Author Topic: Black History  (Read 92449 times)

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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1512 on: July 26, 2012, 09:45 PM »
Step back into time and visit Clinton, Tn. with me. Clinton is about 40 minutes north of Knoxville, Tn on I75.
Listen to 'our voices' and witness the events as it unfolded in 1957. Fear, violence, courage, blantant racism in real time, from real people.

Note the language that black people had to listen to and endure. Of course we weren't/aren't supposed to hear that language according some folks today.

Not to be missed nor understated, take careful note of the heroism displayed by some of the white citizens of Clinton, Tn.

Remember the parents of these children and the black children themselves had to face the very real possibility of being killed. In fact some of the black children were attacked. Think of how you would feel having to send your children out into this kind of situation. how would you have handled it?



By the way, I lived through all this. We are not talking about ancient history.
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Offline Mystic1

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1513 on: July 27, 2012, 02:03 AM »
Trivia question.

Who was the first American to receive an international pilot license?




Elizabeth Bessie Coleman

The woman that would become the first international air pilot, Elizabeth “Bessie Coleman, was born in Atlanta, Texas on January 28, 1892 to a half-Cherokee father who was a sharecropper with her mother.  Bessie was the tenth of thirteen children,  She died on April 30 in the year she turned 34 years old. The American civil aviator as a child walked four miles each day to her all-black, one-room school from the time she was six years old for her childhood education. Although lacking school supplies and other school materials such as writing utensils, she excelled as a student.  She became an expert at mathematics.  Despite the fact that Coleman’s routine of school, chores, and church was interrupted by the cotton harvest, she managed to complete eight years of school.

Racial barriers In 1901 had her father George fed up, so he left his family hoping to make a better life by returning to Oklahoma called at the time, Indian Territory. Life was very difficult for Bessie Smith, her mother and siblings because of her father’s need to find work.. At the age of twelve, Ms. Coleman was accepted into the Missionary Baptist Church. When she turned eighteen, Coleman took all of her savings and enrolled in the Oklahoma Colored Agricultural and Normal University, which is today called Langston University.

Bessie lived on campus for only one term before she ran out of money and was forced to return home. Believing she would have no future in her home state, she went to live with two brothers who had moved to Chicago in hope of finding work.

She was twenty-three years of age when she found a job as a manicurist at the White Sox Barber Shop in Chicago, Illinois. It was during this time, reading newspaper accounts and hearing the tales of many World War One pilots returning home, that her interest in flying and becoming a pilot peaked. Working at the barbershop proved to be the most beneficial turn of events in the life Elizabeth “Bessie” Coleman. She met many influential African American men. Robert S. Abbott, the founder and publisher of the newspaper The Chicago Defender and Jesse Binga, a real estate promoter were two.  She received backing from both gentlemen.  Coleman as can be seen in the photograph was a beauty.  The newspaper capitalized by using her to promote the paper and her cause. She was not able to gain admission to American flight schools; being black and female stagnated the possibility.

Her brothers used to tease her by commenting that French women were better than African-American women because French women were pilots already. It was Robert Abbott who encouraged her to study abroad. Coleman took French language class at the Berlitz school in Chicago, and then traveled to Paris on November 20, 1920. Coleman learned to fly in a Nieuport Type 82 biplane, with "a steering system that consisted of a vertical stick the thickness of a baseball bat in front of the pilot and a rudder bar under the pilot's feet." On June 15, 1921, Coleman became not only the first African-American woman to earn an international aviation license from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, but the first African American woman in the world to earn an aviation pilot's license. Determined to polish her skills, Coleman spent the next two months taking lessons from a French ace pilot near Paris, and in September 1921, sailed for New York. She became a media sensation when she returned to the United States.


“On April 30, 1926, Coleman, at the age of thirty-four, was in Jacksonville, Florida. She had recently purchased a Curtiss JN-4 Jenny in Dallas, Texas and had it flown to Jacksonville in preparation for an airshow. Her friends and family did not consider the aircraft safe and implored her not to fly it. Her mechanic and publicity agent, William Wills, was flying the plane with Coleman in the other seat. Coleman did not put on her seatbelt because she was planning a parachute jump for the next day and wanted to look over the cockpit to examine the terrain. About ten minutes into the flight, the plane did not pull out of a planned nosedive; instead it accelerated into a tailspin. Coleman was thrown from the plane at 500 feet. William Wills was unable to gain control of the plane and it plummeted to the ground. Wills died upon impact and the plane burst into flames. Although the wreckage of the plane was badly burned, it was later discovered that a wrench used to service the engine had slid into the gearbox and jammed it, causing the plane to spin out of control. Experts noted at the time that gears in more modern planes had a protective covering — an accident like this need not have happened.“

Bessie Coleman
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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1514 on: July 27, 2012, 04:53 PM »
WOW 'G', when you answer you go big time. Right you are and thanks for the detailed work.

I'll add a little color commentary. While visiting the Wright Bros Museum in Kittyhawk, NC, I had the pleasure of reading their display about Bessie Coleman. Their information questioned the conclusion on how Bessie Coleman died. They gave two reasons.

1. Due to the nature of the times there was a hurried investigation that didn't really afford enough time for a complete investigation.

2. The two reasons given for the crash, one being a wrench in the gearbox, and the other I can't recall at the moment, were dismissed by their write up because they didn't come close to reflecting the professionalism of Bessie Coleman.
 
The museum noted that Bessie Coleman was such a meticulous pilot that she would not have missed such a thing as a wrench in an open gearbox during her pre-fight inspection, nor would she have missed the other stated cause of the crash. She was just too professional to have missed them.
The museum concluded that the cursory investigation, due to the racism of the time, was highly suspect and the real reasons for the crash is now lost to time.


While not detracting from Amelia Earhart's legacy, I do find it interesting how a woman of color who was the first American to receive an international pilot's license has not found its way into main stream history.
Here's some more trivia.
Who was the first to fly an airplane, Amelia Earhart, or Bessie Coleman?

 Amelia Earhart took her first flying lesson on January 3, 1921. She bought her first airplane for her birthday on July 24, 1921. She was granted her airline pilot’s license by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale May 16, 1923.

Bessie Coleman in November 1920, headed to France to learn to fly. We don't know the exact date of her first flying lesson, but  seven months later on June 15, 1921 she became the first African American woman to earn an international pilot's license from the Federation Aeronautique Internationale.


That would put Bessie Coleman's first flying lesson sometime in December 1920, a full year before Amelia Earhart.
That also means Bessie Coleman had her international pilot's license two years before Amelia Earhart.

Bessie Coleman flew an airplane and was licensed  before Amelia Earhart. A little known black history fact.

 
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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1515 on: July 27, 2012, 07:34 PM »
IN OUR VOICES:
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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1516 on: August 05, 2012, 03:56 PM »
Quote
“En route my feelings were peculiar,” Gibbs wrote later in his memoir, recalling the moment. “A decade had passed, fraught with momentous results in the history of the nation. I had left California disfranchised and my oath denied… I was returning, and on touch of my country’s soil to have a new baptism through the all-pervading genius of universal liberty. I had left politically ignoble; I was returning panoplied with the nobility of an American citizen.”


What do you suppose this is all about?
It's a quote from freeman Mifflin Wistar Gibbs in 1870 who had previously fled to Victoria, British Columbia, had been elected and served to city coucil in 1866, was content and properous, which was not the norm for black people of that era.
In 1870 the civil war was over, recontrcution was under way and it seemed America was on a new path in opportunities for its black citizens.

Which brings us to a little discussed subject that spurred Mifflin Gibbs and others to act.
Act on what you ask? Remember the underground railroad and how many slves escaped during thise times? Well at some time those Africans who escaped to canada returned to america to find family, seek their fortune or just to take their rightful place in a country that onced enslaved them.

University of Texas at El Paso historian Adam Arenson explores this little-known aspect of nineteenth- century African American history. For you trivia buffs this information is loaded with little known facts you can stump the best on.
Overall this is a most enlightening piece that follows the lives of escaped Africans back to this country.

http://www.blackpast.org/?q=perspectives/after-underground-railroad-finding-african-north-americans-who-returned-canada
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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1517 on: August 10, 2012, 09:01 PM »
IN OUR OWN WORDS:

True life stories from those that survived the Virgina white supremeist massive resistance to Brown V Board of Education 1954. Prince Edward County and several counties refused to follow the superme Court ruling to desegregate, thereby taking the lead in the southern stradegy of violence against blacks right through the 1960.

"http://vp.mgnetwork.net/viewer.swf
"http://vp.mgnetwork.net/viewer.swf?
"
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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1518 on: August 18, 2012, 02:16 PM »
Quote
John Brown as "a narrow-minded and possibly insane religious fanatic." This dismissal of Brown as a lunatic or, at best, a religious fanatic, is common among contemporary historians. It is ironic that the Civil War, which cost 600,000 lives, is today considered a "reasonable" or at least "understandable" event in our history, but John Brown's raid is disregarded as the bloody act of a "madman."

In 1859, the raid at Harpers Ferry was taken much more seriously, both by abolitionists and by the defenders of slavery. Several prominent abolitionists aided Brown with money and weapons in his preparations for Harpers Ferry and in his earlier fight in "bleeding Kansas." Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman were asked to join the raiders, and Harriet Tubman agreed to participate but was ill at the time of the raid. And, although the immediate reaction to the raid was shock on the part of the less militant abolitionists, many openly applauded the action and honored the raiders before the year was out. The raid at Harpers Ferry was influential in persuading Northern abolitionists that moral suasion would not be sufficient to end the slave system and that more direct action was necessary.

The South took Brown seriously, also. Under interrogation in jail he answered questions with dignity and forthrightness, and several of his captors expressed their respect for the lean, bearded old man. The conduct of John Brown during his incarceration and trial was so strong and unwavering that slavery went on trial rather than slavery's captive. The South was deeply agitated by the raid, especially by Brown's plan to draw slaves from Virginia into the mountains to build a guerrilla force that would eventually liberate all slaves. The slave system trembled in fear of slave uprisings, especially after the Nat Turner rebellion in 1831.

In order to understand the raid as a serious and important attempt to end slavery in North America, there are several questions which need to be answered about the event and about its organizer: What were the motives and the intent of John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry? What concrete abolitionist support did Brown get for the raid? What were the affects of the raid on the North and the South? If we discover clear evidence that Brown was a rational and respected man who attempted a dangerous but feasible action and made a significant contribution to ending slavery, then we must ask one final question: Why do present-day historians so frequently dismiss John Brown as a fanatic?


All those questions and many more are answered here. I must say this is the most detailed discussion I've ever read about John Brown's raid.

http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh34-1.html
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Offline noirjente

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1519 on: August 18, 2012, 03:51 PM »
Short answer? Because if John Brown is treated as a rational and sane figure, then against the backdrop of continued oppression armed struggle cannot be refuted as a viable alternative.

That is why he and Nat Turner and others are treated as semi-lunatics and or bloodthirsty sociopaths. That is why you hear all about Tubman's willingness to kill negroes who would compromise the underground railroad, but not much about her militancy against whites. Ditto the same (in his respective spheres of influence) for Douglass. That is why King is venerated (though he may have been compromised by the US government early on in his movement) while Malcolm is vilified and slandered- even though there is no question Malcolm's influence on the world was and is much greater.

Have you heard about this as well, A-Friend?

http://www.theroot.com/views/untold-story-unknown-hero

Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1520 on: August 18, 2012, 05:03 PM »
Thanks for the link noirjente, and no I hadn't heard of that uprising. I'm going to do some more research on it for my own edification.

That short answer was right on the mark. It lends itself quite succinctly with what's going on right now with voters suppression and the mind boggling ability of a segment of society to control others to their own detriment.


Its been awhile noirjente, come on in anytime.

Addendum
Here's a detailed writing on the Louisiana uprising. Very interesting.

http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-07112008-110053/unrestricted/buman_thesis.pdf

Audio link:
http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=132839717&m=132983774
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Offline noirjente

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1521 on: August 19, 2012, 04:10 PM »
Some might find it ironic that perhaps the largest slave revolt in American history is kept in obscurity by most historians, but I do not.
 
I mean how would it do to talk about a slave uprising in America inspired by the successful revolt in Haiti which was in turn inspired by the French Revolution, the same one we here in the US love to romanticize in book and film?

Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1522 on: August 21, 2012, 12:23 AM »
noirjente, we had a discussion back in post #1458 about the Haiti revolution. On my set up that's page #105. I think you'll enjoy it.
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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1523 on: August 21, 2012, 04:07 PM »
CORRECTION FROM POST #1468

For those that go back to read that post, you'll see this in quotes:
Quote
Carlota fulfilled a noble task by offering great teachings even with her own lie. Neither studying nor talking about the contribution made in that Caribbean society by the African women, in particular, implies a silent falsification of the truth.

I just noticed I misspelled the last word in the first sentence.

It should read:
Quote
Carlota fulfilled a noble task by offering great teachings even with her own life. Neither studying nor talking about the contribution made in that Caribbean society by the African women, in particular, implies a silent falsification of the truth.

My sincere and most humble apologies for making such a dreadful mistake.

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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1524 on: August 28, 2012, 05:10 PM »
Just when you think these right-wing dolts can't get any dumber or racist, what do you think will happen. Yup, they get dumber and more racist.

Think I'm making a wayyyyyyy out statement or making something up? Read it foryourself:
http://grist.org/politics/rush-limbaugh-says-obama-manipulated-hurricane-forecasts-to-delay-gop-convention/

And then there's this. If you want a real laugh, be sure to pay close attention to the last line of what Pat Robinson said:
http://videocafe.crooksandliars.com/david/pat-robertsons-cbn-suggests-god-moved-hurric

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Offline Mystic1

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Re: Black History
« Reply #1525 on: August 30, 2012, 09:20 AM »


Michelle Obama has graced magazine covers from Time to People to Vogue looking powerful, beautiful, and downright regal, but now a Spanish magazine is picturing her bare breasted, and as a slave.

The cover of Magazine Fuera de Serie, which is widely available in Spain as a newspaper lifestyles supplement, shows the first lady's face superimposed onto an 1800 portrait of a female slave by Marie-Guillemine Benoiste, a French neoclassical painter.

According to the magazine's editor, the picture is meant to honor Michelle Obama who they call the "gran mujer" (great woman) who "conquered the heart" of the man who would be president and "seduced the American people."

Many commentators aren't seeing it that way. "Let's be clear: This image has nothing to do with acknowledging Obama's enslaved foremothers, and everything to do with reinforcing and extending the historical denial of black women's individuality…" writes Althea Legal-Miller for The Clutch. She continues "The portrait robs Obama of her identity, voice, and intellect, and visually shackles her to a politically passive subject, resigned to an assigned role as slave." The Frisky writer Jessica Wakeman calls it "plain old tasteless."

Some art historians describe the original painting as a tribute to emancipation in France, which occurred in 1794 and also as a feminist statement linking the universal bondage of women to the institution of slavery. Benoiste was one of the few established female artists of her era. The reality is, the majority of people today who encounter the image will have little knowledge of its art historical significance. Instead they will simply see the first lady of the United States as a half nude servant. Accompanied by the headline, "Michelle, Granddaughter of a Slave, Lady of America" it's more of a willfully ignorant attention-grab designed to spark controversy (and magazine sales) than a legitimate homage.

This is not the first time a magazine cover featuring Mrs. Obama has garnered accusations of racism. In 2008, the New Yorker published a satirical drawing of her decked out as a radical Black Panther fist bumping with her husband who is wearing a traditional Muslim robe.

While the Obamas entered office in a supposedly "post-racial" America, what they encountered was a country where bigotry is still alive and kicking and often stirred up by their very presence in the White House. At times serving as a surrogate punching bag for her husband, Michelle Obama is likely to be labelled in some quarters as an "angry black woman" instead of the smart, accomplished person who she is.

Mikki Taylor, former editor of Essence and author of Commander in Chic writes, "The looming shadow of racism is always there and it's very sad. Who was more feisty than Barbara Bush? Laura Bush always spoke her mind, but Michelle Obama takes the heat for being an independent-thinking woman. It's so clearly based on race and a backward way of thinking."


Karine Percheron-Daniels, the artist who created the image, isn't shedding any light on its underlying message. She is quoted saying she depicted the first lady in such a manner "for obvious reasons." She adds, "I'm sure [she] would love it, and I hope that someday she can see it." We suspect the first ladies' opinion would be, in her typically dignified fashion, "no comment."

http://shine.yahoo.com/work-money/spanish-magazine-courts-controversy-michelle-obama-cover-191700427.html

Be sure to read the comments section - quite enlightening.
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