Author Topic: Black History  (Read 435813 times)

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Re: Black History
« Reply #2591 on: March 02, 2019, 03:35 PM »
Stop looking at the light. Instead, look at what is being illuminated by the light.

Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #2592 on: March 02, 2019, 09:32 PM »
Hummm? Albert Einstein? I never knew this, but it is fascinating!!

https://www.facebook.com/346937065399354/posts/2607453492681022?sfns=mo
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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #2594 on: April 06, 2019, 11:17 AM »


In 1955 a young black woman refused to surrender her seat in Montgomery, Al. to a white man.
She refused to get off the bus as ordered, was arrested and the rest is history. We know the story well. Or do we?

Well hold on to your hats folks.
I'm not talking about Rosa Parks and what she did in 1955. This one blew me away and it should be right up there with Rosa Parks.

Allow me to introduce Claudette Colvin born Sept, 5 1939 in Montgomery, Al., and she still survives today in New York.

March 2 1955 Claudette was riding a city bus on the way home from school in Montgomery. Upon making a pick up on Court St., a handful of white passengers got on and the bus driver saw there weren't enough seats for them all to sit.
He ordered the forward four black people to move, even though they were in the blacks only seats. Claudette and one other did not move. The bus driver stopped, walked back and ordered them to move. At that time the other girl moved, Claudette just looked out the window.
An extremely brave thing for a 15 year old black girl to do in the deep south.
 
Her reason?
"I'd moved for white people before," Colvin says. "But this time, I was thinking of the slavery fighters I had read about recently during Negro History Week in February. The spirit of Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth was in me. I didn't get up."

The bus driver summoned the police. One of them kicked her, another knocked her books from her hands and she was dragged off the bus handcuffed, kicking and screaming about her constitutional rights being violated because she had paid just like the white folks to ride. Claudette was arrested, charged with resisting, assault and battery on police officers, violating segregation laws, disorderly conduct, and was thrown into an adult cell. Some reports say she cursed the police and others as she was dragged off the bus. In a 2005 interview Claudette says she was the one cursed and ridiculed by the police.

http://core-europe.org/History/colvin.htm

Now jailed, Claudette's case was discussed among the black leaders and NAACP as the test case they were looking for to carry to court. All the way to the Supreme Court if necessary.
They solicited the services of a white lawyer, Clifford Durr, who took his life in his hands and suffered greatly on behalf of the civil rights movement.

http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/bio_durr.htm

Some controversy developed on the subject of using Claudette Colvin as the test case. She was 15, which brought into question her maturity to go through the ordeal. She became pregnant by a married man, which made her a hard sell for the religiously conservative back churches. Others say she was too dark. Fair skinned blacks were more favorably viewed even in the black community. Plus Claudette was given to emotional outburst, as any 15 year old would be.
But understanding the times, any thing that would be viewed as a distraction in this test case would have to be considered and rejected.

More on Claudette Colvin:
http://www.drizzle.com/~jcouture/1_government/gov_civil_rights/L%20Claud%20Colvin.htm

The civil rights movement needed some one that had the maturity to go through an arduous trial and they needed someone of unimpeachable character. They found that person in Rosa Parks, fair skin and all.

Just as an aside. Rosa Parks' action was not staged, as some would have you believe. She did what she did for the reasons she clearly stated all through her life. She came to the attention of the NAACP after her arrest. She met all the criteria the leadership was looking for. They went to her and her husband, laid out the plan for the test case, and Rosa Park's husband said "go for it."

BUT WAIT!!! there's another twist to this story.
Are you familiar with Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, Mary Louise Smith in association withClaudette Colvin?
Not many people are.

Here's the rest of the story.

All these women predated Rosa Parks in being thrown off buses in Montgomery, Al., charged with violating segregation laws, arrested, jailed and fined. The time of these events spans from 9 months to just 40 days before Rosa Parks. It just happens that Rosa Parks met the criteria to be that public face for the NAACP when she sparked the bus boycott. Rosa Park's galvanized the black community, after all the trial runs by the previously mention women.

Here's a trivia question for you. Was it Rosa Parks' arrest leading to the Montgomery bus boycott that went to the Supreme Court and put a stop to bus segregation?

SURPRISE FOLKS!!!. The answer is no. In fact Rosa Parks' arrest had nothing to do with the end of bus segregation, except being the public face of the movement.

Guess who should be credited with the victory?

Well it was the case of BROWDER v. GAYLE that overturned bus segregation in Montgomery.
Aurelia Browder was the lead plaintiff against Montgomery's mayor Gayle, the city of Montgomery, Al., and the bus company.
Joining her as plaintiffs were Susie McDonald, Claudette Colvin and Mary Louise Smith Those 4 went all the way to the Supreme Court and won.

Neither Rosa Parks nor Dr. King were plaintiffs in the case.

When their court victory reached the ears of the black community in Montgomery, the bus boycott ended the next day.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Browder_v._Gayle
http://www.tolerance.org/teach/activities/activity.jsp?cid=388

All of these women had nothing but praise for Rosa Parks, but they were disappointed that their contribution went essentially unnoticed. Some bios on these unsung, but extraordinary women:

Mary Louise Smith:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Louise_Smith
http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/bio_mlsmith.htm

Claudette Colvin:
http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/profile_colvin.htm

Aurelia Browder:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurelia_Browder
http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/profile_browder.htm

Unfortunately I couldn't find any bio for Susie McDonald.

***PLEASE NOTE
I just noticed those pages I linked to about these four brave women are no longer up. This is re-posted from a few years ago and I have no idea why the pages were taken down.
However below I have a link to the page that has information from and about these women and others.  I invite you to take a look and read the links therein.

http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/voices-of-the-boycott/

http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/claudette-colvin/
j
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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #2595 on: April 20, 2019, 09:49 AM »
Think you already know how bad racism is? Think it’s some ancient history?
Think it’s cute to say black people just need to get over it?
 


https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/death-hundreds-elaine-massacre-led-supreme-court-take-major-step-toward-equal-justice-african-americans-180969863/
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