRUPTION...affect this country. (I honestly do not believe that any certain race of a person has the corner on the "greed and corruption" market.)

I see you picked up on the underlying meaning of my question. The only reason I addressed it as I did is because there are people that are saying specifically a black man will ruin this country. One cannot misunderstand their meaning. They are making the issue one of white versus black and it has to be addressed as such.

You and T7L gave solid timelines and accurate history to say it can't be true, and there is no historical basis for even saying such a thing, yet it is being said.
I have always acknowledged that without white people, the Jewish people, just the whole country coming together under a common cause of decency, black folks would never have moved forward to where we are today.
I agree it's people that has ruined this country, of all kinds, but when we have groups all over the net that's saying what a black president will do to this country, based on utter nonsense, its just a matter of record to point out who the leaders have been.

I do it to say, "wait a minute!!! Look at the record, the history, the leaders." Then look at the cause effects and consequences as a result. After you've done that then at least be honest and access blame where the record puts it.
I try not to frame any of my conversations to say all white people do this or that. Lord if I've given anyone that impression I do apologize. (No hon I'm not saying that's what you said. I'm so geared into what you say that you make me reflect and correct through the most innocent comments)

What's going on, is, even with the most well reasoned thought out post of you and MM, we are having this discussion because of what white groups and individuals are saying all over the TV, nets, emails and such. I'm not trying to single out white folks as a homogeneous group, but the difficulty, as you mentioned, is addressing the issue head on. If it's not articulated just so, it will hurt feelings, but I hope if I do that I'll be given the chance to clarify.

Time will prove that there are WORTHY American presidential possibles from ANY race. And isn't it time?
After all, isn't America the "melting pot" of diversity? Then why shouldn't her President reflect that diversity.

Lord I'm going to date myself with this old saying.....RIGHT ON!!!

T7L, you added an acute sense of history with that post. I really appreciated it.

Valid points all around, I must say.

MM and T7L, I don't recall officially welcoming you guys to the thread. I have slapped both hands for that oversight, but I really do appreciate your comments. Jump in anytime and don't feel the need to follow up on a post, bring new issues if you like.
Now mind you, I'll take anyone to task, but I invite you guys to do the same to me.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Marsupial Man on November 25, 2008, 06:27 PM
Hello A-Friend,

You welcomed me a while back to SplashHall.

I can hear your point about acting locally. I guess it goes back to that saying, "Think globally. Act locally."
Certainly, I must acknowledge that I can never fully appreciate what a black person goes through daily. Without question, the area within which I live is predominantly white. I'm aware of K.K.K existing within my community. I have heard the racial jokes about Obama. About a month ago, I was with my family in a local gas station, and a man came in wearing a Harley Davidson (at least, it had what appeared to be a Harley Davidson logo), t-shirt that stated the following: "Looking for a skinny nigger for drive belt for my bike." On the back it stated: "Don't feed them. Don't breed them." I was shocked, as were other customers. I'm still torn today. I didn't say anything. I was with my wife and child. I assumed that this man was prepared to physically defend his shirt. However, I must admit to many hours of thought: even if my wife and child had not been with me, would I have said something. I can't give an absolute, "Yes."

An apology now doesn't remedy the problem, my problem, the failure to act. However, I, as I do off duty, was carrying a gun. I think it was safe to assume that he had some kind of weapon. Where would have it all gone?

I share this unfortunate event because now, after reading a lot of this thread, I truly try to understand what it must be like to be black when there are f-n idiots, dangerous idiots, out there who so desperately hate, and they advertise, they act, they hurt, and they kill. And then, there was me who said nothing.

Thank you for helping me in my education, A-Friend.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 25, 2008, 07:28 PM
...And then, there was me who said nothing.

I'll modify that for you my friend;
"..and then, there was me who exercised the better part of wisdom"

Not worth getting killed over. Sometimes one has to take these events and make life lessons of them. This is when we learn what it feels like and can pass that lesson on to our children as an example of what not to be.
Set back with me in time for a second. The black man had to watch as his family was whipped, his daughters were raped, his wife was bred, the members of what community he had were lashed, burned, killed and he could say nothing. He had to recognize to do otherwise would mean certain death.
The masters had the guns and the power, yet they found subtle ways to protest, teach lessons and survive.

Now its not as bad as that today, but you well know death by a racist idiot today, is still just as dead.
I'm a tough 'old school guy' with a law enforcement background who was raised by a dad and uncles that would take on a bear, so to speak. But I had to learn to pick the battle. Backing down was not in my nature and it took me awhile to understand the need to apply the wisdom you shared in your post.
I remember the insults, having to move off the sidewalks, the colored entrance and I remember my teenage years when my parents thought I was going to get killed any day because my generation started to fight and fight back. Let me tell you their fear was real. You know the history. I have been targeted by the KKK but back then I didn't fear hell or high water and invited a confrontation, even to the point of being reckless. I have found the most feared thing among these cowards is a strong black man that won't back down.
I also learned the cowards get real brave in groups, so wisdom bred caution.

I've had many well meaning white people come up to me feeling bad for the same reasons you stated. Here's my answer. You had your wife and child there....you did the wise thing. You have an obligation to get home to them even if you're alone when these things happen....you did the wise thing.
Look at it this way. If you had did anything at that particular time, what purpose would it have served? Were you going to convince that idiot of his idiocy? Walking away leaves you with insight you can share with us now and the lesson you learned is conveyed in ways you cannot measure.
There are people that are not going to be anything other than hate filled and getting yourself hurt is not going to change that. You speaking up now, in an atmosphere conducive to learning is far more worthwhile. It carries a bigger message to a larger audience.

There are times I wish I had backed down, or at least not confronted a person. I've learned that some folks just don't know anything different and it could have been one turned cheek from me that would have made a difference. Some folks just think those kinds of T shirts are funny and don't know any better. Lord knows we black folks are not telling them anything different with the rap music and hip-hop culture.
There are proper times to act. Never apologise or feel shame for being wise. We all fight on different levels. Me, I didn't mind getting down and dirty and bloody. I could be and still can be vicious. Others have the wisdom to get down and dirty using the system. Each has its own merit, but think of it....which one won all of us our rights in the end?
Good sound judgement that lives to teach another day, trumps an unwise confrontation everytime.
To this day I'll step into the pit if need be, but I think longer before I do.

I, for one, respect your judgement that night.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 25, 2008, 08:04 PM
Lord knows we black folks are not telling them anything different with the rap music and hip-hop culture.

Friend, you gotta be kidding me. I know you do not like the genre, and especially some of the language that is used, but without rap music, that helped bridge a generation of white suburban kids with inner city black kids, Obama is not elected. Yup, you can take that to the bank. The same generation that embraced this music is the same one that elected their 1st black president. Look into it, you don't have to like the music, but you cannot deny the influence it has had on it's generation.

'I have pretty eclectic tastes,'' the Democratic presidential-elect said in an interview in Rolling Stone.

"I am troubled sometimes by the misogyny and materialism of a lot of rap lyrics but I think the genius of the art form has shifted the culture and helped to desegregate music."

He said hip-hop mogul Russell Simmons and rappers Jay-Z and Ludacris were "great talents and great businessmen", adding:

While his musical tastes tend towards the old-school, Obama is in touch with today’s creative top dogs:

He’s talked policy with Ludacris, referenced Jay-Z’s “Dirt Off Your Shoulder” (with a brushing motion in response to Hillary Clinton-hurled criticisms) in a campaign speech, and joined acts ranging from Usher to Will.i.am at rallies.

“Every time I talk to Jay-Z, who is a brilliant talent and a good guy, I enjoy how he thinks,” says Obama, who believes that the recent political galvanization of America’s youth will soon be reflected in music.

“He’s serious and he cares about his art,” he adds.

“That’s somebody who is going to start branching out and can help shape attitudes in a real positive way.”


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 25, 2008, 08:08 PM
Finding fault and finger pointing is a fools game. At the end of the day
regardless what color, or nationality you descend from: America's problems
are American's problems, what do you plan to do about them?

AMEN to that!!!  It will take each individual doing their part to make things better for our country.

Marsupial Man---I can so understand your dilemma that day, and every day in fact.  It is so hard to take a real stand and invite trouble.   Sometimes it is just way easier to avoid a fight.  It is almost always the better choice I think.   For one, if you didn't know this guy...I think it might have been foolish to start something.  However, that's why I said that maybe we can each do what we CAN...like in our own families...with our own family members and friends.   By stating how you feel about it...they will at least learn to be more careful about their idiotic jokes and statements.  Maybe it will even give them food for thought.   Who knows...but I appreciated your heartfelt comments so much.  

Earl (my dear Dad)...I always learn so much from you.   It is SO painful to hear about what slaves had to go through...and the anger and hatred it HAD to instill in its people.  No wonder there is anger and mistrust.  It is going to take a long time to get past it...and who can really blame anyone for that.   It is so hard to even think about those things happening.   I am so proud of you for doing your part here...by educating everyone.   Racism really goes both ways.   You and your influence here are a beacon of hope for all of us.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on November 25, 2008, 08:28 PM
You have a point that I won't dispute T7L.
What I'm saying is we black people are guilty of sending mixed messages. There was no doubt about the meaning of the words on the T shirt MM referred to. It was intended to be degrading, insulting and inciteful.

Now take a look of the images we portray in the hip-hop culture. Aren't they much the same things? Even worse at times. Yet we call other images of the same genre used by other people hurtful.

I'll give you this. For a change some of these artists came together for a positive cause and effected a change for the good of the country. I'll give them that, but I would love to see them not revert back to the self destruction with the negative imagery.

I'll argue to my dying day with Obama or anybody about this stuff being art, but that's my personal opinion and problem. I was pleasantly surprised at the overall effort put out by these guys this past year. There were a few times when they really didn't help, but hey, Biden misspoke a time or two himself.

I'll concede to you on this one T7L.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 25, 2008, 08:29 PM
Yes We Can


will.i.am - 0:01
Scarlett Johansson - 0:05
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar - 0:21
Common - 0:23
John Legend - 0:32
Bryan Greenberg (guitar) - 0:37
Kate Walsh - 0:44
Tatyana Ali - 0:44
Harold Perrineau, Jr. - 0:49
Aisha Tyler - 1:01
Samuel Page - 1:03
Enrique Murciano - 1:07 "Si, podemos" - 1:17
Maya Rubin - 1:08 "כן אנו יכולים (Qen Annu Yecholim)" (Hebrew)
Esthero - 1:10
Eric Balfour - 1:23
Nicole Scherzinger - 1:30
Taryn Manning - 1:40
Amber Valletta - 1:52
Auden McCaw (in Valetta's arms) - 1:52
Kelly Hu - 1:52
Adam Rodríguez - 1:56 "Sí se puede"
Eric Christian Olsen - 2:02
Sarah Wright - 2:02
Shoshannah Stern (American Sign Language) - 2:05
Ed Kowalczyk (guitar) - 2:19
Fonzworth Bentley (violin) - 2:38
Amaury Nolasco - 3:24
Hill Harper - 3:27
Nick Cannon - 3:36
Herbie Hancock (piano) - 3:41
Johnathon Schaech - 3:45
Austin Nichols - 3:50
Tracee Ellis Ross - 4:00
Fred Goldring (guitar) - 4:03
Anson Mount
Alfonso Ribeiro
Cliff Collins
Vera Farmiga
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on November 25, 2008, 08:46 PM
I was pleasantly surprised at the overall effort put out by these guys this past year.

This is one is from four years ago, a battle cry to vote from one of the more vulgar rappers: Eminem
(Be warned there are two expletives in this song 0:42 and 2:18)


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on November 25, 2008, 09:15 PM

LOVE that "YES WE CAN"....WONDERFUL!!!  Thanks!

I almost didn't watch that Eminem one...(not a fan of rap)...but I am glad I did.   Very profound.  I would encourage anyone to watch it.  A great message.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on December 04, 2008, 12:24 PM
I got this out of the Washington Post.

Odetta, 77, the folk and blues singer whose renditions of civil rights anthems accompanied historic events and made history themselves, died Dec. 3 in New York.
"She was one of the great singers of late-20th-century America," said folk musician and peace activist Pete Seeger, who first met Odetta at a folk songfest in 1950. "She sang straight, no tricks," he said in an interview. He meant that her performance showed none of the tics, idiosyncrasies or gimmicks that could detract from the message of the words and melodies she sang.
Her power, in its directness, Seeger said, "impressed millions of people."
Seeger and singer Harry Belafonte were numbered among her earliest advocates. In addition, she was recognized as an important influence on the careers of other famous figures of the musical world.
These included the Bob Dylan, Janis Joplin, Joan Baez and Joan Armatrading, all of whom have often been cited as performers who owed much to her inspiration. "I'm the mama and they're the children," Odetta once said, when asked about who had influenced whom.
Dylan credited Odetta's first solo record, "Odetta Sings Ballads and Blues" (1956), as "the first thing that turned me on to folk singing. . . . [It] was just something vital and personal."
In addition, it was her voice, with the passion and the soulfulness it conveyed, that was often said to sound in the ears of those who marched, picketed and protested in other ways during the era of the great civil rights demonstrations.
Years after the historic 1963 March on Washington, she was remembered as having sung from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial after an introduction by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
She was born in Birmingham, Ala., and grew up in Los Angeles, where she studied music at Los Angeles City College. She received classical training in voice and began making professional appearances in musical theater as a teenager.
As a member of a touring company of "Finian's Rainbow," she found herself in San Francisco at the time of the folk music revival. Falling in with folk performers, she adopted the folk genre for herself.
Starting in the early 1950s, her impressive voice, ranging from soprano to baritone, could be heard in nightclubs and on records, giving a special feeling to the words of folk songs, old and new.
Through these songs, she once said, she became increasingly familiar with and passionate about the struggle of the deprived and oppressed, and with the efforts of black people to gain their rights.
Students of music regarded her most prolific period as the 1960s; in those years at least 15 albums were released, according to one biographical Web site. Among them were "Odetta at Carnegie Hall," "Christmas Spirituals," "Odetta and the Blues," "It's a Mighty World" and "Odetta Sings Dylan."
With some reluctance, she dropped her surname, Felious, at the suggestion of a club manager who claimed it was too difficult to pronounce. She acted in movies and on television, and received such honors as the National Medal of Arts, which was presented to her by President Bill Clinton.

You know that she influenced me. I was a wandering folk singer myself. I wish that I could drag out my LP's and play them all, but I have nothing to play them on anymore.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 04, 2008, 03:48 PM
Awesome post Witt!  I enjoyed it very much!  Thanks!  :rose
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 04, 2008, 03:51 PM
I remember her singing on those steps. It was a powerful as well as an empowering moment in modern black history. We have lost a great voice and talent in more ways than one.
Thanks for bringing this to our attention Witt.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 09, 2008, 02:09 AM
Dec 08 2008 in black history:

1850 - The first African American woman to graduate from college is Lucy Ann Stanton.  She completes the two-year ladies' course and receives the Bachelor of Literature degree from Oberlin College in Ohio.

1925 - Entertainer, Sammy Davis Jr. is born in New York City. He died May 16 1990

1933 - Clerow Wilson is born in Jersey City, New Jersey. Better know as "Flip" Wilson the comedian. He died Nov 28 1998

1936 - "Gibbs vs The Board of Education" in Montgomery County, Maryland is the first of a succession of suits initiated by the NAACP, that eliminated wage differentials between African American and white teachers.

1939 - Jerry Butler is born in Sunflower, Mississippi.

1999 - A Memphis, Tennessee jury hearing a lawsuit filed by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s family, finds that the civil rights leader had been the victim of a vast murder conspiracy, not a lone assassin.

source: informationman.com
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 13, 2008, 04:54 AM
Here's some trivia for you golf aficionados. I can remember white only golf courses well into my adulthood. I believe as recent as a few years ago, it was Tiger Wood that finally broke the color barrier in a well known tournament.

Who revolutionised the golf game and how?

On December 12 1899 - Boston native, dentist, and avid golfer, George F. Grant receives a patent for a wooden golf tee.� Prior to the use of the tee, wet sand was used to make a small mound to place the ball. Grant's inventionl revolutionized the manner in which golfers swing at the ball.

Imagine that. A black man born in 1847 to former slaves, changed golf forever. He never made a dime on his invention and freely gave the tee to any that wanted it.

But wait...there's much more to this black man:

1) In 1867, after two years' apprenticeship with a local dentist, he was awarded the first scholarship to Harvard Dental School given to an African-American.
This was the first university-based dental school in the United States, and had only opened a year or two before. In 1870 Grant graduated with high honors in the second graduating class of the dental school.

2) Within two years, Grant was appointed Professor of Mechanical Dentistry at Harvard, the first black faculty member.

3) He was internationally recognized for his invention of the oblate plate, a prosthetic device for people with cleft palate.

4) He spent 19 years working at Harvard, and was a founding member of the Harvard Ontological Society.

5) Grant was elected president of the Harvard Dental Alumni Association in 1881.

Geroge F. Grant died in 1910.

Sources: A Journey Into 365 Days of Black History calendar 2001

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 13, 2008, 04:42 PM
An inspiring man...with amazing accomplishments for a man of ANY color!  Thanks for sharing this!   :rose
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 18, 2008, 02:38 AM
Richmond dig reveals evidence of slave jail
By the Associated Press
December 17, 2008
RICHMOND, Va. - Archaeologists are revealing some of their finds from a historic Richmond site that once was the center of Virginia's slave-trading past.
The discoveries announced Wednesday include the remains of a brick foundation at what was once known as Lumpkin's Slave Jail. A cobblestone courtyard and the remnants of a kitchen were also found.

Lumpkin's Jail was named after Robert Lumpkin who was known as a "bully trader" for his rough handling of enslaved men, women and children.
According to historians, the jail was the largest holding center in the former capital of the Confederacy from 1840 until the end of the Civil War.

The discoveries are part of a dig to uncover remnants of Richmond's slave-trading history, much of which has disappeared through the years.

Seems there are a lot of artifacts being found on this site. A study of this site should shine more light on the slave trade in Richmond, Va.
Little is known about how much Richmond, Va's slave trade is linked to the slave trade in my hometown in Lynchburg, Va. Lynchburg, Va was established on the James river which gave it easy access to the Battaues that brought slaves into lynchburg and took other products out. In fact the slave jail in Lynchburg, VA was right on the corner of what is now 9th and commerce street. The slaves were marched off the Battaues up the hill into the slave pen. Lynchburg was a market center of the slave trade and they would be shipped east on the James river to Richmond.

But who is Robert Lumpkin?
I couldn't find a lot about him, but what I did find is a study in the very strange character of slavers. It seems Robert Lumpkin was very brutal in the way he treated slaves. Man, woman, or child was not spared. I guess if your main business is dealing in the sell of humans, it would lead one not to put any more value on them than one's horse or dog, though often the horses and dogs received better treatment.

Robert Lumpkin didn't build this jail, it was already a well established slave jail when he bought it.
Even though Robert Lumpkin was the most notorious operater of this jail, to the point of it being called "The Devil's 1/2 Acre" (ergo Lumpkin's Jail), he was the third owner behind Bacon Tait and Lewis Collier, both having extensive connections with plantation owners throughout the south.
Robert took possession of the land on Nov 27 1844, but it seems he didn't occupy it until 1848.
Robert apparently stayed in the slave trade and jail business until the end of the civil war. Of course, being what it was, the jail and Robert's business collapsed at that time and he died shortly thereafter.
All his holdings went to his widow Mary Lumpkin who leased the jail properties to Rev. Nathaniel Colver. He established on the site a school for freed slaves that became Virginia Union University.

Are you ready for the strange twist?
Apparently Mary, his wife and then widow and inheritor, was a black woman and ex slave. There was an indication that she was once one of Robert's slaves.

Now ain't that a kick??? I imagine a psychologist could have a field day studying both Robert and Mary.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 18, 2008, 05:52 AM
Very interesting piece...especially the kicker at the end...kinda makes me think, regarding his actions, that he
was the most outspoken and outwardly mean slave trader---like the one who "doth protest too much" to hide something?  Maybe putting on a show for his community...I dunno, it just made me think of that when I read it.
Would be interesting to know how he treated his wife...

Another interesting thing about the marriage of Lumpkin to a black woman is that during that time period and extending to the 1960's Racial Integrity Act, a state law banning marriages between any white person and any non-white person. . In Virginia, the law classified "miscegenation" as a felony punishable by a prison sentence of between one and five years.

As recently as January 6, 1959, another bi-racial couple, the Lovings, married in another state and were charged as soon as they re-entered Virginia...they  pleaded guilty and were sentenced to one year in prison, with the sentence suspended for 25 years on condition that the couple leave the state of Virginia. The trial judge in the case, Leon Bazile, echoing Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's 18th-century interpretation of race, proclaimed that:

[purple] Almighty God created the races white, black, yellow, malay and red, and he placed them on separate continents. And but for the interference with his arrangement there would be no cause for such marriages. The fact that he separated the races shows that he did not intend for the races to mix.  [/purple]

There were many more cases of criminilizing couples for marrying outside their race. 
The U.S. Supreme Court overturned the convictions in a unanimous decision, dismissing the Commonwealth of Virginia's argument that a law forbidding both white and black persons from marrying persons of another race, and providing identical penalties to white and black violators, could not be construed as racially discriminatory. The court ruled that Virginia's anti-miscegenation statute violated both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In its decision, the court wrote:

Marriage is one of the "basic civil rights of man," fundamental to our very existence and survival.... To deny this fundamental freedom on so unsupportable a basis as the racial classifications embodied in these statutes, classifications so directly subversive of the principle of equality at the heart of the Fourteenth Amendment, is surely to deprive all the State's citizens of liberty without due process of law. The Fourteenth Amendment requires that the freedom of choice to marry not be restricted by invidious racial discrimination. Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual and cannot be infringed by the State.

The turning point came with Perez v. Sharp (1948), also known as Perez v. Lippold. In Perez, the Supreme Court of California recognized that interracial bans on marriage violated the Fourteenth Amendment of the Federal Constitution.  , the Supreme Court concluded that anti-miscegenation laws were racist and had been enacted to perpetuate white supremacy:

 There is patently no legitimate overriding purpose independent of invidious racial discrimination which justifies this classification. The fact that Virginia prohibits only interracial marriages involving white persons demonstrates that the racial classifications must stand on their own justification, as measures designed to maintain White Supremacy.

Despite this Supreme Court ruling, such laws remained on the books, although unenforced, in several states until 2000, when Alabama became the last state to repeal its law against mixed-race marriage.

The plaintiffs, Mildred and Richard Loving

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 18, 2008, 06:25 AM
I found more on Mildred Jeter Loving...A Pioneer

MILFORD, Va  Reporters no longer beat a path to the modest white house just over the Caroline County border  and that's fine with its owner, a soft-spoken 67-year-old who never wanted the fame her marriage brought her.
Born Mildred Jeter, she's known mostly by the name she took when she  a black woman living in segregated Virginia  dared break the rules by marrying a white man named Richard Loving.

The union landed the Lovings in jail, and then before the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally in the history books; 40 years ago Tuesday, the court ruled in favor of the couple, overturning laws prohibiting interracial unions and changing the face of America.

Mildred Loving is a matriarch to thousands of mixed couples now sprinkled in every city. But she hardly considers herself a hero  just a girl who once fell in love with a boy.
"It wasn't my doing," Loving told The Associated Press, in a rare interview. "It was God's work"

Richard P. Loving married Mildred Jeter in 1958. Upon their return to Virginia, the couple was convicted under the state's law that banned mixed marriages.  

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 18, 2008, 07:02 AM
I'm glad you wrote about this couple dear daughter. Mildred Jeter Loving died last year I believe.
Richard Loving preceded her in death many years ago.
Just for geographical perspective, Mildford, Va is about 50 miles north of Richmond, Va. North on I95 then east on rt 207.
I live about 2 1/2 hours from there, so they were close enough for us to know about them. I remember the 50s and this caused quite a stir even in the black community.

The mind set and cultural conditioning of staying in 'our place' had such deep influences, there were many older black people that thought Mildred was a trouble maker and would bring more trouble to the black community.

*** added note. It was not just idle gossip that some of the older folks thought Mildred had stepped out of her place and thereby could cause trouble in the black community at large. There have been many cases where entire black communities have been burned down, the people killed, lynched, ect., for no other reason than a single person, or a few black people breached the racial protocols of the time.
Their fear was real and well founded.  Wilmington, NC, for example, burned black nieghborhoods, businesses and murdered many black people to keep them from taking office in the government. Seats they had won through the legal democratic process. It was done with the approval of the police officials and the white politicians that lost those seats. All for no other reason than the black people 'forgot their place.'

I remember my mother talking about it. She was a house keeper for a rich white family at that time, and she would speak of the conversations they would have about it. Mom would be quite agitated because of the things they said about it around her as if she wasn't there. She also knew that if she protested or didn't agree with them when they asked her 'opinion', she would be fired immediately with no chance of getting another house keeping job.

Thanks for the information.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 18, 2008, 04:04 PM
Wow, this is all so interesting...it really astounded  me, to be honest, that this all happened fairly recently in  history. 
It's just unbelievable that the government made it their business to determine something so intimately personal as who a person was "allowed" to love.

My favorite part of the WHOLE thing is what Mildred said, "I was just a girl who once fell in love with a boy."That just says it all.  Imagine what they both had to endure just to be together.  Both communities condemning them.  Now that's love.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 19, 2008, 04:30 PM
Wow, this is all so interesting...it really astounded me, to be honest, that this all happened fairly recently in� history.

You innocently touched on something I'd like to discuss.
Inevitably when there's a discussion of black history, someone is going to say "that's all in the past, why can't you people (black folks) just get over it."

There are those that don't understand we are not only talking about things that are ancient history, but regardless of that, its still our history. There are at least two surviving generations of us that lived through and witnessed the bombings, lynchings, segregation, schools closings, pool closings, the entirety of the civil rights movement, right up to the continued covert institutionalise racism that still exist.

Then there are those that want black people to keep silent about our history, because they assign it no importance. What that says to us is our history, our contribution, our ancestors and the lesson we learned from them, just doesn't exist.
In fact the generational exclusion of black history in our schools is a part of the cultural conditioning that feeds institutionalised racism to this day. I wonder what would be said if white euro centric history is relegated to one month a year?

I'm going to borrow a few words from Henry Powell's essay on this very subject, and I'll post a link to it at the bottom. This is interesting man who has a veracious interest in black history. Here is a quote from him as an answer to the question "why don't black people just get over it?"

...As I see it, the past, the present, and the future are all inextricably linked, each influences and impacts the other in such a way that they cannot be considered in isolation. To attempt to do so would be to concentrate ones whole attention on "Effect," giving no consideration to "Cause."

Furthermore, as I see it, there are great, compelling lessons to be derived from our history. That history provides, for those who will contemplate it, encouragement, fortitude, and strength with which to grapple with and overcome the problems of today.

In short, nothing is likely to happen to us in today's world that could possibly be worse than what has already happened to us in the monstrous trauma of slavery. And, if we were somehow able to survive that dark episode in our history, we can find the means to deal successfully with any lesser current and future evil, no matter how menacing, how threatening it appears.

It's interesting that no one ever demands or suggest that any other group 'just get over' their history. Yet there are those that feel quite at ease to do that to black people, and say it as if it's intelligent, with a wonderment as to why it makes black people so mad.

There are those who also use that statement as a weapon in trying to accuse black people of trying to keep racism going for their benefit. That infuriates me more than just about anything.
That's tantamount telling a rape victim to forget justice, forget pursuing redress and if she doesn't then she just wants to be a victim.
There is a Holocaust museum, and rightly so. Does anybody suggest to the Jews they should get over it?
Does anyone use the Holocaust museum as an accusation that the Jews want to continue to be victims?
Accusing black folks of wanting to continue to be victims is a part of the cultural conditioning that allows the minimizing, marginalising, disrespecting and disparaging of an entire segment of the American society.

The Jewish holocaust in all its horror lasted about 10 years with the lost of an estimated 15,000,000 Jews. The worst holocaust in American history was perpetrated against black people in the form of slavery and it lasted 246 years. That doesn't include reconstruction, attacks by the KKK, and all the horrors that happened right through the 60s.
Just during the middle passage alone one in three captive Africans died before reaching the slave pens in America and many more died from their poor condition after they reached the slave pens.
Both events are horrible examples of cruelty, but by any measure the black holocaust was far worse, and, not only is it not defined as a holocaust in American history, but it is demanded of us to just get over it.

Here's the link to Henry Powell's essay. I linked to chapter two because that has the most information. It's a wonderful read. Perhaps one day you could teach me how to embed a picture, but in the mean time could you do so?

http://www.vernonjohns.org/rosemary1246/backgrnd.html (http://www.vernonjohns.org/rosemary1246/backgrnd.html)

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 19, 2008, 10:10 PM
I remember once visiting the Nazi Concentration Camp at Dachau, Germany.  It was a difficult place to visit because of of the inconceivable acts committed there.   But the one thing that struck me at Dachau, was as  we were leaving we could see a huge metal sculpture near the exit.  After getting closer, with horror we realized the entire sculpture was twisted bodies.  Beneath the sculpture is a monument that reads, "NEVER AGAIN" in every language of the world.

We left there remembering those who suffered there, and we were reminded of man's inhumanity to man.
I think it would be much the same experience to visit the US National Slavery Museum.   They were both holocausts of an unspeakable nature.

“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it”
--George Santayana

"Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter."
--Martin Luther King

U.S. National Slavery Museum
1320 Central Park Avenue, Suite 251
Fredericksburg, Virginia 22401


There is some great info at the above website, with many of the points previously made by Earl and more
Check it out!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 21, 2008, 12:30 AM
Thanks for that Elise. Former Va gov L. Douglas Wilder championed vigorously for this museum. I'm ashamed to admit I didn't know it had opened. I can be in Fredericksburg, Va in two hours or less and you can bet I'll be visiting. I recently D/L Zone Alarm and it's blocking the interactive somehow, so I can't get it to open, but I'm working on it.

Will Obama actually be the first black president?

http://www.geocities.com/cureworks1/5blkpres.htm (http://www.geocities.com/cureworks1/5blkpres.htm)

Now how could this be true? What could explain it?

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson/mixed/onedrop.html (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson/mixed/onedrop.html)

I post this just as a matter of discussion. There studies that will dispute these findings and they could be true, but if these things were in the publuc domain, just think how it would change history.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on December 21, 2008, 05:14 AM
Well Earl...very interesting stuff!   

I especially found the "one-drop rule,'' ludicrous... Now just WHO is going to be the judge of that?  Who would want to be? 

To Hitler...one Jewish grandparent was his basis for deciding who was exterminated.   After that, then any RUMOR of a Jewish ancestor was enough.

America is called the "melting pot" for good reason!

Thanks Earl for this info...fascinating.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on December 21, 2008, 06:06 AM
I especially found the "one-drop rule,'' ludicrous... Now just WHO is going to be the judge of that? Who would want to be?

Ahhh dear daughter, you have made the most sensible statement one can make regarding the one drop rule, yet it does exist and was/is used to identify black people.
To this day the one drop rule is still coded law in some states. Beyond that the rule is so entrenched , it now is institutionalized into our American culture. The ones that have the power, make the rules. It never has mattered as to how much sense the rules make, it only matters who has the power to write and enforce the rules.

Mr Powell wrote a good essay on the one drop rule, but he didn't go into detail of its origin.
I invite all to go back to page #5, Posts 85, 86, & 88. We had a lengthy discussion on the origin of the one drop rule (PARTUS SEQITUR VENTREM), including modern day cases of it being enforced.

I might add Thomas Jefferson was one of the architects of the one drop rule, even though there is evidence of him having African ancestry. A classic example being able to enforce ones will on others, regardless if it made sense ethically or morally, if you have the power.
I recognise there are those that will dispute the information I posted in the previous post, just as there are those that dispute Thomas Jefferson's relationship with his slave Sally Hemings ( spelled Hemmings by some) in spite of all evidence otherwise. Like I said before, imagine what this does to history, the psychosis that made up these men, the god like status they are portrayed as having.

For those interested, here's a link to the Jefferson Hemings controversy. It includes the final results of a study group commissioned by The Thomas Jefferson Foundation which consisted of nine members, six of which had PhD's. There's also a report of the dispute from The Thomas Jefferson Heritage Foundation.

http://www.monticello.org/plantation/hemingscontro/hemings-jefferson_contro.html (http://www.monticello.org/plantation/hemingscontro/hemings-jefferson_contro.html)

Here's an NPR audio link to the family reunion between Jerfferson and Heminngs decendants in July 2003.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1335017 (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1335017)

Much can be found about this story.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on January 01, 2009, 10:30 PM
Unsure if this is the right spot for this. But I came across this
poet, Jill Scott and was immediately impressed so I wanted to pass along
her name and accomplishments: Talk about the complete package.
She's amazing.

In 2000, Jill Scott's acclaimed platinum-selling debut CD Who Is Jill Scott? Words and Sounds, Vol. 1 pushed the R&B singer into the spotlight and earned her six Grammy nominations. Critics praised her earthy, erotic, soulful lyrics.

Scott's latest project tackles a different, yet equally lyrical genre: poetry. She shares her personal poetry collection in The Moments, the Minutes, the Hours. She talks with Ed Gordon about the intersection of words and music.

From The Moments, the Minutes, the Hours:

"When the Women Gather"

Ever watch the women?
How they laugh?
bend from the waist
wind make wheat do

They listen chile
all up in they whole selves?
They be smilin'
All them molars and wisdoms showin'
Like Cheshire cats
They be cookin' too
Season fish
serve fresh squeezed lemonade

Legs wide for best air
bras relaxed on the floor
"Rules... sit out on that porch and wait!"
they say
"We busy"
Yep they be busy too
Sewin' highlights
Makin' quilts of days to come and gone gone
They be singin' too chile

'Bout all them good convulsions
those sweet scents
those screamin' yeses
the lacks of
They be cryin' too
hand holdin'
sewin' raggedly edges
"But don't rush"
They say
Don't rush
Gone head on outside

You'll know fo yo own self soon enough

© Jill Scott 2005 St. Martin's Press
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 02, 2009, 05:36 AM
Well thank you for that info Kay. I had heard a little about Jill Scott, but you have whet my appetite to learn more about her.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Kay on January 02, 2009, 05:04 PM
Great, I have more books of poetry than I can ever read,
some audio. But I found her to be very versatile.  :rose
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: WordFaery on January 02, 2009, 08:21 PM
50 years ago the Univ of Buffalo said "no thanks" to their first college football bowl game.  The invitation came with strings.

Read the article in the Buffalo News.

http://www.buffalonews.com/home/story/538115.html (http://www.buffalonews.com/home/story/538115.html)

By the way, UB will be playing their first bowl game in Toronto this weekend.


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 03, 2009, 01:33 AM
I just read that article WordFaery. Thanks so much for the education.
Virginia Tech is my home team. They won their bowl game so I figured I had no  interest in the other bowl games. I think I'll be watching and pulling for UB this weekend.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 07, 2009, 08:03 PM
In post #459 I talked about a leaflet that was being left on doors from a white supremacist group disparaging Obama for being black and on the verge of being elected President.
I didn't have much information on it at the time, but said I would post it if I could find more information.
I found the leaflet and the write up on "thesmokinggun".

I post this link for your edification. I'll be glad to have a discussion on the subject if any desires too, but I recognise its all moot at this point.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 07, 2009, 10:52 PM
Not long ago I had an exchange in another topic about the dangers of continually repeating and participating in false and hurtful rhetoric regarding this presidential election. I was chided as being thin skinned as if that kind of rhetoric was just good fun. Ignored, of course, were the obvious results of those taking such a course. I suspect its easier to ignore things that don't personally affect you, but that's no excuse to continue such behavior when you know the harm it causes.

This link is to an article, which is just one of many, that points to the fact that the jokes and repetitive false remarks are not just harmless fun. The atmosphere in which these things occur is just not comparative to any other presidential election.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 08, 2009, 01:35 AM
Take Your Choice, Segregation or Mongrelization

If a family pet died, it would have to be buried at a blacks only cemetery.
"The owner stated that he assumed the dogs would not object, but he was afraid his white customers would

"If you go downtown, don't try to eat," he said. "And don't try to buy stuff you didn't need, like shoes."

Blacks could get served at lunch counters and cafeterias, but they had to stand to eat. At the leading department stores, clerks "turn their backs at the approach of a Negro

A black woman who wanted to try on a hat in a department store would be given a hairnet first; whites wouldn't. Blacks weren't allowed in fitting rooms and usually couldn't try on shoes

Just a few excerpts from the following article. Is this some long past abstract history? Take note of the time frame and place. What historical significance is being played out in our day? For those that say this part of american/black history needs to be forgotten, what would you put in that vacuum that would bring us to this day?

Very interesting article with a modern day application that affects us all. All the questions (and many more) ,except the last one, will be answered.

http://news.yahoo.com/s/mcclatchy/20090107/pl_mcclatchy/3139053 (http://news.yahoo.com/s/mcclatchy/20090107/pl_mcclatchy/3139053)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 10, 2009, 04:10 AM
Here's some trivia about Rosa Parks. We all know the story about her not giving up her bus seat Dec 1st, 1955, being arrested, and becoming the rallying call for the Montgomery bus boycott Dec 5th 1955.

Heres the trivia question.  In  1943 Rosa Parks was thrown off a bus for refusing to enter through the back door.  The news report says the back door was 'reserved' for black passengers, but we, like Rosa Parks at that time, know what it really meant.

What single thing connected  these two incidents involving Rosa Parks? 
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 10, 2009, 07:09 PM
Is it as simple as....segregation?  Or the push for de-segregation?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 11, 2009, 04:16 AM
Thanks for taking a shot at it dear daughter. Segregation was the impetuous for the struggle, but there was a specific connection between the two bus incidents with Rosa Parks.

The answer... in both incidents it was the same bus driver. James Blake was the bus driver that had her thrown off the bus both times. In fact Rosa Parks recognized James Blake when she got on the bus that most famous day in 1955.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/1/newsid_4398000/4398912.stm (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/1/newsid_4398000/4398912.stm)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 11, 2009, 04:45 AM
More trivia.
Black gloves, black scarf and black socks had what significance and impact in the 1968 olympics?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 11, 2009, 06:37 PM

Tommie Smith and John Carlos. Teammates at San Jose State University, Smith and Carlos were stirred by the suggestion of a young sociologist friend Harry Edwards, who asked them and all the other black American athletes to join together and boycott the games. Although they did not boycott the games, they protested in their own unique way.

As the American flag rose and the Star-Spangled Banner played, the two closed their eyes, bowed their heads, and began their protest.

Smith later told the media that he raised his right, black-glove-covered fist in the air to represent BLACK POWER  in America while Carlos' left, black-covered fist represented UNITY in black America. Together they formed an arch of unity and power. The black scarf around Smith's neck stood for black PRIDE  and their black socks (and no shoes) represented black POVERTY in racist America.

This was was educational!   Also, about Rosa Parks...it made me wonder if that same driver hadn't been on the bus that day, if she would have been able to muster enough anger to actually stand firm.   


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 11, 2009, 07:45 PM
Elise, you nailed that one to the letter.

...Also, about Rosa Parks...it made me wonder if that same driver hadn't been on the bus that day, if she would have been able to muster enough anger to actually stand firm. 

Now that's food for thought. We'll most likely never know the answer to that, but it is a wonder how circumstances fall into place to become just the right moment to act. The fact is after James Blake had Rosa Parks thrown off the bus in 1943, she became known as a trouble maker to the other bus drivers. I'm reasonably certain that James Blake had a hand in that. So they had a history which could have been as much  a part of Rosa Parks reaching the boiling point that day, as her being tired.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 11, 2009, 08:52 PM
Next trivia.

What city was sacked as the first casualty of the Civil War?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 11, 2009, 10:43 PM
Lawrence, Kansas by Quantrill's Raiders ?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 12, 2009, 05:31 AM
You have the city correct Elise. Quantrill and his 'border ruffians' participated in the sacking of Lawrence, Kansas, but his role was one of taking advantage of a situation started by a US Marshall.

The root of the problem was slavery and the compromise that was pushing Kansas to become a free state to accommodate the Western R/R. Lawrence, Kansas became the focal point of the fight between anti slavery and pro slavery forces.
The town of Lawrence, Kansas was established in the Fall of 1854 by antislavery immigrants from New England. Close to the Missouri border, it became a haven for antislavery advocates and by the Spring of 1856 boasted a population of about 1,500. It also became a prime target of the pro-slavery elements, which had by May 1856, gained control of the Kansas government and pursued a campaign of intimidation and arrest of antislavery advocates. On May 21 a group of "Border Ruffians" augmented by new arrivals from the South gathered at Lawrence's outskirts and looked for an excuse to attack the settlement. The first battle of the Civil War was about to begin.

The attack on Lawrence, Kansas was led by a Deputy Marshall Fain. He wanted to instigate a conflict and failing to do so he turned his men over to Sheriff Jones who used his powers of process server to start the illegal attack on Lawrence, Kansas.
Once again we have a clear example of those that were suppose to uphold the law not only being complicit in matters of murder and riot in support of slavery, but being the instigators of the action.

http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/lawrencesack.htm (http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/lawrencesack.htm)

http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/CONTEXTS/Kansas/quantril.html (http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/CONTEXTS/Kansas/quantril.html)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 12, 2009, 05:40 AM
One last trivia question.

Is slavery still legal in the USA?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 12, 2009, 06:19 AM
I SURE HOPE NOT!!!   NO it is NOT legal.   
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 12, 2009, 08:40 AM
I have a shocker for you dear daughter.
Slavery is indeed still legal in the USA.
The 13th amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, but left a loop hole we don't often hear about.

The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, abolished slavery as a legal institution.

The Constitution, although never mentioning slavery by name, refers to slaves as "such persons" in Article I, Section 9 and a person held to service or labor in Article IV, Section 2. The Thirteenth Amendment, in direct terminology, put an end to this. The amendment states:

Section 1:

"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2:

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."

There has been no legislation to counter that provision.
Now here's my question.
We've seen people rounded up by the score and declared enemy combatants with no rights to anything, not even habeas corpus, on the word of a single man.
How much of a leap would it take to use that kind of authority, coupled with the 13th amendment under the guise of a national emergency, to arrest US citizens/dissenters in mass?
The road is clearly paved for that to be done. The government has already seen what the citizens will tolerate as long as they have us scared enough.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 12, 2009, 06:19 PM
WOW...I should have guessed it was a trick question! 

" The government has already seen what the citizens will tolerate as long as they have us scared enough".

I so know this is true!   It made me think of the Japanese during WWII...we as Americans, due to fear, allowed them to be rounded up and sent to camps.  Were they also made to work?   It seems to me for it to be "slavery" instead of "imprisonment" that they would have to work. 

But yes, after 9/11  even racial profiling (against Arabs or anyone who LOOKS Arabic) is privately tolerated and even encouraged by most Americans.   None of us wants our plane to be aimed at buildings.   
I heard Star Jones (a black woman) say publicly in support of racial profiling, that if "wide black women" were blowing up buildings she would expect to be followed and frisked every day.   

So I do agree that fear causes us to look the other way and let the government do whatever they feel they need to do to keep us safe.   Who would argue with that?   

Indeed I agree that we need to be vigilant so that this power is NOT misused under the guise of American safety. 
It could be a very sticky web indeed.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 12, 2009, 08:33 PM
Were they also made to work? It seems to me for it to be "slavery" instead of "imprisonment" that they would have to work.

Ponder this for a moment. The loop hole didn't define what the government could do simply as imprisonment with forced labor and it didn't define the crimes. What it did was leave open the possibility of slavery or forced servitude as a consequence of being convicted of those undefined crimes. And there's the catch. Any strict constructionest can interpret the 13th amendment as saying slavery is legal under that interpretation regardless of labor.

Now remember, we don't have to be talking about common sense. That's never been a prerequisite for those in power to do whatever they say that power gives them authority to do.
Witness our discussion on PARTUS SEQITUR VENTREM. Witness the last eight years, witness your own example of the Japanese internments. That's why Robert Bork would have been the worse supreme court justice ever.

Further food for thought.
George Washington had a slave that was by his side all through the war. He was at his side during the crossing of the Delaware and, if memory serves me correctly when I visited Mt Vernon, Va., it was said this slave was by Washington's death bed. I can't recall the slaves name right now, but I'll research and find it.
Now this man was well treated and it was said both the slave and Washington had great affection and loyalty to the other. The slave dressed well, ate well, was trusted to do all kinds of important things. He had a far better set of circumstances than other slaves, but he was still a slave. He was not free to move about, he was property that could be sold, and if he had property there was nothing in the law that protected his right to that property, and he had no right to vote. He was not a citizen.
Nothing to do with forced labor. Everything to do with not being free.

Fast forward to WWII and the Japanese internment. These people were involuntary interred, they had their property stolen, they could not vote, their families were separated, they could not freely move about. Like the slave they had some avenues of redress, but were at the mercy of a unhearing complicit government. They completely lost all rights as US citizens, regardless if they were forced to work, treated good or bad. They were not free. Upon their manumission from these camps, they didn't get their property back, bank accounts stayed seized, they were treated as second class citizens or as non citizens.

The parallels between that period of time and the way slaves were treated are just uncanny. And there are no constitutional guarantees to prevent this from happening again, or something worse.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 12, 2009, 08:51 PM
Oh I get your point, but my question is:   Is there a difference in SLAVERY and IMPRISONMENT?   I think there is.

I mean if the IMPRISONMENT is due to some crime against the "system".   I would have said, if the "criminal" was
pronounced such by his day in court, but I also realize that there are gray areas there too.   Suspected terrorists
need to be "picked up and held" until they are judged---which I agree could be a lengthy process.  Right? 
I mean it ain't pretty...but where do we draw the line?

After reading what I wrote above, I realize I should have said LAWFUL IMPRISONMENT.  Not just picking people up for their race.  Not even Arabs.   Not unless it is pretty well established that they MIGHT be terrorists.   I guess there needs to be some criteria.    Like how long to hold someone with no evidence, confession, or credible witnesses to terrorist activity, and just what IS and IS NOT considered  credible evidence.  As things are now, I admit the loop holes are way too big.

While these people are being held and fed and clothed by Americans...shouldn't they be obligated to do SOME form of labor?   Even if it's to help run the institution in which they are imprisoned?   

Slavery to me---means just as you outlined.  I would agree that no matter how "well treated" Washington's slave was, he was still a slave.   Don't prisoners, on the other hand, get their property back when they are exonerated?
I see a slave as a victim, and a prisoner as a perpetrator...completel y different.

Am I wrong?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 12, 2009, 09:59 PM
Nope you're not wrong at all. I don't disagree with a single word.
We have separate legislation(s) dealing with crimes and imprisonment.
I agree terrorists are not citizens.
On that score I'm just asking how much of a leap would it be for us/US to come under whatever judgment the government interprets since they have clearly made unprecedented leaps in recent times.

But all that aside, the 13Th amendment says that slavery and involuntary servitude can be used as a punishment for crimes. That makes the 13Th amendment, and the loop hole in particular, a stand alone entity.

There are all kinds of separate legislation to cover crimes and punishment, IE, fines, imprisonment, death penalty, etc, none of which addresses the punishment that can be levied through the 13Th amendment.
Will it ever be used? Can't say. Can it be used? I put nothing past what those in power will do.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 12, 2009, 11:34 PM
Yanno what, I agree with you too!   That is why this kind of dialogue is an important freedom.   We must always be vigilant and speak up if we feel the need.   The 13th amendment probably needs some revamping, that's for sure!

This is great food for thought!   Thanks!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 13, 2009, 03:17 AM

The name of George Washington's slave was William (Bill) Lee. I misspoke earlier, Bill Lee was not at Washington's bedside during his death.  By that time Bill Lee had broken both his kness, was in great and constant pain. He became a shoe maker at Mount Vernon and was an alcoholic.
Bill Lee was the only slave immediately freed as a directive in Washington's will.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Lee_(valet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Lee_(valet))

According to the tour guide, at the time of Washington's death it was standard medical practice to bleed the patients. There were several other methods used to no avail, but there was a  procedure available the doctors discussed but refused to use, perhaps because it was new and controversial. The tour guide at Mount Vernon told us if they had used that new procedure Washington may have lived several more years.
Today this is a common procedure that can be done by any EMT. It's called a tracheotomy.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 17, 2009, 04:53 AM
Follow up as further information regarding post #547:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on January 19, 2009, 07:38 PM



Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 19, 2009, 08:37 PM
T7L---thank you for this moving film clip.  Everyone should see it.  Awesome.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 20, 2009, 02:38 AM
I finally got the ZA settings right. That was a most stirring clip T7L. I recall just about every one of those things happening.  I was 18, sitting in my high school shop class when we got word Dr king had been shot.  We all knew it would happen one day. You just didn't do the things he did in that era and not expect to suffer in some way, right up to being killed.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Marsupial Man on January 20, 2009, 02:40 PM
History in the making today, with our 44th President, Obama. It's wonderful that I can share it with my son.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on January 20, 2009, 04:09 PM



"America's Song" ~ Will i Am, Dave Foster, Faith Hill, Seal, Bono, Mary J. Blige

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 20, 2009, 04:18 PM
A brand new day indeed.   T7L---thank you again for that.  Outstanding.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 21, 2009, 03:13 AM
I have spent the day in quiet reflection. This day, to me, is far greater than the swearing in of Obama. This history is shadowed by all those that worked to create this opportunity. This history
is filled with the moans emanating from the watery deep. It's filled with the sounds of rattling chains, escape and freedom songs.
It's filled with the smell of burned bodies and bombed churches.
It's filled with the sight of long lines of marchers, police dogs, governmental and police complicity.
There are bent backs, callused hands, stooped shoulders, toeless feet, empty arms, raped wombs, crying voices...all the haunting images that marched ahead of this moment in history.
All having a place, in one fashion or other, in the proceedings of what we call hope and equality.
The price has been paid in blood, pain and death all leading to this day. Let us not forget those that sacrificed to gain this victory. Slave and freeman, white and black, Jew and Gentile, atheist and christian, all had a hand in this great day.

There are a at least three generations living now that never thought America would move to this point in our lifetime. As a black man who grew up in the segregated south I can't tell you what it feels like to see this event unfold before my very eyes.

A word of caution. Though this is an unprecedented moment in history that affects us all, it represents (in reality) the arrival of one black man. It inspires us all, it encourages us all, it spurs us all to higher things, but it in no way abolishes the evil of racism and those that still work to that end to this day.
Here's a quote from an article written just two days ago:
The votes of poor, the elderly, African-Americans, Latinos, and other minorities might be lost. "...the Indiana law will deter some people from voting," Posner said matter-of-factly.

This doesn't bother Posner, who once wrote that political participation distracts citizens from their more important obligation: buying stuff. Time taken for voting and other forms of participation is time people aren't in the malls, and that will hurt the economy, he said.

I bring this up as a warning that we should not think this day ends the fight against hatred and ignorance. This is a great beginning not to be minimized, but at the same time we must not wrongly attach to it more than what it really represents.
To emphasize that point, here's the full article I quoted from:
http://firedoglake.com/2009/01/18/follow-the-drinking-gourd/ (http://firedoglake.com/2009/01/18/follow-the-drinking-gourd/)

The Emancipation Proclamation outlawed slavery, it did not abolish the evil mind set that led to Jim Crow and all that it did.

Brown V Board of Education outlawed school segregation. It did not abolish the evil mind set that closed schools and pools and kept them closed into the 60's by those that were supposed to enforce the law.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed segregation, but it did not abolish the evil mind set that kept poll taxes and other devices in place to keep blacks from voting. And its perfectly obvious by the linked article that evil mind set is alive, well and thriving to this day.

The Voting Rights Act made all Americans equal citizens in the voting booth, but it did not abolish the evil mind set that allowed people to justify to themselves the righteousness of killing people, children, bombing homes and churches to keep minorities from registering to vote.

My whole point is we have made the greatest historical leap forward since 'freedom' came, but there are evil forces that will work against this with all the fervor they can muster. They will put stumbling blocks everywhere to stop Obama and the progression of this country. They will stonewall and pass regressive laws in an attempt to turn back the clock and hold onto power and the country be damned in the process, as evidenced (again) by the linked artice, and by the previous links about the groups that want to kill Obama for forgetting his place.
We must continue to be vigilant.

Thanks T7L for another great video.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 21, 2009, 10:19 PM
The first official presidential proclamation from President Barrack Obama:


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 22, 2009, 12:12 AM
"Families are tightening their belts, and so should Washington," said the new president


President Obama's first actions:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 22, 2009, 02:38 AM
I saw that today!  About time!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Halo on January 22, 2009, 03:47 AM

Obama's Inauguration is not only a big thing for America,
the whole world will feel the repercussions off his political
ministry. Most certainly Australia will. We have a saying here,
"If America sneezes, we get the cold." Our countries are
inexorably connected politically, financially and culturally.

My hope is that his Administration will make a difference
and that difference will be positively felt throughout the

I do not have a very big grip on American history, as I guess
you guys do not on Australian history either. So I must say 7,
my apologies for not understanding your Minimal poem on
Dr. King's speech.  I do know of that speech, but was not
sharp enough to pick up on it. By the way, your video clips
here are moving.

I have made very special American friends in my short
time writing and blogging and my heart is for the American
nation and peoples to prosper and grow in every
positive way.

Halo  :rose

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 22, 2009, 05:07 AM
Welcome, welcome, welcome to this forum Halo. Thanks for your input as well.
We are opened for any questions on American history, though the focus here is primarily Black History.
Drop by any time and join the discussion.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 22, 2009, 05:58 AM
Halo, it was great to hear those words from your heart about our country.  Count me in as one of your American friends!   I have warm feelings about Australia and Australians too!   Plus I always enjoy your poems and comments.   Good to see you here!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Halo on January 22, 2009, 09:45 PM

A-FRIEND and elise,

Thanks guys.

Halo  :rose
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: 7 on January 30, 2009, 08:16 PM


History is a clock
that people use to tell their political and cultural time of day. 
It is also a compass that people use to find themselves
on the map of human geography. 
History tells a people
where they have been and what they have been,
where they are and what they are. 
Most important,
history tells a people where they still must go,
and what they still must be.

~Dr. Henrik Clarke

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 30, 2009, 09:08 PM
T7L---I enjoyed this! 

I think it's true that history can define us if we let it...I mean it is up to us to CHANGE its course when we can...dontcha think?   That way...history can tell us who we WERE...and we decide who we become.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on January 31, 2009, 06:16 AM
That's a perfect introduction into Black History Month T7L.  It gives us a theme, if you don't mind my spring boarding off your post.

How about:
History, the map of human geography.

Does that work for everybody?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on January 31, 2009, 11:11 AM
Thank you, T, for that wonderful quote.

Most important,
history tells a people where they still must go,
and what they still must be.

Yes, MY-FRIEND, that works for me.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on January 31, 2009, 01:03 PM
I'd like to start off the month with an excerpt from Tony Dungy's book Uncommon: Finding Your Path to Significance.

Talent cannot make up for a lack of character. In the draft, there are only a few things that will knock a player out of consideration for our team, and this issue of character is one of them. We have a category on our evaluation form that is labeled "DNDC"—Do Not Draft because of Character. Every year, many players that we put in that category get drafted in the first round by other teams, and some even go on to become household names in the NFL. But we pass on them because of something we see in their character that makes us believe they are not worth the risk. Most of the time, we're right. And those times when we are, make it worth even those times when we're not.

I can't wait to read this one!

...they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.~King
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on January 31, 2009, 03:41 PM
To me, Witt, that is the one single MOST profound statements of MLK---

That DNDC idea is interesting stuff!   What a concept!   Think I will add that book to my Kindle!  Thanks!

Yes Earl...works for me too!  I kinda think of History as a different kind of map ...the kind that also tells us where NOT to go...if we would only read it.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Soft Words on February 01, 2009, 10:57 AM

Hope you're doing well.
I've a question for you:

Recently I was on a bus from Point A to Point B - the distance is moot. This was a night bus, departing at 10:20 pm. I was somewhere in the middle and there was an African-American guy I'll call D further in the back. He had headphones on, was conversing loudly with his companion and every second word that came out of his mouth was a profanity.
We asked him to shut up, politely, pointedly, and finally, someone yelled. He then started telling the whole bus about how he is the best Christian child on the planet, Jesus is his God, and the new President is his hero. The driver was an African American lady, and when we tried talking to her, very rudely told us we were picking on "an innocent brother simply becuase he is black". etc., and the guy in question started yelling about how "people still think niggers are not respectable, and no one respects us niggahs, and you people are f****** inconsiderate."
Mind you, he was on full swing for three full hours from 10:20 pm onwards.

Here;s my question: I don't think we were being illogical or disrespectful, but would it be wrong for me to want to leave this individual stranded on the roadside? I believe in respecting every single person no matter who they are - but how am I supposed to react to the driver and the guy calling themselves niggers? I think it is disrespectful to call someone by that name, and it usually pisses me off when people call themselves by derogatory names.
How is one supposed to deal with a situation like this? I recognize that this may not be a common situation, but I want to be sure. Just so if I decide to go with instinct and kick someone next time, it wont be construed as racial discrimination.

I've spent three hours tonight reading through and catching up with this wonderful wonderful thread. And I love what you're doing with it. I;m going back to read some more...

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 01, 2009, 07:48 PM
Arti the first thing I want to do is offer you my most heartfelt apology as a black man and a senior member of the black community. Their actions are an embarrassment and a disgrace to all black people. It's an insult to all the hard work Obama put into his victory, as well as the hard work all cultures put into his victory. For him to have associated Obama's name with his behavior was a slap in the face to black and white alike.

I'm not going to make any excuses for them. We all have this type of outright ignorance in our particular race, heck even our own families sometimes, and it is a chore to figure out the mentality.
I would have reacted the same way as you, as evidenced by my reaction to some of the language in here. You have a right to your dignity. You have a right not to be insulted and you have a right not to have your motives questioned just because you demand a measure of respectfull decorum.

Just like there are those that can't get over their superiority complex with regard to race, their are others that can't get over their inferiority complex with regard to race. Each side reinforces their complexes by only listening to their own mental inbreeding.

The best I can do is explain that this guy is suffering from personifying the blame whitey mentality. Of course racism still puts stumbling blocks in the way of minorities, but his mentality is such that he doesn't see the good sense in conquering those road blocks rather than surrendering to them.

I'm going to be taken to task for this, but I've long said we black folks are our own worse enemies, starting and continuing with the images we portray of ourselves and the messages we send to our young people. I won't go through all that, but I'm sure you've read quite a few posts from me on that subject. Our young folks calling themselves nigger, niggah, dawg, bitches, its all part of the most self destructive behavior emanating from this hip-hop/rap culture. With very few exceptions, the messages are violent, vulgar, and ignorant. I still have an open challenge for anyone to show me a culture that portrays itself in the self destructive way we black folks do, and call it entertainment. And our youth listen to it day and night.
No one can convince me you can listen to this stuff all the time, with no checks and balances, and educate yourself beyond this guy's behavior.

Yes I know that is just part of the problem. Factor in no education, or a useless education, family influences, racial influences, gang influences, drugs. We can't ignore the fact that some people are just prone to be stupid.
Also think about who this guy has to be listening to. Do you think the black folks that act like him are listening to those that put a value on self respect? How many black people do you think is in his circle of influence that put a value on personal responsibility? What kind of family structure do you think he had?

All that said, he may very well have come from the most positive of backgrounds and is just determined to be ignorant.

So Arti, there you have it in a nutshell There are fools, and there are fools. Unfortunately you ran into both at once. An unpleasant experience like that can place negative feelings in the best of us toward a certain group. I know from my experiences I had to work diligently not to paint all white people with the same brush. I was blessed to have wise parents that taught us to separate the bad people from the good. I'm now blessed with wisdom from age that helps me to separate even more issues, so I don't fall into group think, but access things on an individual basis.
The saving grace is this behavior doesn't represent the majority of black people.

I hope I haven't rambled you into a state of confusion. Its just not an easy thing to explain.
Don't worry though, if you react negatively to a black person acting in this manner, I doubt anyone will honestly say that's discrimination. At least not those with intelligence.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Mystic1 on February 01, 2009, 09:23 PM
I agree with Earl, wholeheartedly. I would like to think that, someday, we could actualize Dr. King's vision fully. We have made great strides in that direction with the election of Obama as President, certainly. But we still have a long road ahead to reach that proverbial mountaintop. And. as anyone knows, the road to any mountaintop is an arduous uphill journey, fraught with numerous obstacles.

Arti, I would say, knowing you and understanding your motives, as I do. As intimately as one can know another through the limited social interaction of a message board. I would think that, recognizing your training as a physician, your judgment is sound. Given that you judged this person on the content of his character - embodied in his actions and ultimate reaction - and not solely on the color of his skin - you epitomize Dr. King's statement. We must all remember that, if actions speak louder than words, sometimes inaction speaks volumes.
As to the incident itself, all I can offer is: Stupid is as Stupid does. Some things are simply inexplicable. And that's all I have to say about that. Sorry about the gratuitous movie reference, it's a bit of a habit with me.

During a speech to the Voice of America, despite what was going on in the country, particularly in Alabama, at the time...

Robert F. Kennedy said this:

Things are moving so fast in race relations a Negro could be president in forty years. There's no question about it. In the next forty years a Negro can achieve the same positon that my brother has... Kennedy said that prejudice exists and probably will continue to ...But we have tried to make progress and we are making progress. We are not going to accept the status quo.

                                                               ~ Washington Post, May 27, 1961

The Voice of America beamed his extemporaneous remarks to more than sixty countries through thirty-nine radio tranmitters. The broadcast was translated into thirty-seven languages.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 02, 2009, 02:12 AM
Yep Arti...there are idiots in every culture of the world.   Too bad that sometimes "one bad apple" (or two) can taint the barrel. 
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 02, 2009, 02:27 AM
Very well put Mystic. I wish my people could understand how much we set ourselves back by such crude behavior. I've been warned by my dear daughter to quit taking this stuff personally, but I do. This crude behavior is never done in isolation, rather it becomes more fodder in the grist mill for those that want to set back race relations anyway they can.

I'm so glad you posted J F K's words from 1961. I had completely forgotten the speech. I was in junior high at that time and not a single black person I knew then, or up until Obama actually was sworn in, believed it. More blacks than not feared he would be killed before he could be sworn in and this wasn't just a blind fear either. I've referenced a few news articles among many showing how desperately racists wanted him killed.

J F K missed his prediction by 8 years, which is quite remarkable. Even more so when you factor in there are at least three generations of black people now living that never believed they would see this in their lifetime.
The historical significance is unmeasurable, but I still remind everyone he's still just a man. There are those that are calling for his outright failure, because they will never get pass their inbred hate. I say he'll pass or fail based on his own merit, not his skin color and not his race,  just like anyone else.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on February 02, 2009, 04:10 AM
My god, people can really be ignorant.  They really can. I have seen all types of human beings exhibiting ignorance.  In agreeing with earl, that there is a severely damaging, self derogatory aspect to certain younger members of the African American community, and not wishing to minimize it, I have to take some solace in the direction in which the world is now moving with the election of our new president.

We now have never before known opportunities, to not only benefit the African American, but, to benefit us all, and to reverse the course of bigotry.  I am optimistic that if we collectively decide to follow the leadership that has so clearly been put in place, that we will make enormous strides towards progress.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 02, 2009, 04:27 PM
In keeping with the theme;  History, the map of human geography, I found this article by our local editorial writer to be most interesting.  I agree with him. Its time we changed this part of our human geography:

Finding a cure for America's most segregated hour

By Darrell Laurant

Published: February 1, 2009

When you're talking about race, things are never as simple as black and white. Take churches, for example.

Without question, congregations of all denominations  on both sides of the so-called color line have had a lot to do with the gradual desegregation of America. At the same time, however, the statement that 11 o'clock on Sunday morning is still the most segregated hour in the country has a ring of truth to it.

We would never refer to black restaurants or white restaurants, but we don't think twice about applying the same adjectives to churches. That was one of the main topics of discussion Thursday at the Faith-Based Action Group Clergy Breakfast at Lynchburg General Hospital.

The theme of the event was Building Bridges: Let the Conversation Begin. Actually, it already has  this was an outgrowth of and sequel to last years community-wide racial dialogue.

But there's a built-in paradox to opening a racial dialogue. In a perfect world (which is what ministers, of all people, should be aspiring to) skin color and ethnicity wouldn't matter. Yet by throwing groups of people together specifically to talk about race, you're acknowledging that these things do matter, and inviting the proverbial elephant to squat in the center of the room.

To the Rev. L.M. Mitchell of Greater Brookville Church on Florida Avenue, its all about getting in the flow. Meet me in my natural place, and I'll do the same.

Build houses together. Deliver food baskets together. Play sports together. From those experiences comes the essential understanding: Hey, those people are just like me.

Some Lynchburg black and white churches have exchanged pastors on special Sundays, which is nice. The problem with that is, the respective congregations tend to stay put, so they still don.t interact with each other.

Much of that is tradition. People tend to go to the same churches their parents and grandparents attended, and that points a straight line back to the segregation days. Neighborhoods are becoming more diverse with time, but my guess is that black kids and white kids tend to sit together in school cafeterias not because of their ethnicity, but because these are the people they grew up with.

Last Thursday, a sizable group in the First Colony conference room divided itself into tables. By pure accident, my table was split down the middle on racial lines  three and three. Overall, in the greater group, you could feel the love. Everyone who spoke was preaching to the choir, and the choir included everyone else.

Which raised the question, in my mind at least, what are we trying to accomplish here?

If we're trying to completely purge the world of racism, that isn't going to happen any time soon. The big change that's already happened, though, is that racism is no longer accepted. First, government turned its back on the more virulent bigots, and then society as a whole did.

The white men in Texas who dragged a black man to his death behind a pickup truck a few years ago got the death penalty. In 1960s Mississippi, they might have gotten a handshake from the sheriff.

It's not cool any more to be George Wallace, a fact that even Wallace grew to realize. Or, for that matter, Louis Farrakhan. The fire that was racial hatred in America is mostly out. Now, the job is to look for the occasional hot spots that could cause it to flare up again.

Taking people as they are, regardless of color, is natural. Failing to do that is what's unnatural  out of the flow, as Rev. Mitchell might say.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 04, 2009, 02:49 AM
I'd like to share some personal 'human geography.'

I was born in a Black's only hospital. We were more fortunate than a lot of localities, because we had four magnificent black doctors. The oldest I can remember was Dr. Lomax. I can still see him making house calls in my mind's eye. There was Dr. Westley, Dr. Walter Johnson and later his sister, Dr. Johnson. I grew up 10 blocks from Dr Johnson. More about him later.

Just 4 blocks more up the street from Dr Walter Johson was the home of Anne Spencer. I've talked to her, visited her house and gardens many times. I used the library that was started by her at our black High School, Dunbar High School, named in honor of Paul Lawrence Dunbar. She was her own woman and didn't mind one bit telling you what was on her mind. Anne Spencer died in 1975.

http://www.answers.com/topic/anne-spencer (http://www.answers.com/topic/anne-spencer)

Some of her poems:
http://www.answers.com/topic/anne-spencer (http://www.answers.com/topic/anne-spencer)

I also grew up knowing Chauncey Spencer, who was Anne Spencer's son. His house was across the street from his mother's. Chauncey had a very notable life as well, though not as well sung as his mom's. He was one of the founders of The National Airmen Association of America.

Not much is known about that group of men. It was the association of Black Airmen that preceded the Tuskegee Airmen of WWII. Chauncey Spencer went to Chicago in 1934, after being told by the Airport Operator in our hometown of Lynchburg, Virginia that They didn't teach colored to fly because they didn't have the intelligence.

By the time the Tuskegee Airmen were allowed to fly in WWII Chauncey had passed the age limit, but he became an Aviator Instructor and in 1948, Spencer received the Exceptional Civilian Service Award for service during World War II, the highest honor the Air Force could bestow upon a civilian. In 1953, the United States Air Force referred to his role in the integration of the military as "unique - though strangely unsung."

As was the case in those days Chauncey was targeted for his unabashed activism in intergrating the military and those that wanted that venture and him to fail, had him charged with communism and disloyalty. He was relieved of his duty because of that in 1953. In 1954 the Air force cleared him of those charges, but never reinstated him.
Chauncey became an educator for many years in my hometown. He was active in the community up to his death in 2002. During his latter years we separated philosophically and bumped heads often, mostly in the opt-ed pages, but he was a great man.

http://www.hill.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=5942 (http://www.hill.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=5942)

http://people.coax.net/lwf/NAAA_CHG.HTM (http://people.coax.net/lwf/NAAA_CHG.HTM)

These are a sample of the people I grew up around. These were my mentors. They had a take no prisoner style. To survive what we had to in the segregated south and carry the full weight of the civil rights movement forward, we had to don that cloak as well. They taught us the truth is what it is, right is right and you stand boldly and say so.

Maybe that gives some insight to my straight forward take no prisoner style. I know it may come off as harsh sometimes, but straight forward is all I know.

I have a most (at least to me) delightfull story about Dr. Walter Johnson for later.
Also I will get around to putting up the information I mentioned a few posts back about why Obama being in DC is a story in contrasts.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 05, 2009, 09:42 PM
Guess what? I just noticed that there is going to be a biographical movie about Benjamin Carson! Gifted Hands. It will air on Saturday on TNT!!!

I used to "teach" him in my classes for years during February. The kids would always be astounded and want to know more about him and how he could possibly achieve as he did. I didn't have any trouble getting them to the library to research him.

I can't wait to see it! I hope that everyone will tune in! It's a wonderful story of what a person can do if he really wants to!  I can hardly wait!!! He's always been a hero of mine.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 05, 2009, 10:38 PM
That prompted an immediate search for Benjamin Carson. Here's a link to a bio of him and an article about the movie. I'll be watching.



Thanks for the info dear Witt.  This is a worthwhile read and he's quite a remarkable man.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Soft Words on February 06, 2009, 01:01 AM
Haha yes, I found a fool and a bigger fool. I live with an African-American single mother and her adowabble little two year old. (yes, I spelt it "adowabble". Two year olds dont say adorable.) The new president seems to be actually doing stuff - he is actually asking corporations to spend on their damaged portfolios instead of private jets and slash seven figure salaries. Me luvz it. I like that he is trying to take the bull (no pun intended, stock exchange) by the horns.

As an almost-done student, I know how important student loans are today, and I hope it becomes easier for some of my peers to get approved for loans soon. In an arena where education is vital to getting a job, it sounds crazy that people can't afford school and the institutions that should help ameliorate that problem are making it harder, especially if the applicant is African-American from a single-parent household. Grades don't matter. That, IMHO, is too damn unfair. (sidenote: it makes me want to swear. A whole lot.)

That guy we now call Mr President, he sorta makes me want to believe in government again. The other guy on the bus, he needs some reeducation - a lot of it, actually. It makes me realise that there is a whole spectrum of people, and it dosen't matter what color or ethnicity they belong to.

Any suggestions about how to deal with the fool though without actually punching the living daylights out of him? ( I really did want to. At hour 6. And I'm not sorry for it.)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 06, 2009, 01:49 AM
Some great stuff here! 

Benjamin Carson! Gifted Hands. It will air on Saturday on TNT!!!  Anyone know what time?  I am trying to find it!

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 06, 2009, 04:53 AM
Unfortunately there is no good way to deal with the type of people you encountered that day, Arti.
There are no right answers.
I've come into contact with all kinds of people in law enforcement.
I was also a corrections officer in the most dangerous prison in NC for a time. I've worked as a private investigator and I've been a bouncer in most all of our local trouble spots at one time or another. All the while I've been a mentor, a parent to more kids than I can count, and a big brother to many more.

The one common denominator in all those groups over the years, is when I came across a person that is determined to be a fool, there is no stopping them. The only exceptions, of course, was as a cop or corrections officer I could use force to control a situation.
Outside of being able to use force, anything you do or say becomes fuel for their fire. The kind of people you ran into feeds on attention. That's what they want and it matters not if its negative attention as long as they have all eyes on them. The more you do or say to them, the more it signals them to keep going. Did you notice that's what happened?
If the situation is of a verbal nature the best you can do is ignore them. Do nothing to bring attention to yourself. If it gets abusive, do whatever is necessary to protect yourself.
I'm afraid by doing too much you may be putting yourself in danger. After all we are talking about dealing with a complete fool.

I know my advice to you is unfair. You should not have to tolerate this kind of behavior, but there's just no way you, or society for that matter, are going to change a person like that by chastising them on the spot. It's not worth the risk. You bravely did that with the two you spoke of and all you got for your effort were bigger fools.
Write them off as a continual education in what not to be in life. Guard your heart against the temptation to take singular incidents and use that as the template for all others.

It's been my experience the best thing you can do is ignore them and extricate yourself from that situation as quickly as you can.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 06, 2009, 06:34 PM
...there is a severely damaging, self derogatory aspect to certain younger members of the African American community, and not wishing to minimize it, I have to take some solace in the direction in which the world is now moving with the election of our new president.

We now have never before known opportunities, to not only benefit the African American, but, to benefit us all, and to reverse the course of bigotry. I am optimistic that if we collectively decide to follow the leadership that has so clearly been put in place, that we will make enormous strides towards progress

Allen, I've read those words many times and I can't move past the lessons so cleverly hidden within. I hope you don't mind my spring boarding off your words into the following observations.

What I'm getting from you is content cannot be presented without context, be it words or physical action. Unfortunately those presenting certain behaviors don't burden themselves with contextual explanations or results, so we, the observers, have to put it in context.
Your words impart the meassage that regardless of what we are bearing witness to in the immediate by a select few, if we keep it in context we can see the hope, or as you said take solace, from all the other facts we are presented with, aside from what is right in front of us.

IE; the forward progress we've all seen in race relations; a black man being president; a higher collective in any particular race not acting out; a higher American collective that has passed the demarcation line set by what used to be acceptable. The open dialouge we have right here in Splash
I could go on along that line of thought Allen, but I'm sure you already know where you were taking us.

But wait Allen, I didn't miss your other point.
I'd like to take time to direct that point to all my own black people.
Allen is not telling you to just get over it.
He is not dismissing the obstacles you face.
He did not say racism is no longer a problem.
He did say we are moving in another direction.
He is saying to stop using racism as a crutch.
By extention he's also saying not to use our black president or our success to excuse abhorrent behavior.
He's pointing out the wisdom of , once recognising the obstacles, we must adjust and overcome said obstacles by paying more attention to the opportunities that are before us.
He's telling us with all the rights we have gained, whatever the defined results may be , up to and including the last election, they are not a stopping place, they are a starting place.
Plus Allen reminds us every race is benefiting. After all Obama is the American President, not the Black President.

One other thing if I may Allen.
I appreciate the way you made me think of an old adage. We cannot put the shoe on the other foot and expect a different fit. We can't expect others to step up to the plate, while at the same time making excuses for our behavior. We should demand the same fit of the shoe on us, as we demand of others.
As Mystic reminded us, we want to be judged by the content of our character. That puts the burden on us all to show some character.

If I've misrepresented any of your meanings Allen, I stand ready at the woodshed.
Otherwise, you're a pretty smart guy. You should post more often.

Now I can move on to telling you guys about growing up around Dr. Johnson.
He made a fairly large imprint on History and its map of human geography, unheralded until recently.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 10, 2009, 10:42 PM
I'm jumping the gun on the date here, but I just couldn't wait.

Caroline Robinson Jones February 15 marks the birth of Caroline Robinson Jones in 1942. She was an African-American businesswoman and entrepreneur.

Born in Benton Harbor, MI. a graduate of the University of Michigan, Jones got her Bachelor of Arts degree with a double major in English and Science. She created the Caroline R. Jones Dean's Merit Scholarship there and served on the Visiting Committee for the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. Jones' thoughts and instincts carried her a long way when she began her career in 1963 as a Secretary-Copywriter Trainee at J. Walter Thompson Company (JWT). Within weeks, she was promoted to the creative director of their largest account. Soon after Jones was promoted to junior writer. For more than five years, she was the voice of reason behind a series of national campaigns. Jones helped write "100 Years of Advertising: The J. Walter Thompson Story" special issue of Advertising Age.

Her advertising campaigns were a collective blend of sophistication and soul. For more than 30 years, she was on the cutting edge, generating upbeat and charismatic campaigns. Jones' remarkable creativity inspired many women and people of color to seek careers in advertising and marketing. Prior to starting Caroline Jones Incorporated, she was a founder, Executive Vice President and Creative Director of Mingo-Jones. There she brought her experience as Vice President and Creative Group Head and was the first Black woman ever elected Vice President of a major advertising agency. Jones was also vice president and co-creative director at Zebra Associates. Jones' contributions to the business were widespread. In addition to the creative reputation she enjoyed, she was often a speaker and lecturer.

Her associations included the Committee of 200, International Women's Forum, Advertising Woman of New York and the Boards of the New York City Partnership, Eureka Communities, The Advertising Council and the VCU Ad Center, Richmond, VA. A former Advertising Woman of the Year, she produced some of the most unforgettable campaigns in advertising history. Her presence in the advertising community motivated larger agencies to re-examine the manner in which they market to African-Americans and people of color. Caroline Robinson Jones died of cancer in New York at age 59 in July 2001.

Would you believe that I saw her son on The People's Court the other day? That reminded me that I used to "teach" her to my kids, too!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 10, 2009, 11:36 PM
I never cease to be amazed at the caliber of posting that goes on here. Being a simple H/R guy with a background similar to A-Friend I can't quite figure out how to move up the intellectual ladder to feel worthy to join you guys in conversation.

One question somewhat off topic. A-Friend you seem to have a background that belies the poet in you. Working as a police officer and in corrections has got to sully your view of the world and make for a callous, tough human being. So. . . where does the compassion come from? Seems a contrast in expected personality. 
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 11, 2009, 12:44 AM
In 1955 a young black woman refused to surrender her seat in Montgomery, Al. to a white man. She refused to get off the bus as ordered, was arrested and the rest is history. We know the story well. Or do we?

Well hold on to your hats folks. I'm not talking about Rosa Parks and what she did in 1955. This one blew me away and it should be right up there with Rosa Parks.

Allow me to introduce Claudette Colvin born Sept, 5 1939 in Montgomery, Al., and she still survives today in New York.

March 2 1955 Claudette was riding a city bus on the way home from school in Montgomery. Upon making a pick up on Court St., a handful of white passengers got on and the bus driver saw there weren't enough seats for them all to sit.
He ordered the forward four black people to move, even though they were in the blacks only seats. Claudette and one other did not move. The bus driver stopped, walked back and ordered them to move. At that time the other girl moved, Claudette just looked out the window.
A extremely brave thing for a 15 year old black girl to do in the deep south.
Her reason? "I'd moved for white people before," Colvin says. "But this time, I was thinking of the slavery fighters I had read about recently during Negro History Week in February. The spirit of Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth was in me. I didn't get up."

The bus driver summoned the police, one of them kicked her, another knocked her books from her hands and she was dragged off the bus handcuffed, kicking and screaming about her constitutional rights being violated because she had paid just like the white folks to ride. Claudette was arrested, charged with resisting, assault and battery on police officers, violating segregation laws, disorderly conduct, and was thrown into an adult cell. Some reports say she cursed the police and others as she was dragged off the bus. In a 2005 interview Claudette says she was the one cursed and ridiculed by the police.

http://core-europe.org/History/colvin.htm (http://core-europe.org/History/colvin.htm)

Now jailed, Claudette's case was discussed among the black leaders and NAACP as the test case they were looking for to carry to court. All the way to the Supreme Court if necessary.
They solicited the services of a white lawyer, Clifford Durr, who took his life in his hands and suffered greatly on behalf of the civil rights movement.

http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/bio_durr.htm (http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/bio_durr.htm)

Some controversy developed on the subject of using Claudette Colvin as the test case. She was 15, which brought into question her maturity to go through the ordeal. She became pregnant by a married man, which made her a hard sell for the religiously conservative back churches. Others say she was too dark. Fair skinned blacks were more favorably viewed even in the black community. Plus Claudette was given to emotional outburst, as any 15 year old would be.
But understanding the times, any thing that would be viewed as a distraction in this test case would have to be considered and rejected.

More on Claudette Colvin:
http://www.drizzle.com/~jcouture/1_government/gov_civil_rights/L%20Claud%20Colvin.htm (http://www.drizzle.com/~jcouture/1_government/gov_civil_rights/L%20Claud%20Colvin.htm)

The civil rights movement needed some one that had the maturity to go through an arduous trial and they needed someone of unimpeachable character. They found that person in Rosa Parks, fair skin and all.

Just as an aside. Rosa Parks' action was not staged, as some would have you believe. She did what she did for the reasons she clearly stated all through her life. She came to the attention of the NAACP after her arrest. She met all the criteria the leadership was looking for. They went to her and her husband, laid out the plan for the test case, and Rosa Park's husband said "go for it."

BUT WAIT!!! there's another twist to this story.
Are you familiar with Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, Mary Louise Smith in association withClaudette Colvin?
Not many people are.

Here's the rest of the story.
All these women predated Rosa Parks in being thrown off buses in Montgomery, Al., charged with violating segregation laws, arrested, jailed and fined. The time of these events spans from 9 months to just 40 days before Rosa Parks. It just happens that Rosa Parks met the criteria to be that public face for the NAACP when she sparked the bus boycott. Rosa Park's galvanized the black community, after all the trial runs by the previously mention women.

Here's a trivia question for you. Was it Rosa Parks' arrest leading to the Montgomery bus boycott that went to the Supreme Court and put a stop to bus segregation?

SURPRISE FOLKS!!!. The answer is no. In fact Rosa Parks' arrest had little to do with the end of bus segregation, except being the public face of the movement.

Guess who should be credited with the victory?

Well it was the case of BROWDER v. GAYLE that overturned bus segregation in Montgomery.
Aurelia Browder was the lead plaintiff against Montgomery's mayor Gayle, the city of Montgomery, Al., and the bus company.
Joining her as plaintiffs were Susie McDonald, Claudette Colvin and Mary Louise Smith Those 4 went all the way to the Supreme Court and won.
Neither Rosa Parks nor Dr. King were plaintiffs in the case.
When the decision reached the ears of the black community in Montgomery, the bus boycott ended the next day.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Browder_v._Gayle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Browder_v._Gayle)
http://www.tolerance.org/teach/activities/activity.jsp?cid=388 (http://www.tolerance.org/teach/activities/activity.jsp?cid=388)

All of these women had nothing but praise for Rosa Parks, but they were disappointed their contribution went essentially unnoticed. Some bios on these unsung, but extraordinary women:

Mary Louise Smith:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Louise_Smith (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Louise_Smith)
http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/bio_mlsmith.htm (http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/bio_mlsmith.htm)

Claudette Colvin:
http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/profile_colvin.htm (http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/profile_colvin.htm)

Aurelia Browder:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurelia_Browder (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurelia_Browder)
http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/profile_browder.htm (http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/profile_browder.htm)

Unfortunately I couldn't find any bio for Susie McDonald.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 11, 2009, 05:44 AM
Being a simple H/R guy with a background similar to A-Friend I can't quite figure out how to move up the intellectual ladder to feel worthy to join you guys in conversation.

Cappy....PLEASE do not feel that way!   We all learn from each other.  I have NO experience like Earl does...but I want to learn all I can.   I find the atmosphere here very warm and accepting, and each person has something to add.  I have never felt out of place here.  Please join in ANYTIME!!!

Witt ...  thank you for posting the info on Caroline Robinson Jones.   What a pretty and talented lady!   It is so cool that you saw her son on tv!   Thank you for sharing her with us!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 11, 2009, 05:50 AM
I am so happy to see all those links to learn about other women that took a stand, even before Rosa Parks.  She represented all of them.   Thank you Earl for introducing us to them!

I have two friends who just wrote the first history book JUST for women...it's fantastic and includes contributions of women from every race and background.   It's called Women Making America.   It takes us from the earliest days, the Native American struggle, the slaves, Civil War, women's suffrage, to the present day.  It is beautifully illustrated.        http://www.womenmakingamerica.com/

Earl, your posts about these other brave black women is very much appreciated, and reminded me of the book.
Awesome job!

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 11, 2009, 02:51 PM
Witt...Thanks for the info on Caroline Jones. Very interesting, but tragic she died at such a young age.

Cappy... I AM callous and tough. Just ask a few around these halls. Jump right in anytime.

Elise (dear daughter)... I'm going to D/L those two chapters from the book. Thanks for the link.
Just courious. Have these two friends purused this colume?  If they have, that's  bragging rights persona.  (it's a male thing)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: KnippRS on February 11, 2009, 04:09 PM
Interesting history, Poet.  Incidentally, I had sensitivity training at work, and we had a black lawyer who described events of his youth.  Among the admonitions from his father was the advice for the young man to "marry up".  The lawyer asked us if we knew what "marry up" meant in the black community, and we all assumed it was to marry a rich gal, of course, but no.  He was told to pick the lighter skinned black female as his life mate!  I wonder if it is still the case?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 11, 2009, 07:56 PM
Woooooooo-Hoooooooo.....20,000 hits today.  I'm celebrating!!!  :wine
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 11, 2009, 08:26 PM
Allow me to welcome and properly introduce KnippRS.
Mr Knipp is a participant in my local newspaper's opt-ed pages.  My moniker there is Poet.We live in different parts of the country and we joust from opposing corners. It's mostly no holds barred between two bulls.
I invited Mr Knipp here to join us. He's taken me up on the offer as he said he would, so he's a man of his word. I have a lot of respect for him and welcome any comments from him.

I'll get back to you on your question Mr Knipp. You've touched on an issue that doesn't have a short or easy answer. I'm not sure it can be articulated to the point of understanding to those that haven't lived it, but I'm going to try.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 11, 2009, 09:11 PM
Twenty thousandth! Wow!

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 11, 2009, 11:16 PM
Cappy... I AM callous and tough. Just ask a few around these halls. Jump right in anytime.

A-Friend. I'm not going to let you off quite that easy. It is easy to see a contrast from your professional life. That did not happen by accident. You are a prolific writer. Have deep opinions and a masterful sense to use with great analytical prowness. Now come on, everyone here knows you can do better than that.

Since this is black history month, you being a black man from back in the day and having reached a milestone on this board, how about telling us some of the A-Friend story during black history month. What were those epiphanies that turned you into you?

You 'gonna make me ask a third time?  :kool   :coffee
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 11, 2009, 11:26 PM
Cappy....PLEASE do not feel that way!   We all learn from each other.  I have NO experience like Earl does...but I want to learn all I can.   I find the atmosphere here very warm and accepting, and each person has something to add.  I have never felt out of place here.  Please join in ANYTIME!!!

Thanks Elsie. I do hang around and once in a while you guys hit on a topic that I can hold my own.

The 'women's book' you linked, you say you know the authors personally? I visited the links and was very impressed with what I had time to read. Sure would like a copy. A signed copy would be wonderful!

I have my own story to tell about women and the workforce but I'll reserve that for after black history month. Maybe we could have a women's time to see how much they have contributed by all of the wonderful research you guys manage to do.

As far as black history goes I could write my own. Not a national spotlight story but I have been involved in a lot of 'first' in this town.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 11, 2009, 11:35 PM
Testing a new smiley thingy. If it works and you want to know where it is I'l send a link. In the mean time this is for A-friend if he skates me again.

(http://http://www.mysmiley.net/imgs/smile/cool/cool0018.gif) (http://www.thescubasite.com/Scuba-Diving-Pictures/)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 12, 2009, 12:38 AM
KnippRS---a warm SPLASH Welcome!    :rose

Cappy---yes I know the authors personally.  Very educated women themselves, and have taken a few years to put this worthy book together.   I have emailed them and when I hear back, I will let everyone know more details...okay?   Awwww the smiley thingy didnt show for me!

YAYYYY Twenty thousandth Post!!!  That is something to be very proud of!!!  AWESOME!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 12, 2009, 11:44 PM
A hugggge thanks to my "Splash" Dad Earl aka Afriend for finding this for me!  I had seen this in the news but couldn't relocate it.  Please take the time to see this.  It's amazing.

This link is the  background story about Mr. Wilson, who was a white supmremacist.  It's detailed and I recommend people read this before they watch the video. It shows just how far Mr. Wilson had to come to make that apology. It adds greater value and context to the video (link for video posted below this link for background story)

a white supremacist apologizing to now congressman John Lewis. This link is an ABC news video :

(Wishing T7L would show me how to post the VIDEO like he so expertly does!)

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 13, 2009, 05:58 PM
This just in from Julie Hemming Savage---author of "Women Making America"

"As I'm sitting here sending my book off into the cold mean world of newspapers and magazine, I am so heartened to have such a nice message.  Thank you so much for your kind words and for helping us to spread the word.  I did get on and read on the forum.  What a great space. " (she means Splash & Black History)

Also:   "Since you have offered to help us, there are actually a couple of things that would really great.  We really need someone to go on and write a short review on Amazon and on Barnes and Noble.  We only have one on Amazon, and none on B and N.  The other thing that would be great would be if you could take it and show it to your local librarian (or local bookstore) and see if your library system would be interested in purchasing books.  We have hopes that if we create little pockets where it is available, then people will discover it and the news will spread."

Please check out the link again.  Women are absolutely an essential  part of our history, and this book illustrates it like no other!


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 14, 2009, 01:59 AM
Well I'm just tickled pink Ms Savage took the time to read this forum. Now that's an endorsment for ya'.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 16, 2009, 02:57 AM
Ok Cappy, here's your answer.
Envision a most complicated tapestry. Whatever that tapestry depicts is the end result of a lot of work, possibly the labors of many, yet you see one picture.

Now deconstruct that tapestry. When you get to the last weave in that deconstruction you'll see all the intricacies had one thing in common, the thread.
So it is with the tapestry of life, my life in this instance. I've posted about some of the people that weaved the thread that guided me through life. There's no way to point to a single thread as 'the time' I was to be who I am today.

My strict bearing is one thread, my callousness another thread, my insistence on truth another thread, my passion yet another thread. One thread means nothing without the other or it wouldn't be the tapestery that is me. It was my good fortune to have wise and insightful people that labored as my weavers.  Parents, mentors, teachers, ect.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 16, 2009, 06:48 AM
Beautiful answer... :rose
Inspired me to post The Weaver...in the rhyming section.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 16, 2009, 01:00 PM
No one has mentioned whether or not they saw Gifted Hands, but it was wonderful. It was difficult to see through all the tears.

Here is Dr. Carson's "Think Big" philosophy.

Talent/time: Recognize them as gifts.
Hope for good things and be honest.
Insight from people and good books.
Nice - Be nice to all people.
Knowledge: Recognize it as the key to living.
Books: Read them actively.
In-depth learning skills: Develop them.
God Dr. Carson’s "G" is for God.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 16, 2009, 03:11 PM
Unfortunately I had unexpected company that night, dear Witt.  I was looking forward to your summary, as usual you came through and I thank you.

I have a friend, who  teaches at Job Corp locally, that was discussing the movie at our watering hole. He wants to show it to his class, but has to submit a lesson plan to be approved by the board before he can do so. The usual red tape.

There's bound to be a rerun and I'll try to see it then.  Do you know if its on DVD?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 16, 2009, 05:01 PM

That was a pretty good answer. To tell you the truth, I pushed that just to see [ib]how[/ib] you would answer.

I read the post about your mentors and how they influenced you. However after reading you for some time it became clear that did not carry a single 'mentored' style about you. Having an ability to look below (and sometimes far below) the surface can be disconcerting to a lot of people. Case in point is this thread. Look at how many hits as opposed to how many actually post.

So I have found out what comes to the fore when it is needed and perhaps, subtly, how. Fair enough.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 16, 2009, 05:27 PM
Oh, your friend shouldn't have any problems writing a lesson plan and showing THIS movie! Oh, how I wish that it had been out when I was teaching. I had to create an article for the kids to read about his life. It was a compilation of all the things that I could find about him, and I made it readable and interesting for the kids.
There was one place in the movie where I literally GASPED at the actions of a teacher. I was was appalled.
If Cuba Gooding doesn't win an Emmy for his portrayal, no one should. He was superb!
When the movie was over, my husband said, "No wonder he was your hero." He even teared up himself.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 16, 2009, 05:33 PM
Oh, I forgot to put in the link to Carson's web site. http://carsonscholars.org/

It has what they say is the movie Gifted Hands, but it says "Juvenile edition." I don't know if it is the same thing shown on TNT or not.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 16, 2009, 05:56 PM
More on the theme of History, The Map of Human Geography. As it happens, this is also a thread in my life's tapestry.

Introducing Dr. Walter Johnson. I'm certain a lot of you are familiar with some of his accomplishments, but unable to identify who he is. Only now has his name been entered into its rightful place. We'll get to that later.
I grew up just blocks from Dr. Johnson. To us he was the rich neighbor who had his own tennis court in his yard, was nice to us kids and was 'the' black doctor that had his own very nice doctor's building. He made some home visits, but it was the older Dr. Lomax whose practice was mostly all home visits. Some of you young folks, just for pleasure, do a study on the home doctors from back in the day. I had a much more personal relationship with Dr. Lomax and his entire family, (ergo another thread in my tapestry), than I did with Dr. Johnson. But I digress.

As we grew up Dr. Johnson was the stern, but tolerant guy, that was teaching the black kids about what we thought to be a white's only thing. Tennis!!! We thought that was so strange.
Often we would ride our bikes to watch the black kids play tennis on Dr.Johnson's clay court in his yard.

Dr. Johnson was an alumni of Lincoln University where he earned the nickname Whirlwind Johnson for his exploits on the fooball field. He had moves and he refused to wear a helmet. In a 1923 game against Morgan State Whirlwind Johnson lead Lincoln U to a 56-0 victory, scoring 8 touchdowns without a helmet. In addition to playing football, Johnson was a member of the baseball team, debate team, Omega Psi Phi fraternity and the Black Hand Club, which through its motto, encouraged its members to "Do it with song and let that song be jazz.
To say the least, he was a driven individual.

It was this drive that made Dr. Johnson a task master of a coach. For him, it was not a mere matter of coaching a sport. In a time when tennis was still mostly closed to black players, Dr. Johnson knew he had to teach excellence. He taught four things to his students; etiquette, honesty, sportsmanship and self-control . He knew black players would never be able to protest their way into tennis.
He knew the only way for blacks to get into tennis was to be invited to play. Dr. Johnson organized teams from his summer programs that would play the white teams in local tournaments. He insisted on dignity, no arguing with the linesmen and above all else, never ever give the white teams an excuse not to invite them back. There was no room for tennis brats on Dr. Johnson's team.

Here's some of the accomplishments of Dr. Johnson you know of, but probably couldn't identify his connection to them.
Every black tennis player before the 1980's most likely was influenced by Dr. Johnson. Althea Gibson the first black person and black female to play and win a Grandslam in the French Open, plus the first black person to win titles at Wimbledon, got her early start right there on Whirlwind's clay court.
Aurthur Ashe was barred from playing on the city courts in his home town Richmond, Va, because of the color of his skin, so in 1954 Dr. Johnson took him in. For 10 years Aurthur Ashe stayed under the tutorship of Dr. Johnson and part of our regular neighborhood entertainment was riding bikes to Pierce street to watch him practice.

Doug Smith is a tennis sports writer that has long advocated that Dr. Johnson be given his rightful place in the Tennis Hall of Fame. In fact Doug Smith has written a book; Whirlwind-The Godfather of Black Tennis. Guess where Doug Smith got his early influence? Yup, from Dr. Johnson.

Lincoln University named some events and dedicated some buildings in honor of Dr. Johnson, but Whirlwind Johnson died in 1971 mostly unheralded.
At long last on January 16 2009 it was announced the late Dr. Walter Johnson has been named to the International Tennis Hall of Fame.

Dr. Walter Johnson lived his life saving and healing lives, teaching survivor skills, coaching, fighting for racial justice, was a giant in integrating tennis and a mentor to us kids in the neighborhood.

Local recent article about Dr. Johnson:
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on February 16, 2009, 06:06 PM
Fascinating! Thanks for sharing this with us.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on February 16, 2009, 06:59 PM
Interesting history, Poet.  Incidentally, I had sensitivity training at work, and we had a black lawyer who described events of his youth.  Among the admonitions from his father was the advice for the young man to "marry up".  The lawyer asked us if we knew what "marry up" meant in the black community, and we all assumed it was to marry a rich gal, of course, but no.  He was told to pick the lighter skinned black female as his life mate!  I wonder if it is still the case?

No, that is not the case necessarily in this day and time.

Several things were happening at the training that goes beyond the observable. I am responsible for this type of training for a number of years. The training has morphed over the last few years to a point where I am surprised that the term sensitivity training is still being used in a business format. But let's start at the beginning.

There have been several  ethnic transference (for lack of a better expression) over the years that nonwhites were not subjected to. At least not on a wide ranging scale. For the sake of space I will give the readers digest version.

Free Man


Children of slave owners later giving way to the 'one drop' rule. This was so that any child of a white person that looked white could never be classed racially as white for legal purposes of property possession.

Emancipated (word only)

Emancipated though seriously oppressed with societal and court and legal sanction. This will be the beginning of the phase that the trainer was speaking of.  Fair skinned 'negroes' had an easier time in a white society. Marrying up was a survival tactic that had its own set of pitfalls. First you had to be fairskinned yourself. Well needless to say the more white features you had the better off you would be under the suppressive system. That was so wide ranging that it became the norm for those whom were legally black under the one drop rule to 'pass' as whites and not suffer the oppression of being black. That is a whole other story.

Then came the 60's when major transitions occurred. As opposed to those "inalienable rights" that applied to whites, blacks where then afforded civil rights by court mandate not by birth right. This also became a black pride mantra where it was no longer (get this) a penalty view among blacks for being characteristically black with all of the African features that were considered even in cosmetic and hair product commercials, as undesirable, lacking beauty.

With that said the trainer was not actually speaking  about sensitivity training but about cultural competency. That is giving information about a cultural situation that has a lot of history influencing the necessity of such encouragement within the culture, influenced by extrinsic societal elements that constantly shifted paradimes based on race and color. (That was a mouthful)

I'm not a fan of terminology such as diversity training or sensitivity training. Though in essence that is what cultural competency training accomplishes.  In today's world when you use terms as sensitivity and diversity some consciously and a lot more subconsciously become defensive or offended. Why? because upon hearing of the term in reference to having to sit through a class they enter thinking that the training is supposed to make you think more like "them" or homogenize people into shades of gray.

Cultrual competency training is different. We don't want you to be us nor do we want to be you. Let me give you a prime example. The confederate flag. Cultrual competency would teach several different things that are 180 degrees different yet both acceptable. Still niether will accept the other view; and do not understand the other's view. The biggest problem is figuring out that understanding does not abdicate into acceptance.  Second problem is that the symbolism will never intersect and positions of power do not always constitute fairness or correctness.

There is more but this is enough for the readers digest version.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 16, 2009, 09:10 PM
You are so welcome my dear Witt.

Thanks for the follow up in the rhyme section dear daughter Elise.

Thanks for the information Cappy. We'll hold this topic open for discussion. You did a good reader's digest version on this, though it's a very complicated issue in the black community.

Mr Kipp...for detailed information on the 'one drop rule' --PARTUS SEQITUR VENTREM-- Cappy spoke of, I invite you to go back to page #5, Posts 85, 86, & 88. We had a lengthy discussion on the origin of the one drop rule
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: KnippRS on February 17, 2009, 10:39 AM
Thank you, Cappy, and A-Friend, for the information.  I had heard of something like one-sixteenth, not of the one drop rule.  And I have had what was called diversity training as well as cultural sensitivity training (gives me multiple degrees, doesn't it?).  I totally missed what the difference meant, and felt from my vantage that they were the same thing under different captions!  Perhaps they were different in approaches, but of course aimed to correct the same attitudes.  Ah, I long for the day when we become an assimilated culture, and strive to be good old Americans, not African Americans, or Latino Americans, or Anglo Americans, but just plain old Americans.  Obama's ascendency to the Presidency has gone a long way towards proving it possible!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 17, 2009, 09:26 PM
From the Advocate of Freedom
The Emancipator, August 23, 1838
JULY 1838

Anyone recall the parable of the good Samaritan in Luke 10:29-35? The introduction to this narrative brought that up to shine a light on a particular attitude when some read the slave narratives. I know for a fact there are those that dismiss the narratives because they think slavery wasn't all that bad.
Here's the statement:
I am aware that excepting the account of his escape, there is not a gleam of light--not even a bright shade through the whole of it. Let none, on this account neglect it. IT IS TRUE; and they who are the subjects of the cruel system here partially delineated, are lying wounded and bleeding at our very door. There was no poetry in the bruises of the man who fell among thieves between Jerusalem and Jericho. It was no pathetic tale of distress, that lured the good Samaritan from across the way, but the simple sight of a bleeding brother. "He bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine." "Go and do thou likewise."

The point is one can't read these narratives and dismiss the misery of those relating them simply because there's no positive light shined on the subject. One reads the narratives for the compelling truth they contain and to learn of the plights of bleeding brothers.

The infants of the slaves are always neglected. Their mothers take them into the field in the morning, slung on their backs, and carry a cradle on their heads made from a hollow tree. They put them in this and set them in the shade, and if they hear them cry ever so much they cannot go to see what is the matter. When they go to suckle them they sometimes find them covered with ants, and sometimes the snakes get at them and bite them.

The cook woman had a little child that was treated very cruelly. Mistress would never have it in the kitchen while she was cooking, so she had to put it in a basket and leave it out doors. It staid there all day long; and sometimes its mother would not be able to go to it all day, because Mistress hurried her so fast from one thing to another. When we came home to feed the horses and mules at 12 o'clock we would move it into the shade. It was very dirty, and at last the worms got into it and it died. When it was very sick, mistress asked what was the matter with that little nigger brat?--They told her it was dying for want of attention. Then she let its mother take it into the kitchen and tend it. It died when she was getting breakfast.

As soon as children get old enough to walk about, they always set them to do something or other. Mistress was very strict, and if we did not do every thing exactly to please her we were sure to get a whipping. An old man whipped us on our bare flesh with hickory switches. A school-master named Cleeton, boarded with her, and used to bring home a great many of them and put them in the chimney to dry. He called them "nice switches to whip the little niggers with." A good many of us were entirely naked and the rest had nothing on but shirts. I never wore any clothes till I was big enough to plough. When they whipped us they often cut through our skin. They did not call it skin, but "hide." They say "a nigger hasn't got any skin."

There was a little girl, named Margaret, that one day did not work to suit the overseer, and he lashed her with his cow-skin. She was about seven years old. As soon as he had gone she ran away to go to her mother, who was at work on the turnpike road, digging ditches and filling up ruts made by the wagons. She had to go through a swamp, and tried to cross the creek in the middle of the swamp, the way she saw her mother go every night. It had rained a great deal for several days, and the creek was 15 or 16 feet wide, and deep enough for horses to swim it. When night came she did not come back... The overseer cared very little about it, for she was only a child and not worth a great deal. Her mother and the rest of the hands hunted after her for a week. They would not let us hunt in the day time any other day. Her mother mourned a good deal about her, but dared not let the overseer know it, because he would whip her. In about two weeks the water had dried up a good deal, and then a white man came in and said that "somebody's little nigger was dead down in the brook." We thought it must be Margaret...She had fallen from the log-bridge into the water. Something had eat all her flesh off, and the only way we knew her was by her dress. She was lying on the sand-bed, and her hair was all buried in the sand. Her mother cried when we found her

Wm. Smeth, at the twelve mile house, hired me next. I staid with him one year. He afterwards moved on to the Rail Road. He had a neighbor named Bellinger, on the Dorchester road. One day master sent me to his plantation on an errand, and I saw a man rolling another all over the yard in a barrel, something like a rice cask, through which he had driven shingle nails. It was made on purpose to roll slaves in. He was sitting on a block, laughing to hear the man's cries. The one who was rolling wanted to stop, but he told him if he didn't roll him well he would give him a hundred lashes. Bellinger is dead nowblue]

They carried Peter to his hut, and tied him up so that his feet could not touch the ground, then tied his feet together and put a great log between them, to keep him stretched tight. Then they whipped him till he fainted twice in the rope. They did not leave off whipping him till midnight. One of the men that kept the door said he "guessed Peter would have to be buried the next day, master whipped him so much." They always say "a nigger is not whipped to do him good, unless he faints." They say "cut into him; a nigger has'nt got any feeling;--there's no feeling in a nigger's hide;--you must cut through his hide to make him feel."

This is the real story of a slave's life. Not fiction, not pretty and certainly no positive examples of how slavery wasn't all that bad. It's a compelling story in the Human Geography we call Black History.

http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/runaway/runaway.html (http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/runaway/runaway.html)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 18, 2009, 04:49 AM
The range of emotions when I read this...is overwhelming.   It is no wonder at all that there was, and still is, so much anger.   Man's inhumanity to man.   Excruciating.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 21, 2009, 09:31 PM
My author friends (Julie Hemming Savage, and Heidi Hemming) had this article come out in
That 'Chaperone' Was a Civil Rights Hero

 It doesn't seem like too much to ask that women be recognized as co-participants in historical events. Yet omissions such as the one in your photo caption for "The Next Chapter" [Style, Feb. 12] reinforce the idea that it is men who make history and women who help them.

The photo showed Thurgood Marshall and some of the Little Rock Nine on the steps of the U.S. Supreme Court. The caption said that the woman to Marshall's right in the picture is the teenagers' "chaperone."

Chaperone? The woman is Daisy Bates, who recruited the young people who made the stand at Little Rock Central High School.

Bates was an activist, the president of the Arkansas NAACP and a newspaper reporter who accompanied the Little Rock Nine into their personal hell of integrating the high school. Her courage and perseverance led to threats on her life.

According to Ernest Green, the first black graduate of Little Rock High, "Daisy Bates was the poster child of black resistance. She was a quarterback, the coach. We were the players."

Bates, who died in 1989, deserves acknowledgment of her integral part.  -- Heidi Hemming -- Julie Hemming Savage

Hemming and Savage are the authors of Women Making America

Daisy Bates
Ms Bates was author of the bookThe Long Shadow of Little Rock
In 2001, the Arkansas legislature enacted a provision that recognizes the third Monday in February as
[bDaisy Gatson Bates Day.[/b] Thus, her memory (along with those of American presidents) is celebrated on that date as an official state holiday. There are streets in various towns in Arkansas, including Little Rock, which bear her name.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 22, 2009, 04:16 AM
Great catch Elise. I had noticed the chaperon reference, but didn't look pass it. Thank you for taking me (us) that extra step. Ms Bates certainly deserves the recognition.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 27, 2009, 07:05 PM
More on Elise's recognition of the importance of women in history.

Frances Ellen Watkins, 1825-1911, a most interesting free born black woman I only learned of today.
What did she write about? What was her association with Rev. Brown and why was that significant to history? What were her passions and how did she manifest them? How was she affected by the Underground Railroad?
Want answers and an inspirational read?
http://voices.cla.umn.edu/vg/Bios/entries/watkins_frances_ellen.html (http://voices.cla.umn.edu/vg/Bios/entries/watkins_frances_ellen.html)

What were her thoughts on the Union and Ohio's participation in the slave laws?
A most intriguing poem on that subject:
http://education.ucdavis.edu/new/stc/lesson/socstud/railroad/Frances.htm (http://education.ucdavis.edu/new/stc/lesson/socstud/railroad/Frances.htm)

More of her poems to whet your appetite:


The sale began-young girls were there,
Defenseless in their wretchedness,
Whose stifled sobs of deep despair
Revealed their anguish and distress.


Make me a grave wherer you will,
In a lowly plain, or a loft hill;
Make it among earths humblest graves,
But not in a land where men are slaves.

I could not rest if around my grave
I heard the steps of a trembling slave;
His shadow upon my silent tomb
Would make it a place of fearful gloom

I would sleep, dear friends, where bloated might
Can rob no man of his dearest right;
My rest shall be calm in any grave
Where none can call his brother a slave.

I ask no monument proud and high,
To arrest the gaze of the passers-by;
All that my yearning spirit craves,
Is bury me not in a land of slaves.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 27, 2009, 07:28 PM
We all are familiar with Harriet Beecher Stowe and her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, but what do we know about the life of the perosn upon which she based her novel? Who was he? Where did he live? What did he accomplish in the human character we call history? Was he even a real person?

I'll answer the last question. Not only was he a real person, he placed a huge footprint in history. He was none other than Josiah Henson (1789-1883), sold three times before he was 18. You may know more about him than you think.

The autobiography of a most remarkable life:

This link has a preface explaining Herriet Beecher Stowe's association with Josiah Henon and Uncle Tom's Cabin:

This link is 'Father Henson's' story of his own life. 'Truth Stranger Than Fiction':

Put yourself in Josiah's place for a brief moment.
My brothers and sisters were bid off first, and one by one, while my mother, paralyzed by grief, held me by the hand. Her turn came, and she was bought by Isaac Riley of Montgomery county. Then I was offered to the assembled purchasers. My mother, half distracted with the thought of parting forever from all her children, pushed through the crowd, while the bidding for me was going on, to the spot where Riley was standing. She fell at his feet, and clung to his knees, entreating him in tones that a mother only could command, to buy her baby as well as herself, and spare to her one, at least, of her little ones. Will it, can it be believed that this man, thus appealed to, was capable not merely of turning a deaf ear to her supplication, but of disengaging himself from her with such violent blows and kicks, as to reduce her to the necessity of creeping out of his reach, and mingling the groan of bodily suffering with the sob of a breaking heart? As she crawled away from the brutal man I heard her sob out, "Oh, Lord Jesus, how long, how long shall I suffer this way!" I must have been then between five and six years old. I seem to see and hear my poor weeping mother now. This was one of my earliest observations of men; an experience which I only shared with thousands of my race, the bitterness of which to any individual who suffers it cannot be diminished by the frequency of its recurrence, while it is dark enough to overshadow the whole after-life with something blacker than a funeral pall.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 27, 2009, 08:24 PM
In most conversations on what the civil war was all about, you'll have the inevitable statement from southern whites that it was about states rights, not slavery. Of course we know better and history beams its light of truth on the subject, ie the economy, the enormous influence of white aristocracy from slave holding states in the government, the influence that same class had in making the laws upholding slave holders rights, each having a huge stake in the institution of slavery. I could go on, but, even in the face of all evidence, the south to this day is loath to admit slavery was the most influential cause of the civil war.

There were things that led up to Secession, but there was THE event that was the straw that broke the camel's back that actually triggered Sucession. What was that event and how was it directly associated with slavery? Why is it important to define the difference between Sucession and what event actualy triggered Sucession?

William Scarborough
Professor of History
University of Southern Mississippi at Hattiesburg
Q: What does Lincoln's election mean to Southerners? 

A: The election of Lincoln came at the end of a 25-year onslaught, increasing in crescendo against the South by outsiders, directed first against slavery, then against slaveholders, then against the South generally. And in every bit of correspondence that I have examined, there is resentment...against the North because of what they perceive as an unfair attack upon their civilization.

The election of Lincoln certainly came as no surprise to many people. I mean, if you looked objectively at the lineup in 1860, it was fairly clear he was going to win. What it means, though, is that you have a sectional President, a person who did not receive a single popular vote in any slave state except Virginia, who is committed to blocking the expansion of slavery. And it is the general belief that he's committed to more than that -- erroneously, as we know. We know that Lincoln was not an abolitionist, at least not at first. But that was the general [view]. "The black Republican President", "the black Republican Party" -- that's the phraseology used in the correspondence and newspaper editorials and so on, of the time.

Southerners had compromised in 1850, when the first crisis occurred. And at that time they had said, "We're going to compromise this time, but this is it. We're not going to yield again if this onslaught against slavery continues." Well, it continued and culminated in the election of a sectional President in 1860. And that was the fact that brought on the Civil War. There's no doubt about that. Southerners don't like to admit today that slavery was the cause of secession, which led in turn to the Civil War. White southerners do not like to admit that. You go to Sons of Confederate Veterans meetings and so on, and they talk about states' rights and economic differences and all that. But that's nonsense. Every scintilla of evidence that can be adduced from the correspondence and the editorials, that's what the issue is: slavery. And that caused secession. That does not mean, however, that Confederate soldiers thought they were fighting for the defense of slavery. Only one white family in four in the South owned slaves; three-fourths of the white families owned no slaves. And the bulk of the Confederate Army is made up of these non-slaveholders. And they're fighting for home and family and country and honor and the same things that soldiers fought for from time immemorial and still fight for, not for slavery. But that's the cause of the war. That's what triggered secession. Secession triggered the war. No doubt about it.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on February 27, 2009, 08:56 PM
Clear your mind. Empty all modern thoughts and put yourself in the shoes of the slave, in particular the slave women. 

You are nothing. You own nothing. Not your children, not your virtue, not your body, not your life.
Not a vestige of dignity is afforded you. You are worked as hard as any man, children ripped from your arms and sold, you are beaten if you mourn that lost, you are raped at will, adult or child, married or not, husbands, fathers or sons killed or beaten for the unlawful act of trying to protect your virtue.  You are a female house slave worked from sun up to sun down by the mistresses, and rather than being protected from your masters, the mistresses  brutalize you because of the attention the masters forced upon you.  Imagine, if you can, being raped at will and being punished for being powerless to stop it,  AND  unable to utter a complaint or a cry for help and justice.
Are you there? Can you feel it?  Are you a little outraged at the mere thought of such happening to you? Hold on to those feelings for a moment.

Now read the following and make your judgement, not based on your life now, but on the lives you would have lived if you were a slave woman.

Three years after the Civil War began, in May 1864, George W. Hatton and his Union regiment were encamped close to Jamestown, Virginia. Hatton had been a slave, and was now a sergeant in Company C, First Regiment, United States Colored Troops.
A month earlier, while stationed in North Carolina, he had written, "Though the Government openly declared that it did not want the negroes in this conflict, I look around me and see hundreds of colored men armed and ready to defend the Government at any moment; and such are my feelings, that I can only say, the fetters have fallen -- our bondage is over."

Now Hatton's unit was encamped near Jamestown, in a region where some of the soldiers had been enslaved. One day a group of African American freedwomen entered the camp. Hatton described the scene he witnessed in the attached article, which appeared in The Christian Recorder on May 28, 1864
Here is that letter Sargent Hatton wrote:
Camp of the 1st U.S. Colored Troops, Wilson's landing, Charles City Co., May 10th 1864.

Mr. Editor: -- You are aware that Wilson's Landing is on the James river, a few miles above Jamestown, the very spot where the first sons of Africa were landed, in the year 1620, if my memory serves me right, and from that day up to the breaking out of the rebellion, was looked upon as an inferior race by all civilized nations. But behold what has been revealed in the past three or four years; why the colored men have ascended upon a platform of equality, and the slave can now apply the lash to the tender flesh of his master, for this day I am now an eye witness of the fact. The country being principally inhabited by wealthy farmers, there are a great many men in the regiment who are refugees from this place. While out on a foraging expedition we captured Mr. Clayton, a noted reb in this part of the country, and from his appearance, one of the F.P.V's; on the day before we captured several colored women that belonged to Mr. C., who had given them a most unmerciful whipping previous to their departure. On the arrival of Mr. C. in camp, the commanding officer determined to let the women have their revenge, and ordered Mr. C. to be tied to a tree in front of headquarters, and William Harris, a soldier in our regiment, and a member of Co. E, who was acquainted with the gentleman, and who used to belong to him, was called upon to undress him, and introduce him to the ladies I mentioned before. Mr. Harris played his part conspicuously, bringing the blood from his loins at every stroke, and not forgetting to remind the gentleman of days gone by. After giving him some fifteen or twenty well-directed strokes, the ladies, one after another, came up and gave him a like number, to remind him that they were no longer his, but safely housed in Abraham's bosom, and under the protection of the Star Spangled Banner, and guarded by their own patriotic, though once down-trodden race. Oh, that I had the tongue to express my feelings while standing upon the banks of the James river, on the soil of Virginia, the mother state of slavery, as a witness of such a sudden reverse!

The day is clear, the fields of grain are beautiful and the birds are singing sweet melodious songs, while poor Mr. C. is crying to his servants for mercy. Let all who sympathize for the South take this narrative for a mirror.

Yours Truly,


Put yourself there in those slave women's shoes. Were they right? Were they wrong?

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on February 28, 2009, 02:22 AM
WOW...it incensed me to read this.  To imagine the lot of a slavegirl...

Were they right or wrong?   I am so glad I don't EVER have to judge them.  A big part of me felt glad at what they had the opportunity to do.   Another part of me understands that they got no lasting joy from doing it. 

It's just a sad thing...all the way around.   Having said those things, I will admit, that I have no doubt, that if I had been one of them, he would have felt my lash too...right or wrong.  As it is, me being a non-African American, and lucky enough to have NOT to have suffered at the hands of slavery, I still wanted to rip his head off.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on March 04, 2009, 08:45 PM
I don't know if you heard about the pending presidential pardon, but I thought you might be interested in this:

Jack Johnson packed a powerful punch. It was the kind of ham-fisted roundhouse that, as boxers say, will kill not just an opponent but his whole family as well, the kind of body-shaking blow that fells titans and makes lesser boxers weep in terror. Having one of his fists land on you was like having Paul Bunyan take a swing at you with an ax. Not until the arrival of Muhammad Ali and George Foreman on the scene more than half a century after Johnson's time would the ring see such a combination of fearsome speed and devastatingly concentrated pounds per square inch. Not even the great Gene Tunney, Joe Louis, and Jack Dempsey could quite approach Johnson's cordial lethality, which made history wherever he went.
He fought his first bout in 1893, when he was 15, and kept on smacking away until turning professional in 1897. In 1901, Joe Choynski, a former heavyweight champion, traveled to Galveston to train the young man, whose reputation had spread far outside Texas. Their first meeting was inauspicious, for in a sparring match Choynski knocked Johnson out, the police were called, and both did nearly a month in jail, boxing being illegal almost everywhere in the United States at the time. The two used their time in jail to train Johnson in secret, and by the time they emerged he was unstoppable.
Like Tunneys, the style Choynski and Johnson developed was almost scholarly: Johnson would float in the ring, feet moving miles a minute, while his opponent flailed at the empty air. In the end, tired out, that opponent would make a split-second mistake, and there was Johnson's hammer of a fist to punish him for the lapse. Some detractors in the press called Johnson cowardly for using his brain, but by 1908, his reserve had won him dozens of prizefights and earned him pots of money.
On the day after Christmas in that year, Jack Johnson, 30 years old, won the world heavyweight championship, defeating a Canadian opponent named Tommy Burns in a match held in Sydney, Australia. The fight made history, for Johnson was the first African American to earn the title—and there were plenty of fight fans and promoters who were unhappy about it in those days of segregation.
Indeed, for the next few years, Johnson went up against a string of fighters billed as “the Great White Hope, the hope apparently being that Johnson would some day lose to one of them. One of his more capable opponents, fought in 1909, was Victor McLaglen, who would go on to star in a series of John Ford films, several of them opposite a newcomer named John Wayne. For some strange reason, the world middleweight champion, a man named Stanley Ketchel, decided to test Johnson, too, and lost several teeth for his troubles.
The next year, the challenges took an uglier tone. In 1910, former heavyweight champ James J. Jeffries came out of retirement, proclaiming, “I am going into this fight for the sole purpose of proving that a white man is better than a Negro. He and Johnson met on July 4 in Reno, Nevada, in what was billed as “the Fight of the Century. It certainly was, for as the crowd chanted ugly epithets, Johnson systematically dismantled Jeffries, knocking him down twice ”the first time that Jeffries had ever fallen in the ring. In the fifteenth round, Jeffrie's manager threw in the towel.
For the next several years, Johnson traveled from continent to continent, taking on all comers in prize matches and declaring, I have found no better way of avoiding race prejudice than to act with people of other races as if prejudice did not exist. It did, of course, in those days of Jim Crow,  and Jack Johnson was derided by the press for his high-living ways and offhand remarks, as when he told a journalist that the secret of his success was to eat jellied eels and think distant thoughts. Fans rejoiced when, pulled over for a $50 speeding ticket, he gave the officer a $100 bill, saying he was going to come home at the same speed. The authorities took a dimmer view.
Eventually, Johnson was investigated by the fledgling FBI when he sent a railway ticket to a white girlfriend to see him fight in another state. (The girlfriend would become one of Johnson's many wives.) The FBI declared this a Mann Act violation. No one rushed to defend him, and with much difficulty, Johnson, having finally lost his crown in 1915, slipped out of the United States and traveled to Paris, where he seems to have regarded World War I as an inconvenience meant for him personally but took great pride in the fact that the French artillery had named a big cannon after him for the punch it packed and the black smoke it raised.
He fought a few more fights, mostly in Mexico, and then returned to the United States in 1920, surrendering to federal authorities. He served an abbreviated term, earning time off for good behavior and amusing himself in the meanwhile by inventing a kind of wrench that later earned him a federal patent. On his release he opened the Harlem nightspot that would become the famed Cotton Club, but he soon tired of city life and retired to North Carolina. There he died in a car crash on June 10, 1946. His record still impresses: 79 wins, 8 losses, and 12 draws.
One hundred years after Johnson's win and 130 years after his birth, the House of Representatives has recommended that a presidential pardon be granted to Jack Johnson. The resolution states that he was wronged by a racially motivated conviction.
"He was a victim of the times and we need to set the record straight - clear his name - and recognize him for his groundbreaking contribution to the sport of boxing," said congressman Peter King of New York, author of the resolution.

The measure now goes to the Senate, where Republican presidential nominee John McCain has a companion resolution.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 04, 2009, 10:39 PM
Wonderful review dear Witt. I knew some of Jack Johnson's story, but was not aware of his connection to The Cotton Club or of him being an inventor. I must try to find out what the wrench was.
Thanks for this informative addition.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 05, 2009, 05:03 AM
Some follow up for you Witt.

Here's the wrench Jack Johnson patented in 1922. It appears to be a modification of the monkey wrench invented by Charles Moncky in 1858. The name comes from a purposeful misspelling of 'Moncky'. We know this tool as the adjustable wrench today.
http://inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventions/ss/wrench.htm (http://inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventions/ss/wrench.htm)

Some more on Jack Johnson's story.
Jack Johnson was born to exslaves, one of six children.
He had fame, fortune, success and he was the most hated black man in America because of it.
Jack Johnson's success threatened the white supremacy hierarchy so much, it produced race riots after he won the World Championship from the white champion Tommy Burns. In fact the film cameras were turned off just before the fight finished to save the spectacle of a white man losing to a black man. Boxing films at the time were re-run in cinemas across the US.
Fact is Tommy Burns didn't want to fight Johnson, but the racial times were such that the white public demanded that Burns fight so he could put Johnson in 'his place.' Johnson followed Burns to many places to taunt him and his crew for avoiding the fight. Burns had to fight Johnson.
Johnson's victory was a major blow to Jim Crow. A White champion had been defeated by a so-called Negro. The Jim Crow system was, in effect, a racial hierarchy with Whites at the top and Blacks at the bottom. Whites were considered superior to Blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, courage, civilized behavior, and physical strength. Johnson's victory over Burns led many Whites to physically assault innocent Blacks on America's streets.

It was after the victory by Johnson over Burns that the term 'the great white hope' was coined by promoter Jack London.
***CORRECTION*** Jack London was a sports writer not a promoter.

 Johnson was thus caricatured as a subhuman ape and forced to fight a long line of 'great white hopes', defeating them all.
Johnson was hated for that and his flambouant lifestyle. He taunted and talked back to white people, which was enough to get black folks lynched in those days, but he also loved white women. Of course the press said he consorted with white women because to say each love the other would attach human feelings to this black man they caricatured as a ape.

Failing other ways to get Johnson out of the way, he was proscecuted under the Mann Act for taking an underage white woman across state lines for imoral purposes. That woman was Lucille Cameron who was 19 at the time and his wife. Two ministers in South Carolina called for Johnson to be lynched for the sin of being with a white woman. She refused to testify against him, but they fled the country. Picture:
http://www.whosdatedwho.com/couples/photos/jack-johnson-2-and-lucille-cameron.htm (http://www.whosdatedwho.com/couples/photos/jack-johnson-2-and-lucille-cameron.htm)
There's more to that story. I'll provide a link at the end.

The best 'great white hope' appeared in the form of one James J Jeffries, an undefeated retired white champion. The year was 1910. The stage was set for the fight of the century. Jeffries is quoted as saying, "I am going into this fight for the sole purpose of proving that a white man is better than a Negro."

Here's a quote from Jack London as he was calling for James Jeffries to come out of retirement:
Incredibly, Jack London wrote: "Jim Jeffries must now emerge from his Alfalfa farm and remove that golden smile from Jack Johnson's face  Jeff, it's up to you. The White Man must be rescued."

July 4 1910 was the night. There was huge racial tension with the promoters inciting the all white crowd to shout "KILL THE NIGGER!!!" The ringside band played "ALL COONS LOOK ALIKE TO ME."
Johnson's style was to be very defensive. He had footwork, he would cover and clinch, waiting for his opponent to make a mistake. He would ward off blows and counter punch. ( Ali had much success with this style as well)
The press called his style cowardly and devious.
This was glaring hypocrisy and racial bias because World Heavyweight Champion "Gentleman" Jim Corbett, who was white, had used many of the same techniques a decade earlier, and was praised by the press as "the cleverest man in boxing".
Johnson whipped Jefferies so bad that his corner threw in the towel in the 15th round, after an unprecedented two knock downs of Jefferies, to keep Johnson from knocking him out.

The aftermath was absolute outrage, because whites were humiliated by the defeat of their 'great white hope'.
It sparked race riots from Texas to Colorado, DC and NY. Twentyfive states and fifty cities were involved. Police interruped several attempted lynchings of blacks. No telling how many they couldn't stop. Hundreds were injured and at least twentyfive blacks and two whites were killed.
A few white people were injured when they tried to intervene in a crowd's beating of a black man.

All this occured not from the defeat of a white man by a black man, though that was inded the impetus. The real problem was outright racial ignorance and hatred.

Jack Johnson was no angel, but he was a man far ahead of his time.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Johnson_(boxer) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Johnson_(boxer))
http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/jackjohnson/p/bio_johnson_j.htm (http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/jackjohnson/p/bio_johnson_j.htm)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Mystic1 on March 06, 2009, 03:36 AM
Earl, your mention of Jack London and his Great White Hope comment had me asking myself the question: Was this Jack London the same Jack London of White Fang fame? So I set out on an internet quest to find the answer. My endeavors have so far been fruitless and my search continues. I did however, come across this article on the BBC website:


It's a story about a screening of a documentary on the life of Jack Johnson in London. (It's amazing what a few keywords in a search engine can bring to light.) From the article:

Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson is a PBS documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Ken Burns. It was screened by Sport Synergy and ESPN Classic at the London Southbank University as part of Black History Month with permission by PBS.

As you know I am a history buff, what you may not know is that I am a HUGE movie buff as well. Any chance I get to combine the two is just icing. I was aware of the play The Great White Hope and its subsequent film adaptation with James Earl Jones (Possibly the greatest voice in film.) and had seen that film many times over.

I couldn't find it in my TV listings...then I noticed the date of the article - Oct. 10, 2008 I did have one other recourse. I received a subscription to Netflix for Christmas last year. So I searched for it there on the off chance they would have a copy. I'm happy to say it has since been added to my list. I look forward to seeing it. I'm sure it will be an excellent piece. Ken Burns has yet to let me down. I'll give a review of the film once I have the opportunity to view it. Even if you can't find a copy of the film yourself, the article is an informative read on its own. G.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 06, 2009, 05:34 AM
Thanks for the info G. While reading about Jack Johnson I did follow a link to the movie you spoke of. I believe if one googles The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson, that home page has information on how to get the DVD.

I'm not sure if the two Jack Londons are the same either. I look forward to your research on that and your review of the movie.

Thanks for stopping in.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 06, 2009, 05:38 AM
There was a significant difference in this Black History Month discussions. Something was missing. Anyone want to take a guess what that was?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Mystic1 on March 06, 2009, 06:29 AM
I'm always one for a challenge, so I'll hazard a guess. Politics perhaps? At least, that was the first thing that sprang to mind. G.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 06, 2009, 05:04 PM
Nice try 'G', but there was a mention of politics, though indirectly, in our exchanges with Arti.
Thanks for taking a stab at it.

Anyone else want to take a guess?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 06, 2009, 10:00 PM
Guess what 'G'? 
I found that Jack London of White Fang fame and Jack London the sports writer are indeed the same person. He's reffered to in Wikipedia as a celebrity sports writer.
His life is well documented in this link. Scroll down to the section--RACIAL VIEWS-- to find the connection. Very interesting read:

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Mystic1 on March 07, 2009, 10:31 AM
Thanks Earl.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 08, 2009, 02:52 AM
Now don't everybody answer at one time.  What was missing in this Black History Month's discussions?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on March 08, 2009, 02:14 PM
I'm guessing that it was lacking an argument!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 08, 2009, 05:18 PM
Well there was no controversy this time, dear Witt, but I do invite it. Though that was a good answer there is a specific thing always here that was missing.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Reese on March 08, 2009, 06:30 PM
Now don't everybody answer at one time.  What was missing in this Black History Month's discussions?

how about fashion?  I mean, uh, who wants to argue when we can
discuss fashion?

The Embassy of the United States of American (USA) in Accra hosted a fashion show on Saturday evening to commemorate the 'Black History Month' as well as 'Women's History Month' celebrations.

The 'Black History Month' is marked every February to reflect on the contributions of the African-Americans to the national identity of America whilst the 'Women's History Month' honours the originality, beauty, imagination, and multiple dimensions of women's lives. The fashion show which saw the American Embassy women model in beautiful casual and work attires designed by black designers from Ghana was preceded by a presentation on the fashion and works of 15 successful African American women including the first lady Mrs Mitchell Obama. In a proclamation, Mr Barack Obama, President of the USA said the period was a chance "to examine the evolution of our country and how African Americans helped draw us ever closer to becoming a more perfect union".

Mr Obama said the history was one of struggle for the recognition of each person's humanity as well as an influence on the broader American culture.

He called on Americans to "take note of this special moment in our Nation's history and the actors who worked so diligently to deliver us this place."

Mr Donald Teitelbaum, the US Ambassador to Ghana said America was a place for beauty in diversity.

He said this had made America what it was today. The event was under the theme: "The Quest for Black Citizenship in the Americas".
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 08, 2009, 07:06 PM
A hardy and warm welcome to the forum Reese.
That was very interesting. I believe yours is the first entry about fashion. I had not thought of it before. This sparks an inerest in me now and I'm going to look further into it.

However since yours is the first on the subject, it can't be the thing that is missing this time.

Come in anytime Reese. I'll look forward to more from you.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Reese on March 08, 2009, 07:54 PM
I really didn't think it was what you referred
to, but I thought it would
be an added "something" Glad it fit in.
I'll do almost anything to avert mindless arguing!
I'm a huge fan of the First Lady and I think fashion
has been on my mind of late.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on March 08, 2009, 07:56 PM
Well, I have wracked my little pea-brain, and I can't think what it could be. Come on, spill!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 08, 2009, 08:48 PM
Well, dear Witt, here it is.

Since the onset of this forum I've often made the statement (or complaint) that black history shouldn't be relegated to one month out of the year. Its been my view that black history should be a seamless and integral part of American history, all histories being equal.

Every year this forum had an introduction into Black History Month and a conclusion, with genuine statements of appreciation and regconition of Black History Month at the month's end.

Did you notice that there was no introduction or conclusion this year?
It was as if no one took notice of a time frame, but continued seamlessly with our discussions like we have all year.
In my humble opinion, the fact that no one could even think of that as what was missing puts SplashHall Boards leaps and bounds ahead of the rest of the country.

I know its a small thing and I enjoy any acknowledgements and statements of appreciation about the information presented here, but it's no small matter (at least to me) that we have dropped the artificial time frame.
If it could be done, I would like to see the word 'Month' dropped from the header.

Congratulations Splash Hall community. You are an example to the rest of the country.

A-FRIEND ~ I have changed the topic title, and all replies to "Black History"  Thanks for all of your great work.  It is appreciated by many, and also, by many who we "can't see". - Allen
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: witt on March 08, 2009, 09:21 PM
Well, you may be right on that, but I thought that I just posted whenever it hit me. I could be wrong on that. You're right. Maybe I can fix the header and take the word Month out of there because I agree that awareness should be every single day.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Reese on March 08, 2009, 09:36 PM
Afriend, that's really something. You should be proud.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 08, 2009, 09:46 PM
You did post when it hit you, dear Witt. You participate all year. That's the beauty of it.
I was speaking only to the introduction and conclusion of a Black History Month, not to the actual times of the postings.
Fact is, this is the first time I didn't introduce Feb as Black History Month. So I plead guilty to doing what I decried. I've grown with the community too. Reflections are funny things huh.

Thanks Reese. Splash Hall community should be proud.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on March 10, 2009, 04:52 PM
oOo now this was some delicious "catch-up" reading.  I think...dear Dad...that part of the reason there is no "beginning or end" to this thread is because there is always delicious food-for thought here...instigated and sustained by its leader!   I love to come here to see what new thing has been added...or if I read something new on the subject I head straight for this forum to share it.   I think I am not alone in that!

So hats off to you Earl, and hats off to ALL those here in SPLASH who read and/or contribute to this very special forum!

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: WordFaery on March 13, 2009, 01:39 AM
Uncrowned Queens wins a Gracie Award.

The voices of African-American women.   Proudly produced in Buffalo, NY

Check it out:

http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/wned/news.newsmain?action=article&ARTICLE_ID=1402973 (http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/wned/news.newsmain?action=article&ARTICLE_ID=1402973)
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 13, 2009, 06:44 PM
I just had a look around there WF, very interesting. Thanks for the info and link
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: cappy on March 15, 2009, 08:29 PM
And  thought you were acknowledging my annual post, Friend!  :poet
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 18, 2009, 12:27 AM
Got ya', eh Cappy
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on March 31, 2009, 12:01 AM
WOOOOOOOOOOOOO You're a genius T7L. Teaching me a new puter trick is no small feat.
You nailed it too. I was using the whole url code.
Thanks to mystic for these youtube links, and thanks to T7L for his patience.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 01, 2009, 06:21 PM
Allen sent me a meassage with regard to the trivia question and answer back in meassage #662. You'll recall the comment about Splash Boards being ahead of the rest of the country in making Black History an integral part of history discussions, and this past Febuary not even taking note of a designated time frame.

I suggested that the advanced , progressive attitude of Splash Boards be reflected by dropping 'month' from the header of this forum. It wasn't easy, because of technical things I can't explain, but Allen found a way to do it.
I don't know how long he worked on this, but I suspect it took some time.

Thanks Allen for this gift.
I know it may seem to be a small thing, but I'm not aware of any organization (black or white), any school or college, any news outlet, not even the Black oriented publications, that have accomplished what we have right here in Splash. This is huge to me and I thank all of you for it.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Mystic1 on April 02, 2009, 07:05 AM
Men must evolve...the foundation of such a method is love. ~ Martin Luther King Jr.

I hadn't noticed the absence of Month in the title...but then, I never took much notice of its inclusion either.  ;D History is history - plain and simple.

Progresive G.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 02, 2009, 05:22 PM
Beautifully said Mystic
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 05, 2009, 03:05 AM
Follow up to Elwin Wilson's story. If you'll recall this is the gentleman that's apologizing for his racist past, including the beating of now congressman John Lewis.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 08, 2009, 02:52 AM
Born this day one Eleanora Fagan on April 7, 1915, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Ms Fagan lived a life of deep sorrows to ecstatic highs. .
Some bios about Ms Fagan claimed she had a stable childhood. I wonder because her father was an infrequent visitor, at age nine  she started skipping school, and she and her mother went to court over her truancy. She was then sent to the House of Good Shepherd, a facility for troubled African American girls, in January 1925.  Only 9 years old at the time, Ms Fagan was one of the youngest girls there. She was returned to her mother's care in August of that year. According to Donald Clarke's biography, but she was returned there in 1926 after she had been sexually assaulted at the age of 10.
In the late 20s, which puts her age in the teens, she moved to New York with her mother and worked in a house of prostitution.

These events set her life's pattern. She turned to music and was quite successful.  Benny Goodman, John Hammond, Duke
Ellington, Count Basie, Louis Armstrong, to name a few of her associates. Unfortunately she fell to the temptation of drugs and alcohol.  In 1947 she was arrested for narcotics and jailed for a year and a day. This ruined her reputation. Because of her conviction she couldn't get back her license to perform. Even so she could still perform at concert halls and had a sold out show at the Carnegie Hall, which was a great accomplishment for a black woman in that day.

Ms Fagan's mother died in 1945 and she escalated her drug and alcohol use to deal with the pain.
She continued this self destructive behavior,  but she began recording for Norman Granz,  in 1952 and In 1954 she had a hugely successful tour of Europe. She was in bad shape in 1956 from the drugs, but managed to do an autobiography with William Duffy. It is said this particular autobiography must be taken with a grain of salt.

Ms Fagan was in failing health when she married Louis Mckay in 1956, but he just used her name and money to advance himself, like most other men in her life. 
Despite all of the trouble she had been experiencing with her voice, she managed to give an impressive performance on the CBS television broadcast  with Ben Webster, Lester Young, and Coleman Hawkins. (1957 ? )
She was with the Ray Ellis Orchestra for Columbia in 1958 and gave her finale performance in New York city on May 25 1959.
By then she was so addicted the drugs had damaged her heart and liver. She was even arressted for heroin possession while in the hospital.

On July 21 1959 Ms Fagan died from those complications. This ended a life that had tragedy and glory so intricately and intimately entwined its hard to tell where one ended and the other began.

She left a legacy for all music lovers to enjoy. Her musical style gives voice to many of her followers. 
Who is Eleanora Fagan? We all know her well as Billie Holiday.

Link to some of her songs:

Link to her bio:

Eleanora Fagan at two years old.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Mystic1 on April 10, 2009, 08:25 AM
I love Miss Holiday. She's my favorite blues singer of all time. That reminds me...
A while back, I commented on one of Trout's poems he posted here, (I think it was Glass Onion - in the haiku section.) and we began discussing music. We started playing a game. Taking song titles and lyrics from a particular artist and reworking them into haiku. I happened to be listening to one of Bille's CDs (Of which I own several - and listen to often when I'm writing.) at the time and I penned this peice:

All Of Me

appetizing young
who's prepared to pay the price?
want to buy my wares?

Billie moanin' low
all for you body and soul
Georgia on your mind.

only slightly soiled
I cover the waterfront
ghost of yesterday.

I'm not sure if it's plagerism per se, but it was a fun game.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 11, 2009, 01:45 AM
 That's interesting G. One has to know a bit about Billie Holiday to appreciate that.
I've got another interesting story you'll appreciate since you're a fan of her's. Its going to take a few days to put it together.

I'm off to a retreat to celebrate our 40th anniversary. See you guys in about a week.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on April 11, 2009, 09:38 AM
Finally over complications from the flu enough to catch up here.  Wonderful information...as usual.   Earl, how fun for you to now be able to share T7L's  video capabilities here!    Thanks for the great info on Billie Holliday too...interesting stuff!   

G...great job on that Haiku.

Your 40th wedding anniversary!!!!  WOW!   Much kudos and congratulations to Earl and his wife!  Well done!
Have a wonderful trip!!!   See ya when ya get back!
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on April 11, 2009, 03:56 PM
Congratulations Earl, and Mrs Earl on 40 years together.  What a fantastic achievement.  Enjoy your retreat.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Mystic1 on April 22, 2009, 07:44 AM
Congrats Earl. Can't wait to hear the story. Most people my own age (Mid-thirties) think me a bit...how should I put it? Outdated, perhaps? Because I enjoy the old (Though, I prefer to use the term timeless standards. (At the moment I'm listening to Sarah Vaughn's rendition of You Go to My Head. Of course, I've got three different versions of that one song. Along with Sarah's I've got Billie's and Old Blue Eyes too. My only regret is that my CD collection doesn't compare to my record collection...but more to the point, I have no phonograph to play them on.

Elise, thanks for the compliment. Glad to hear you're feeling better. G.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 28, 2009, 02:17 AM
Thanks my dear daughter, Allen, and 'G' for the congrats.
Following is the story I promised 'G'. Sorry it took so long.
It's a little long, but I did try to trim it down. Problem is, with history there are so many twists and turns, one just doesn't know where to stop. I do hope you guys will take the time to read it.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on April 28, 2009, 03:13 AM
New York city 1939, The Cafe Society club listened to a lone, very nervous person, begin to applaud. That nervous applaud would change the history of music forever.
What was this momentous event? Step into my way back machine for a brief look into the past.

A Jewish school teacher, Abe Meeropol, born in 1903 and residing in New York city, saw a photograph of the lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith. The year was 1937. This photograph would never leave Abe's mind. It absolutely haunted him prompting him to write a poem about it. We'll visit that later.

Abe was a complicated man, to say the least. He was a high school English teacher, a poet, song writer, and a closet member of the communist party, and he is most remembered for adopting and raising the two sons of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg.
Little is written about the communist party and its fight against racism and lynching.

In fact during this time period (circa 1930 - 1940s) it was the Dixiecrats of the Democratic party and president Roosevelt that worked hand in hand with southern racists and anti communist fighting against racial equality, condemning the movement as a left wing plot.
It is estimated, conservatively, at least 4,000 lynchings took place in the half century before 1940, the vast majority in the South, with most of the victims being black. There was little outcry over these pogrom activities.  Black people couldn't even get the authorities to address anti-lynching laws.
It was socialists, communists, the NAACP and some few white activists that were in the forefront of the struggle against the lynchings of black people. These murderous events were mostly ignored by other good christian organizations and political parties.
When one is helplessly subjected to this kind of brutality, sanctioned and/or ignored by the constitutional authorities, and in a lot of cases these constitutional authorities actively participated in the burtality,  then one has to take help where one can find it.
That's just the plain truth of it.

It was in this political climate that Abe Meeropol wrote his poem, Strange Fruit, after seeing the aforementioned photograph.
Many have heard it, few really understand its genesis. There were peculiar juxtapositions of things that just did not fit together. That is until one knows what Abe was writing about. Lynching black people!!!
Strange Fruit was first printed in 1937 as Bitter Fruit. Abe set it to music and it was performed at benefits and meetings.

With the advent of the new Caf Society club in Manhattan, the paths of Abe Meeropol and Billie Holiday crossed. The Cafe Society club was extremely rare in its time, for it was totally intergraded,
Abe gave the song to the clubs owner (Barney Josephson) and asked for it to be given to Billie Holiday to sing. At first she wasn't impressed with it, but later realized its meaning and how closely it followed some events in her life. She got with her music writers and that night in 1939 she performed it to a stunned audience.

This was to set an unheard of precedent. A black woman, singing a racially charged protest song, to a racially mixed audience, exposing the whole of America to the injustice of lynching, with an 'in your face' accusing wagging finger.

Of course this was not the first time a protest song was written or sung, but it was the first time to have such a collaboration and public airing to a racially mixed crowd.
At first the silence was deafening. Billie holiday said in those moments of silence she deeply regreted singing 'Strange Fruit', but that lone nervous applauder, followed by thunderous applauds from the others, changed the way music was going to be used to air, protest and fight injustices forever.

Billie Holiday ( as did Abe Meeropol) took a lot of abuse for that song, but it became her signature song. She was cursed, endured racial epitaphs, had to be escorted out of clubs and towns for singing it, many clubs wouldn't allow her to sing the song but she pressed on.
Columbia records, Billie Holiday's label, would not produce the record for fear of upsetting their southern customers, so she went to Milt Gabler who had just started Commodore records and persuaded him to do it.

Despite the fact that few radio stations would play Strange Fruits, despite the fact that both Billie Holiday and Abe Meeropol were accused of being communist plotters by the McCarthy inquisitions, despite the song being labeled as musical propaganda for the NAACP, the song made number 16 on the charts.
But it also received this praise from Samuel Grafton, a columnist for the New York Post. "If the anger of the exploited ever mounts high enough in the South, it now has its Marseillaise."
Proponents of federal anti-lynching legislation urged that copies of the song be sent to Congress. Within a few years "Strange Fruit" became the title of Lillian Smith's famous 1944 anti-segregation novel.

Josephson was eventually forced to sell his clubs in 1949 due to the red baiting tactics of J. Edgar Hoover, but Billie Holiday had moved on to other venues.
Lana Turner regularly asked her to perform Strange Fruit in a club near Los Angeles, and it was at this same club that a young white man continually hurled racial epitaphs at Billie Holiday. He continued to do so through two sets and Billie said by the third set she was ready to quit before she threw something at him and ended up in jail.
As it happened Bob Hope and Judy Garland were in the audience and they badgered the heckler until he left.

Here is a review of one of Billie Holiday's performance at the Apollo in New York:

 Jack Schiffman, whose family ran the Apollo, says his father did not want Holiday to sing Strange Fruits fearing disturbances. But in his memoirs Schiffman described what happened when she did. "When she wrenched the final words from her lips, there was not a soul in that audience, black or white, who did not feel half strangled," he wrote. "A moment of oppressively heavy silence followed, and then a kind of rustling sound I had never heard before. It was the sound of almost two thousand people sighing."

Meeropol developed Alzheimer's disease in the late 1970s; his elder son played "Strange Fruit" for him in the nursing home, and when the record got too scratchy, he sang it to him. Even after the old man stopped recognizing anyone, he seemed to recognize it, and perked up when he did. When Meeropol died in 1986, it was sung at the memorial service.

A Jewish poet, Abe Meeropol; a song, Strange Fruit; a black blues singer, Billie Holiday; and an anonymous lone applauder created an anthem that night in 1939 in the fight against lynching and racism.

The words, the images, the song:

Blood on the leaves and blood at the root,
Black body swinging in the Southern breeze,
Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees.

Pastoral scene of the gallant South,
The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth,
Scent of magnolia sweet and fresh,
And the sudden smell of burning flesh!

Here is a fruit for the crows to pluck,
For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck,
For the sun to rot, for a tree to drop,
Here is a strange and bitter crop.

http://www.ladyday.net/stuf/vfsept98.html (http://www.ladyday.net/stuf/vfsept98.html)

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on May 08, 2009, 05:28 PM
I am off on vacation in a few, but wanted to share this before I go...

Don't  know  whether  you  heard  about this 
but  Denzel  Washington  and  his family visited
the  troops at   Brook   Army Medical Center ,  in 
San  Antonio ,   Texas (BAMC) the other day. This
is where soldiers who have been  evacuated from
Germany  come to be hospitalized in the United
States, especially burn  victims There are some
buildings there called  Fisher  Houses.  The Fisher
House is a Hotel where soldiers' families can stay, 
for little or no charge, while their soldier is staying 
on base, but as you can imagine, they are almost filled 
most of the time.

While Denzel Washington was visiting  BAMC, they gave
him a tour of one of the Fisher Houses. He  asked how
much one of them would cost to build. When he returned
home he sent a large donation to build a Fisher House.
We often hear about the mis-guided antics of stars such as
Britney Spears, Chris Brown, and others---it seems like news
like this is usually buried behind all the hype.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 09, 2009, 01:09 PM
Thanks for the heads upon dezel Elise. What a wonderful humanitarian act.

Have fun on your trip. Relax, enjoy and  refresh your spirit. Of course I'll be expecting details.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 16, 2009, 06:58 PM
"White African-American" Sues N.J. Medical School
By Chelsea-Badeau
Sat, 16 May 2009 02:02:59 GMT
Can a white person be an African-American? Paulo Serodio, a 45-year-old naturalized American of Portugese heritage born in Mozambique, says yes. He is suing the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for discrimination that he says led to his suspension.

He told ABCNews.com that his instructor, Dr. Kathy Ann Duncan, asked the students for self-definitions during a discussion on culture and medicine. Serodio identified himself as a white African-American. He says Duncan later told him never to refer to himself as that again, because it was offensive to others in the class.

Serodio said that he made a similar reference in another class and also wrote an article in the student newspaper titled, A More Colorful View Than Black and White. He says these actions led to harassment from other students and ultimately his suspension for unprofessional conduct.

"I wouldn't wish this to my worst enemy," Serodio said. "I'm not exaggerating. This has destroyed my life, my career."

While Serodio's suit, which asks for reinstatement at the school and monetary damages, is bringing new attention to the meaning of the term African-American, it's not a new debate.

In 2004, a white high-school student (born in Johannesburg) named Trevor Richards was suspended from an Omaha, Nebraska school after distributing posters that promoted him as a candidate for the schools "Distinguished African-American Student" award. WorldNetDaily.com reported that this story sent shock waves across America as debate rages over who can claim rights to the term African-American.

What does African-American mean? Merriam-Websters Online Dictionary defines the term as an American of African and especially of black African descent.

So if only people of black African descent should be allowed to refer to themselves as African-American, what is Serodio? "There are people of all races who are African," Serodio told ABCNews.com. He said he had no problem identifying himself in that way until Duncan's class.

Will we, as Americans, ever get to the point where we drop the titles and just become Americans?

In college, I studied abroad in Australia. One of my roommates was from Ireland. When she was introduced to some other exchange students, she asked one of the girls what she was, and the girl replied, I'm Irish. My roommate said, No you're not. I'm Irish. The girl was from America. Her great grandparents were from Ireland. My Irish roommate couldn't understand why she had referred to herself as Irish and not American.

I think we can celebrate the uniqueness of our own individual heritages and backgrounds without getting wrapped up in unnecessary titles that often hold little meaning for the people using them. Maybe I am an eternal optimist (something I have been accused of in the past), but I would like to think that at some point in the future, Americans will be less concerned with specific titles and identifications and just relate as Americans that share the same concerns, hopes, and dreams.

I leave you to make what you will of this.
My one comment is here's an individual that has absolutely no concept of the genesis of the term African American. I personally think its an effrontery to the legacy of African Americans and the bloody history/sacrifice of this culture.
Now that's just me. We did have a discussion on this legacy back on page #5 posts 85 - 88
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Mystic1 on May 17, 2009, 03:18 AM

 This is a tough question to answer. I mean, is it a question of legality, race or heritage?
     I think what it really boils down to is a question of rights. Does he have the right to sue? I think so. Will he win the lawsuit? I doubt seriously that he could. I think what is upsetting most people is the question of race. Can he claim an African-American status simply because he was born in Africa, even though he’s white? I italicize white in that question because, I think, in this case, it is merely a question of skin color - not necessarily culture. I say, you are correct when you say he has no concept of the struggle that African Americans went through to procure the rights they have today.
     Now we come to the question of heritage. This, I think, is the easiest to answer. He said himself that he is of Portuguese descent. Not African. He is African by birth, yes. But not by blood. He has the right to sue, because that is a right given him by the Constitution of the United States. He may not win the suit if he uses the strategy that he was discriminated against because he is of African birth. However, is he allowed to use the term African-American? I’d have to say yes to that. Only because, under the first amendment, he also has the right to say (or refer to himself) as whatever he wishes. Is it right to use the law in this way? Absolutely not.
     For example, if I were discriminated against because I am of German Jewish descent, would I have the right to sue? Yes. Would I be in the right? No.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Bill on May 17, 2009, 07:41 PM
Earl, Mystic1,

In exploring the integrity of the suit, his lawyer may not (and I would strongly advise against it) press the issue of a phrase, "African-American," as it relates to Black History in the United States of America.  In its genesis and current application in American English usage, it is pointedly a reference to Black Americans of African lineage.  (The fact that not all Black Americans are of African lineage is beside this point.)  So seeking to establish his right to identify with that particular phrase and the wrong done to him as he pursued that right is only going to confuse a jury, if it ever got that far.

However, he might have a case, if his lawyer elects to reference his freedom of speech, the right to speak about himself at all.  The fact that his speech might offend others in the class is weak, as professors have seen fit to offend deliberately and with impunity certain students' philosophies and beliefs.  Likewise the freedom of assembly often is coupled with the freedom to express why a group assembles, either in signs and chants.  And more often than not, those chants and signs have been offensive to other individuals or groups.  This has not led to the suspension of their freedom to assemble.  That he was granted the right of publication for his particular "speech" also lends strength to such a suit, as others saw fit to review and then publish his point of view.  The right or wrong of his position may be argued on the basis of semantics, degree of offense to other parties, and historic accuracy, but these are debate points, not legal precedent.  To suspend him because he expressed himself and would not suppress himself is opening up a cause for civil action on the basis of a fundamental right guaranteed by the constitution.  And that is the right way to use the law.

Arguments contrary to that position, based on the medical school's incorporating documents, its policy book and handbook, and the sources of its funding (federal or private, or both), might be made.  But such would have a difficult time invalidating his right to speak (especially when asked to do so by the professor herself and by the school newspaper itself) and supporting the professor's and the school's action to suspend him for that reason alone.

As for this example, Mystic, "For example, if I were discriminated against because I am of German Jewish descent, would I have the right to sue? Yes. Would I be in the right? No." it is too abstract to hold up.  Discrimination is generic.  HOW the discrimination reveals itself is concrete.  And IF that discrimination is contrary to law, it would not only be your right to bring suit, but it would be ethically obligatory in order to bring to light the illegal behavior of those who seek to put you at disadvantage.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: EpylepticTrout on May 18, 2009, 12:00 AM
We desperately search our language for generic labels. We are compelled to repent our language when the current phrase becomes politically incorrect.

It's time to learn from history. The convention of tying a demographic group to an ancestral geographic plot of land is a fallacious model. Then again we can't deny, and should celebrate culture.

Bottom line
We need a new paradigm

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Allen on May 18, 2009, 12:06 AM
Mystic1 and Bill ~ I agree with your well thought out and well presented arguments.  In your thought process, may I ask whether either of you took into consideration that the claimant is not disputing his use of the term 'African-American', but his use of the term, 'White African-American'?
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 18, 2009, 01:27 AM
All of your comments have given me pause.
I don't think he should have been suspended for the reasons so clearly stated by Bill. On the other hand, I don't know how disruptive he's been or how far the college went to quell/placate the problem.
I do know that all schools, businesses, ect, have to address issues on thier own merit. Some are tolerated, some are not. Because all offenses do not merit suspension, doesn't mean there aren't single issues/offenses that require more intense scrutiny and punishment. I don't know why this issue was elevated to the level of suspension, but I suppose that will be brought out in court, if it makes it that far.

At first blush, what galled me so bad was the frivolous way he uses the term African American. It is true one has the right to call himself what he wants under freedom of speech, but it just doesn't stop with his speech. At the end of his freedom of speech lies the right of others to demand of him to prove what he claims. Freedom of speech has never mean't freedom from the consequences of that speech.
The insult is not diminished just because he has a right to  be insulting.

I have the right to claim a royal heritage and attach that to whoever I want by virtue of freedom of speech, but that doesn't mean that those that truly have that heritage don't have a right to be insulted and challenge my claim. For me to frivolously do that for attention and giving no heed to the struggles, sacrifices and legacies invovled only cheapens that heritage.

I come at this from the perspective of being an African American and being a serious study of what that entails.
As such, its personal to me. This is not a matter (to me) that's to be litigated as some academic exersise to gain attention.
It denegrates my ancestors and the legacies of my culture. One can frivolously claim to be anything they want, but that in no way means one has earned the right to that claim.
This guy doesn't have the slightest grasp of the baptism of fire and blood that comes along with being an African American.
For me, the attempt to pervert the term into White-African American just rubs salt into the wounds he opens with this insult.

Take note. I'm not taking issue with anything you guys have said. All of you have made solid points that I have to give serious consideration.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Bill on May 18, 2009, 05:26 AM

You ask, "Mystic1 and Bill ~ I agree with your well thought out and well presented arguments.  In your thought process, may I ask whether either of you took into consideration that the claimant is not disputing his use of the term 'African-American', but his use of the term, 'White African-American'?"

No, I did not, because that is irrelevant to the point of law.  The question is whether the professor, and, by extension or direct intervention, the institution which employs her used force of authority to suppress the speech of one of its students, and, thereby, negatively impact on his advancement within the institution and, in the long term, in society.  The former is unconstitutional.  The latter is cause for punitive damages.

The defense may argue that the student is not "African-American" in respect to commonly accepted usage of the phrase.  However, the plaintive can establish that his birth country is located in the continent of African.  He can establish that he is a naturalized American citizen.  He can establish that he is caucasion.  He can establish that the professor asked him to define himself in respect to his culture.  Therefore, he may utilize the phrase, "White African - American," as a definition.  Was he being sincere in doing so, or deliberately seeking to cause controversy, even offense?  I have no contextual evidence to argue that question.  What can be argued is that he was told that he did not have the freedom to express himself that way.  Further, it might be established, (and there is insufficient information to say it can be) that the college took a position in support of that suppression. 

No offense meant, Earl, but your contention that you,   

"come at this from the perspective of being an African American and being a serious study of what that entails. As such, its personal to me. This is not a matter (to me) that's to be litigated as some academic exersise to gain attention.  It denegrates my ancestors and the legacies of my culture. One can frivolously claim to be anything they want, but that in no way means one has earned the right to that claim.  This guy doesn't  have the slightest grasp of the baptism of fire and blood that comes along with being an African American. For me, the attempt to pervert the term into White-African American just rubs salt into the wounds he opens with this insult."

would be viewed as more emotional than objective.  There may be evidence that the student was being "frivolous," that he might even have been intent on denigrating the ancestry and legacy of your culture.  However, there also might be evidence that he is just as proud of his country of origin, and the ancestry and legacy associated with it as you are of the "fire and blood that comes along with being an African American."   He is allowed to take as much pride in his continent, nation of origin, and race as anyone else.  He may not be silenced for expressing that pride verbally or in print, any more than you should be silenced for expressing your pride verbally or in print.

It would be wiser to apply the old adage here.  "I may disagree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 18, 2009, 03:40 PM
It would be wiser to apply the old adage here.  "I may disagree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
You are correct and I hope it hasn't been missed that I have said he has a right to say what he wants several times.

However, I do contend that my position is objective based on the historical record of the subject, but  I do present that argument with emotion as anyone would when their ancestry is being cheapened. Objective and emotional are not necessarily  mutually exclusive.

No offense taken. I understand your point of view.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Bill on May 18, 2009, 05:19 PM

You write clearly and concisely.  It would be hard to mistake you.  You did make it clear that he has the right to say what he wants to say.  And I was wrong to say your presentation was more emotional than objective.  Your presentation, as you describe it above was emotionally fueled objectivity. 

My point in addressing that aspect of your presentation is that we do not know (unless you have access to the article, or to audio-witness testimony, which would prove enlightening) that the student was any less emotionally invested in his lineage and history.  The relative nature of perception, combined with a given context that might affect an individual to the same extent that the context of the history of Blacks in America can and does affect both individuals and the racial group as a whole, might invest that individual with a sense of his own baptism of "fire and blood." 

Speaking from personal experience, I have no clue as to what it means to be African-American in the United States of America.  Conversely, no American, African-American or otherwise, has any clue what it meant to be me growing up in my neighborhood, in the context of my family. 

Perhaps I'm siding with Trout.  I could care less about anyone's racial background, the struggles they confronted in their homeland, or in this land, that formed them into the person they are today.  And I don't need them to know or care about mine.  What I care about is how that "anyone" and I are going to interact, if only for that one moment in time we might pass each other on the street, or, in that relationship we might be able to build and nurture from first contact on to last breath.  Everyone will get respect as an individual, but no one will get a pass because some characteristic or other identifies them as part of a group.

Now some might say that such an attitude makes me a good person.  Others might say it marks me as a bad person.  This one might say I'm ignorant.  That one might say I'm enlightened.  The guy next to me at the bar might think I'm socially aware.  The stranger in the mall might view me as socially inept.  This organization might applaud me as politically correct.  Another might express their outrage and write me down as politically incorrect. 

I don't much care how others profile me.  I just know how I want Bill to behave.  *chuckling...And most of the time, he does.

Keep writing, Earl.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on May 18, 2009, 07:54 PM
My point in addressing that aspect of your presentation is that we do not know (unless you have access to the article, or to audio-witness testimony, which would prove enlightening) that the student was any less emotionally invested in his lineage and history.� The relative nature of perception, combined with a given context that might affect an individual to the same extent that the context of the history of Blacks in America can and does affect both individuals and the racial group as a whole, might invest that individual with a sense of his own baptism of "fire and blood."

I could care less about anyone's racial background, the struggles they confronted in their homeland, or in this land, that formed them into the person they are today. And I don't need them to know or care about mine. What I care about is how that "anyone" and I are going to interact, if only for that one moment in time we might pass each other on the street, or, in that relationship we might be able to build and nurture from first contact on to last breath.
I'm with you 100%. I respect your stand and wish more people would adhere to it.

Everyone will get respect as an individual, but no one will get a pass because some characteristic or other identifies them as part of a group.
I respect your actions and thinking process on this and I would love for this to be the reality for black people, but it is not.
I can give you chapter and verse where the opposite happens everyday for African Americans. I won't bore you with the daily experiences I and my community have to face in the schools, banks, housing, political redistricting, vote caging, disenfranchisement, interaction with the police, the media, right down to what happens at the grocery store or local mall, but I will tell you racism is alive, well and very active in America today.
I have certain realities I have to deal with everyday that those that don't have to live them can't even fathom.
I take respectful notice that you acknowledged that early on
Now that doesn't make the unknowing bad people, just unknowing.

I think this dialogue shows you and I are on the same page. I have no dispute with what you're saying, which means we've met in the middle. We, by necessity of our different backgrounds, have traveled to the middle from opposite ends, but that's how one gains understanding of the other.
In my humble opinion that's the character of a good person.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on June 07, 2009, 01:04 AM
Excellent food for thought here!   

One thing that occurred to me...is the fact the there are Italian Americans. Irish Americans, etc..etc..so it would seem natural for him to call himself an African American if he was born in Africa.   

But then, that's just me.   

I wonder what I am...Irish, English, Cherokee Indian...but NOT enough to call myself ANY one of these things...lest those in that particular box be pushing me right out! 

But then, that's just me.   Why is it that humans like to put everyone into a box all neatly labeled and stuck up on a shelf somewhere.    We are ALL Americans.   Plain and simple.

I also think anyone can call himself ANYTHING he thinks he is.    What about the African Americans who "appear" white?   What are they?    Can't they just be AMERICANS?   

*ducking from all the rotten tomatoes that will probably be hurled at me*

I do NOT think we should forget the sacrifices of black people in America, or their pain...so nothing I said above should be interpreted that way.

P. S.  It's good to be home!

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 08, 2009, 12:29 AM
OHHHHH MANNNNN its good to have you back dear daughter.
I've missed you.  You'll have to catch us up on your trip.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 08, 2009, 12:39 AM
A Southern Baptist pastor in California, the Rev. Wiley Drake, told Fox News radio this week that he was praying for Obama's death. The denomination has denounced the comments.

Opposite ends of the same spectrum? Or is one clearly hiding behind religion?


2)A historical first:


3) I've been having a running conversation with a person that says black people are fanning the flames of racism so they can keep it going. I won't go into the absurd ignorance of that statement, but it springboarded into a discussion of when enough is enough. This individual is of the opinion that the pass is the pass and there is no need for black people to continually seek justice for past grievances. What this individual refuses to recognize is that (a) there are no statue of limitations on justice (b) his assertion that this is ancient history is far from true.

We are still seeking to bring to justice those that bombed, lynched, even threw young black men into rivers alive with their hands tied, as recently as the sixties.
There is a case from Jackson, Miss. that happened about the same time as those freedom riders got murdered in Philadelphia, Miss. 
James Ford Seale, 73 was convicted in 2007 in those slayings, but won an appeal saying the statute of limitations had run out on his case.
Well the 5th circuit has reversed that appeal and James Seale remains behind bars where he ought to be.
It can't be lost that this reversal makes it clear there are no statue of limitations on those seeking justice.

When is enough, enough? When justice is servered to the full extent of the law.


Title: Re: Black History
Post by: elise on June 08, 2009, 08:25 PM
YAY Earl...my Dad...its great to be home again too.  Although the trip was awesome!   I don't have time right now to address all of what you posted below, but I will when I do.

One thing...I cannot miss saying:

The Obama blamers and haters need to remember who got this country into the economic mess we are in ...in the first place.   ANYONE who was elected was doomed to inherit a mess.   And to pray for anyone's demise...makes me raise my eyebrows at the person's knowledge of God...is he muslim?   No idea as I haven't had time to check out the link yet.

I get email after email...Obama jokes and slams.   I NEVER forward them...or address them in any way.  It is just ludicrous.   Nobody is perfect, but he has accomplished a great deal already---given what he has had to work with.

Give the guy a fricken break already!

Will write more about my trip later!   :cheekiss

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 08, 2009, 10:09 PM
And to pray for anyone's demise...makes me raise my eyebrows at the person's knowledge of God...is he muslim?

Nope dear daughter, a proud Southern Baptist.

Here's something that caught me by complete surprise.
Anybody ever hear about slave soilders during WW2?
This is not the usual fare when we discuss slavery, but I'm glad its being brought to light and rectified.

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: Bill on June 09, 2009, 01:18 AM

Justice is an interesting concept, especially when it is defined as the criminal being caught and punished commensurate with the nature of his crime.

I agree with that concept.  When caught and convicted, each one convicted should be held accountable for his crime by being punished in an appropriate manner.  (We won't get into appropriate this round.)  I disagree with the idea of a statute of limitations on certain crimes.

However, such justice is only served when those who are responsible for the pursuit of, capture of, and conviction of any given criminal do their work in such a fashion that it, too, is beyond a reasonable doubt.  The current uproar in the Phoenix Metro Police Department is a case in point.  Circumstantial evidence placed two men proximate enough to crime scenes to cast suspicion on both.  Both men had done hard time, but one was incorrigible, while the other had begun to build a life with a wife and a job.  That does not necessarily raise him above suspicion, but his arrest and conviction was the point of least resistance to follow.  In addition, certain evidence gained by a patrol officer (exculpatory in nature for the man arrested) was suppressed, simply because he was not a line detective.  Now, who knows?   Will justice be served?

Justice is an interesting concept.   

Title: Re: Black History
Post by: A-FRIEND on June 09, 2009, 08:06 PM
Yup Bill, justice is a curious thing.
Some will sue for a dollar, because justice to them is validation of the truth.
Others will sue for millions with the same evidence, because justice to them is that pound of flesh.

The OJ trial. I was off of work due to a serious injury for near two years back then. Having nothing else to do I watched that whole proceeding from beginning to end. The prosecution blew it badly. If I was was on that jury and having to follow the letter of the law of reasonable doubt, I would have had to vote not guilty. Was justice served? OJ thinks so. The jury and our system of jurisprudence thought so, but obviously the majority that weren't on that jury doesn't think so.

There are all kinds if historical examples of what you refer to as justice being an interesting concept.  Greenwood, Wilmington, just to name a couple of places, had black people murdered in the street, homes and businesses burned and with the complicity of the gov and police. Not one person was charged with those crimes. Two ways of looking at justice in real time, depending on which side of the fence one was on then, or now for that matter.

Did you know a white person could be kidnapped by profiteers back in slavery days, accused of being a run away slave with no evidence other than the white kidnappers say so, and that white person could not defend him/herself?  Why? because the justice system at that time dictated that a black person could not testify against a white person. Made no difference what the person looked like, the mere fact of being accused of being black changed the whole dynamics of justice.

How about now? Remember the person that sued just to gain validation? The value of that justice was for a wrong to be righted on the basic level of that wrong being aired and acknowledged. It's on that level that black people vociferously argue that america apologize for slavery.
Not individuals, even though there are people and companies whose wealth and legacies can be traced back to their profits from slavery.
Slavery was an American sanctioned institution and the same American institution that sanctioned it needs to step up and acknowledge the wrongness of it.
That's the simple dollar's worth of justice.
Title: Re: Black History
Post by: EpylepticTrout on June 09, 2009, 09:02 PM
America did not invent slavery. Nor will it be the last to abolish it.  I do not think the USA is responsible to apologize, we are not the USA that employed slavery any more. However, that said, clearly slavery led to racial predjudice that persists, more or less today, depending of course on which area of the country your in. It's tough to legislate the removal of individual predjudice. But I believe we are overcoming it - culture changes take time. If it wasn't happening then Obama would not be our president. I'm very proud that we can elect a president without regard to pigmentation, no matter how much I disagree with Obama's ideology.

I think America should apologize now, for things like Welfare and Affirmative Action. That apology would come in the form of abolishing these gangrenous policies.

Trout <