Author Topic: Black History  (Read 433856 times)

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Offline cafeRg

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Re: Black History
« Reply #14 on: February 08, 2005, 07:27 AM »
Thanks Earl for leading 'Black History Month' ..its really enjoyable to read history that iis normally hidden in our education system, yet playa substantial row in building America.

Would you mind if I re-posted this topic, as you write it, at the Blogosphere ZoO? You will get full credit.

':banda'
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Re: Black History
« Reply #15 on: February 08, 2005, 07:31 AM »
Matilda Arabelle Evans from Columbia was a pioneer in the true sense of the word. The first African-American woman to be licensed as a physician in South Carolina. She was ahead of her time in spreading the importance of good health and adequate sanitation in the state.

Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #16 on: February 10, 2005, 09:18 AM »
Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870) was a black Frenchman who became renowned  writer. His work has made some dramatic films in our time and we read his works to this very day. They include; The Three Musketeers, The Man In The Iron mask, and The Count of Monte Cristo.

Dr. Charles Drew (1904-1950) researched blood plasma and developed the process to preserve plasma. His discoveries led to the blood banks of our day. He organized the first plasma division supplying plasma to the british in WWII (1940-1941).
 He was the first director of the A.R.C. blood bank supplying plasma to the U.S. forces. (1941) He was directed by the Army and Navy to organize a massive drive for blood donations in that year. Dr. Drew was incensed when he found out the military ordered they refuse blood from black donors.

Dr. Drew was the first director of the American Red Cross blood donor programs.

He received several honors and medals for his work.

Dr. Drew died in 1950 while driving to a conference in Alabama. He fell asleep at the wheel in Burlington, NC. and over turned. It is rumored that Dr. drew bled to death because he was refused entry to the 'white's only hospital' because of his color. Whereas it is true that many blacks did die from a lack of treatment by not being admitted to the 'white's only' hospitals, it was not the case with Dr. Drew. The doctors worked "feverishly" on him according to his wife, but could not save him.



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witt

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Re: Black History
« Reply #17 on: February 10, 2005, 06:26 PM »
Here's a good one:

Lloyd "Fig" Newton was born in Ridgeland, SC. His claim to fame? The first African-American pilot to become a member of the elite flying demonstration team, the Thunderbirds.
Newton credits his parents with teaching him the Golden Rule and the love of learning.

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Re: Black History
« Reply #18 on: February 15, 2005, 12:59 PM »
Black Soilders answered the call for arms in WWII and faced barrage after barrage of attacks from the enemy. They srved with honor and dignity only to be denied medals and recgonition in history.

One could say they faced the facism abroad, and won, only to return to the states to continue fighting the loosing battle of racism.

One example from an article written in the Washington Post:

 A few months after the Allied victory in World War II, 24-year-old Capt. Harold Montgomery returned to the General Accounting Office at Fifth and G streets NW to reclaim his old job with the U.S. Post Office Department.

Since leaving 4 1/2 years earlier, Montgomery had led a heavy weapons company of the Army's all-black 92nd "Buffalo Soldiers" Infantry Division up the western coast of Italy through barrage upon barrage of German fire. He had watched wounded men die as shrapnel sliced through the plasma bags set up to give them transfusions. He had grinned and waved as cheering residents of liberated cities pressed flowers and bottles of wine into his hands.
But when the Washington native walked into the GAO's grand, high-ceilinged lobby, it was as though time had stood still. A large plaque honoring postal employees who had served in the war did not list Montgomery or any other African American veterans, he recalled. Worse still, a personnel manager informed him that he would not receive a pay raise given to returning white soldiers.

For the sake of space and time you can find the full article here:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A55650-2004May25.html
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Re: Black History
« Reply #19 on: February 12, 2005, 01:12 PM »
George and Emillia McCoy, having escaped slavery via the Underground Railroad, settled as free citizens in Canada and homesteaded a 160 acre farm.
Born to them on   5/2/1844 was Elijah McCoy, who at a early age demonstrated keen mechanical ablities. They saved enough money and sent Elijah to Scotland where he studied as a master mechanic and engineer and Elijah returned to the United States after the civil war.

Unable to procure work as an engineer because of his color, he took a job as a fireman/oilman for the Michigan Central in Ypsilanti, Mi. He shoveled coal into the fire box and, as oilman, had to lubricate the axle and bearings of the train. At this time the train would travel a few miles and be forced to stop while an oilman walked  the length of the train to lube it.
Elijah set out to find a way to automate the task in the interest of efficiency and to eliminate the frequent stopping. In 1872 he developed and patented the lubricating cup that dripped oil when and where needed.
His device was so successful R/R companies from all over the country wanted it. He continued to improve on his lubricator and it would eventualy be used in steam engines, naval vessels, oil rigs, factories and construction sites.

In time Eijah invented the graphite lubricator to be used in superheated trains and other such applications.
Knowing there were others trying to sell lubricating devices, the purchasers would always ask if their engine had the authentic device- "The Real McCoy" lubricator.

Thus was born the world known statement symbolizing top quality workmanship; 'It's the real McCoy'.

He also invented and patented a folding portable ironing board  at the 'behest' of his wife.
The desire, as with all men, to make his life easier led him to invent and patent the lawn sprinkler.
Elijah McCoy, symbol of excellence, died in 1929.



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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #20 on: February 14, 2005, 02:05 PM »
<font color='#0000FF'>Conveniently left out of popular history and such WWII movies such as 'Patton', are the Black Tank Battalions known as the Black Panthers. They made a large contribution to the war effort, in some cases being sent in harms way as cannon fodder so the white troops could come in later and clean up while claiming victory.
I give just two examples:

1)In their very first combat action, they were sent in as cannon fodder being ordered to enter the town of Morville-les-Vic, which had been by-passed by Patton because it was a German stronghold, and Patton did not want to be bogged down. The 761st was supposed to go in and allow the Germans to exhaust their ammunition on them. Then, white units would attack and mop up. Instead, after three days of fighting an entrenched, numerically superior, and well-armed enemy, the gallant men of the 761st routed the German defenders and took the town.

2)The 761st was tasked with taking the German strong hold in the town of Tillet. Every other American unit assigned to take the town had been beaten back. Tanks, artillery, and infantry inside the Ardennes Forest had assaulted Tillet and all had failed to take it. After a week of steady fighting against entrenched SS troops, the 761st took Tillet and drove the Germans out in full retreat.

There were many such feats from many Black Tank Battalions, stories of unsung heros left out of the history books bearing silent witness to the racism suffered by black men and women even as they shed their blood for this country. The ommission of these stories in the history books also bear silent witness to the bias we are force fed in schools to this day in the name of euro-centric history.

In 1978 the 761st was belatedly given the 'Presidential Unit Citation for Extaordinary Heroism' by Jimmy Carter:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States and as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, I have today awarded

 

THE PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION (ARMY)
FOR EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM
TO THE
761st TANK BATTALION, UNITED STATES ARMY
The 761st Tank Battalion distinguished itself by extraordinary gallantry, courage, professionalism and high esprit de corps displayed in the accomplishment of unusually difficult and hazardous operations in the European Theater of Operations from 31 October 1944 to 6 May 1945. During 183 days in combat, elements of the 761st - the first United States Army tank battalion committed to battle comprised of black soldiers - were responsible for inflicting thousands of enemy casualties and for capturing, destroying, or aiding in the liberation of more than 30 major towns, 4 airfields, 3 ammunition supply dumps, 461 wheeled vehicles, 34 tanks, 113 large guns, 1 radio station, and numerous individual and crew- served weapons.
This was accomplished while enduring an overall casualty rate approaching 50 percent, the loss of 71 tanks, and in spite of extremely adverse weather conditions, very difficult terrain not suited to armor operations, heavily fortified enemy positions and units, and extreme shortages of replacement personnel and equipment. The accomplishments are outstanding examples of the indomitable spirit and heroism displayed by the tank crews of the 761st.
In one of the first major combat actions of the 761st, in the vicinity of Vic-sur-Seille and Morville-les- Vic, France, the battalion faced a reinforced enemy division. Despite the overwhelming superiority of enemy forces, elements of the battalion initiated a furious and persistent attack which caused defending enemy elements to withdraw. While pursuing the enemy, tanks of the 761st were immobilized before an anti-tank ditch. Savage fire from enemy bazooka and rocket launcher teams, positioned 50 yards beyond the ditch, disabled many of the vehicles. Crewmen dismounted the disabled tanks, resulted in the elimination of many of the positions and virtually destroyed two enemy companies while permitting the escape of other tanks and crews and eventual completion of the mission.
From 5 January 1945 to 9 January 1945, the 761st engaged the 15th Panzer Division in the vicinity of Tillet, Belgium. Suffering severe casualties and damage to their tanks, the 761st attacked and counter-attacked throughout the five-day period against a numerically superior force in both personnel and equipment , and on 9 January 1945 the men of the 761st routed the enemy from Tillet and captured the town. This action was significant in that the enemy was prevented from further supply of its forces encircling Bastogne, and the United States troops there, because of the closing of the Brussels-Bastogne highway by the men of the 761st.
One of the most significant accomplishments of the 761st began 20 March 1945 when, acting as the armor spearhead, the unit broke through the Seigfried Line into the Rhine plain, allowing units of the 4th Armored Division to move through to the Rhine River. During the period 20 March 1945 to 23 March 1945 the battalion, after operating far in advance of friendly artillery, encountered the fiercest of enemy resistance in the most heavily defended area of the war theater. Throughout the 72-hour period of the attack, elements of the 761st assaulted and destroyed enemy fortifications with a speed and intensity that enabled the capture or destruction of 7 Siegfried towns, 31 pill-boxes, 49 machine gun emplacements, 61 anti-tank guns, 451 vehicles, 11 ammunition trucks, 4 self-propelled guns, one 170mm artillery piece, 200 horses, and one ammunition dump. Enemy casualties totaled over 4,100 and of those captured it was determined that the 761st in its Siegfried Line attack had faced elements of 14 different German divisions. The accomplishments of the 761st in the Siegfried area were truly magnificent as the successful crossing of the Rhine River into Germany was totally dependent upon the accomplishment of their mission.
The men of the 761st Tank Battalion, while serving as a separate battalion with the 26th, 71st, 79th, 87th, 95th and 103d Infantry Divisions, the 17th Airborne Division, and 3d, 7th, and 9th Armies in 183 continuous days in battle, fought major engagements in six European countries, participated in four major allied campaigns, and on 6 May 1945, as the easternmost American soldiers in Austria, ended their combat missions by joining with the First Ukrainian Army (Russian) at the Enn River, Steyr, Austria.
Throughout this period of combat, the courageous and professional actions of the members of the "Black Panther" battalion, coupled with their indomitable fighting spirit and devotion to duty, reflect great credit on the 761st Tank Battalion, the United States Army, and this Nation.
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Offline cafeRg

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Re: Black History
« Reply #21 on: February 16, 2005, 08:28 AM »
Earl was wondering if you had any African American poems (perhaps slavery) that we could could put up on the blogs?

Langston Hughes is one my favorites and is always popular but I'm thinking of the less known?
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Re: Black History
« Reply #22 on: February 17, 2005, 01:00 PM »
Phillis Wheatley, ( commonly mispelled Phyllis),  born mostly likely in Senegal, Africa cirrca 1753 or 1754. Died free in poverty December 5, 1784 just ahead of her third child.

She was kidnapped and enslaved being bought in 1761 by John Wheatley to be a personal servant to his wife, Susanna. As was the custom she was given her master's surname. Being enslaved by the Wheatley's made her life more fortunate than other slaves. She was taught to read and write and allowed to expand her studies once her keen abilities were evident.

In 1773  a collection of her poems were published and this caused great concern amoung the white establishment. They doubted that any slave could write poetry and if it was proven she actually did write them, then it would demostrate she could THINK, an accomplishment they found absolutely scandalous to contemplate. ( Think, for a moment, about the ramifications of that revelation. Now they have to face the fact that chattel can think.)
Susanna Wheatley, her master, set out to debunk this nonsense and Phillis was brought before a panel of 13 learned and respected men of position in Boston to be questioned and examined to determine if she indeed wrote the collection.
This preface was placed in her book:

"WE whose Names are underwritten, do assure the World, that the POEMS specified in the following Page, were (as we verily believe) written by Phillis, a young Negro Girl, who was but a few Years since, brought an uncultivated Barbarian from Africa, and has ever since been, and now is, under the Disadvantage of serving as a Slave in a Family in this Town. She has been examined by some of the best Judges, and is thought qualified to write them."

Witnessing the revolutionary war and the events that led up to them, Phillis Wheatley wrote this:

" From native Clime, when seeming cruel Fate
Me snatch'd from Afric's fancy'd happy Seat
. . . Ah! what bitter pangs molest
What Sorrows labour'd in the Parent Breast?
That, more than Stone, ne'er soft Compassion mov'd
Who from its Father seiz'd his much belov'd.
 
 And hold in bondage Afric's blameless race?
Let virtue reign - And thou accord our prayers
Be victory our's, and generous freedom theirs."
--"On the Death of Gen. Wooster" (July 1778)  

Though she had more freedom and priviledge than most slaves, this passage demonstrated she regonized she was still only a slave.

Phillis Wheatley's story and links to her poems:
<a href="http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_phillis_wheatley_2.htm" target="_blank">http://womenshistory.about.com/library....y_2.htm[/url]</font>



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Offline A-FRIEND

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Re: Black History
« Reply #23 on: February 22, 2005, 05:23 AM »
Peter Cooper, born 1791 in New York city, went on to become one of the greatest 19th century inventors and, in 1825,  built the first American steam locomotive called the Tom Thumb. He built a glue factory and a iron mill among his many business ventures. He was also a supporter of Abe Lincoln and a passionate abonlishonist.

Consider his proposal to avert civil war;
"Buy the four million slaves from the south and free them."
Sound crazy? Well compare that to the cost of four billions dollars and half million lives the civil war cost.
"http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi835.htm" http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi835.htm[/url]

Meet Moses Austin, whose son, Stephen Austin, led the way to colonize Texas and the city Austin bears his name to this day.
Moses and his brother, whose name I cannot find, went into the lead business making lead shot as early as 1790. The venture failed around 1796 and Moses went on a scouting trip for about two years and in 1798 Moses opened even bigger lead mines in Missouri. The lead business was so labor intensive that by 1814 Moses made the bad mistake  of buying slaves, which bankruted him by 1819. His mistake?  The slaves cost him more to feed and house than freemen would have.
"http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi954.htmhttp://www.uh.edu/engines/epi954.htm[/url]

Thomas Hodgkin, yes the same one who gives his name to Hodgkin's disease, was passionately anti-slavery, even befriending freed slaves in his home. He saw things in ways that others did not and after rasing his vioce in concert with otheres, it took Britain just three years to abolish slavery.
"http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi817.htm" http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi817.htm[/url]

Harriet Beecher Stowe, the Quakers... now what do all these non-black people( and others, too many to mention) have to do with black history? What is the common thread?  They are the ones that made the incremental steps to abolish slavery.

Until the passage of the 13th Amentment in 1865, there were no monumental steps to free all slaves. Not the civil war, not Abe Lincoln, who said if he could save the Union by not issuing the Emancipation Proclamation  he would not free a single slave. Abe Lincoln himself believed in white supremacy.  The only thing the Emancipation Proclamantion did was to free the slaves in the states that were in rebellion. It didn't even free the slaves that were fighting in the Union army.

Slavery was abolished by those that advocated justice, one small step at a time; those that had radical ideas; even those that believed in slavery, but saw the financial ruin it brought them, culminating in the reluctant Emancipation Proclamation thta forever attached the isue of slavery to the civil war and the 13th Amendment December, 1865.



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Re: Black History
« Reply #24 on: February 25, 2005, 07:04 PM »
In 1839 a group of  Mende Africans were taken  into slavery by Spaniards, to be taken to Cuba. They overcame their captors on the spanish ship Amistad, oddly enough that name meaning friendship.
The Mende forced the Spaniards to sail east toward Africa by day, but by night the Spaniards would head back toward Cuba. Eventually this led to them landing in the Long Island Sound where the Mende were arrested and put on trial.
What happens next is demonstrative of how insidiously evil slavery was, and the depths to which the US government would stoop. The United States wanting to return the Africans to Spain, lacking any other legal recourse, charged the Mende Africans( the very ones that were kidnaped) with violating America's anti-slave laws by bringing the ship into American waters.

The US Supreme Court, after some lenght, set the Mende free and put them back on a ship to Sierra Leone.



 
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Re: Black History
« Reply #25 on: February 26, 2005, 11:57 AM »
Inventions claimed by some notable people before the civil war, were often the ideas or inventions of blacks both free and slave. The free blacks knew that their inventions would suffer if they tired to patent them, so they had thier produts registered by white people such as lawers. Just as often as not, since the blacks most often could not read or write, their patents were stolen by the same people.
The slaves coudn't patent their inventions at all, they being property themselves their inventions were the proerty of the masters.

A few notable examples of technology flowing from the ones that actually do the work:

Eli Whitney got the idea of his cotton gin from a slave known only as Sam. Sam's father had solved the problem of separating seed from cotton by the use of a kind of a comb. Whitney simply mechcanized the comb.

Cyrus McCormick  famed for the McCormick reapers and tractors, worked so closely with a slave called Jo Anderson in developing the reaper that it's hard to discern where Anderson ended and McCormick begins, but McCormick got the patent.

A slave of Jefferson Davis brother,whose name was Benjamin Montgomery, invented a new screw propellor for steam ships, replacing the ineffecient paddle wheel. Not only did Jeff Davis steal the rights to the invention, but it was put to use by the south during the civil war to keep slavery intact.

Cotton Mather a famous preacher in colonial Boston, scientist and practicer of medicine knew of a inoculation against small pox as early as 1712. He learned it from a African slave. Found in his documents from the slave;"... take the Juice of the Small Pox, and Cut the Skin and put in a drop: then by 'nd by a little Sick, then a few Small Pox; and no body dye of it; no body have Small Pox any more. "

The lesson in this is that disenfranchised minorities look unproductive because they have no franchise. Historians of technology are just beginning to see that the slave inventors we know about are only the tip of a very large iceberg.




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Re: Black History
« Reply #26 on: February 27, 2005, 01:44 PM »
Although no WWII Medals of Honor were awarded at the time to any African Americans, researchers later determined that at least seven (and possibly more) black servicemen deserved this award.
Here are some examples of the Black soldier in action and the redress they recieved posthumusly:

 One of these men was Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers, who was severely wounded in action on 15 November 1944 but refused medical evacuation so that he might stay with his company. When their advance was stopped by enemy fire at Bougaltroff, France, on this date, Rivers’ tank helped cover the company’s withdrawal. Rivers was killed and the other crewmen were injured when their tank was hit by enemy fire. Rivers was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in January 1997.

14 December 1944  Lieutenant (later Captain) Charles L. Thomas was another of the seven African Americans posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor in January 1997. Thomas won this prestigious award for his heroism in action on this date near Climbach, France. Wounded in the initial enemy fire while storming the village, Thomas helped his comrades to safety at which time he was wounded again. Despite intensely painful multiple wounds, he directed the emplacement of two antitank guns and thoroughly briefed the platoon commander before allowing himself to be evacuated.

26 December 1944  First Lieutenant John R. Fox, a member of Cannon Company, 366th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Division, sacrificed his life to direct defensive artillery fire to slow the German advance on Sommocolonia, Italy. Although most of their fellow infantrymen were forced to withdraw because they were outnumbered by the enemy, Fox and others in his observer party voluntarily remained in town to direct Allied artillery fire. Fox willingly directed fire onto his own position because it was the only way to defeat the attacking Germans. He, too, was posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor in January 1997 for his valorous actions on this date.

 

23 March 1945  Another of the seven African-American soldiers posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in January 1997 was Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr. After the tank on which he was riding came under enemy fire near Speyer, Germany, Carter voluntarily led a 3-man group across an open field against the enemy. Two of the men were killed and one was seriously wounded in the attempt, but Carter continued alone until he, too, was wounded and forced to take cover. Although eight German soldiers were sent to capture him, Carter managed to kill six of them and take the other two hostage. As he led his prisoners back to his unit, he learned valuable information about enemy troops in the area.

5-6 April 1945 The only one of the seven WWII African-American Medal of Honor winners still alive to receive his award in January 1997 was Second (later First) Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker. In fighting near Viareggio, Italy, Baker showed extraordinary heroism by singlehandedly destroying two enemy positions as well as two more with his men’s aid. He then covered the evacuation of his company’s wounded by drawing enemy fire to an exposed position. The following night he voluntarily led a battalion assault against the enemy through minefields and heavy fire.

7 April 1945 Private First Class Willy F. James, Jr., was killed while attempting to aid his fatally wounded platoon leader. As lead scout on a maneuver to secure and expand a vital bridgehead, James was pinned down for over an hour. During that time he observed enemy positions in detail, then used that information to help his platoon plan a new maneuver. James died while leading a squad during the assault. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism in January 1997.

22 August 1945 Colonel Julian G. Herne, Jr., commander of the black 24th Infantry Regiment, accepted the surrender of Aka Island, the first formal capitulation of a Japanese army garrison.

The void of  men and women of color in our history books is nothing less than shameful. It is my hope that all will take a little time to learn of the contributions of people of color in our history, often with no hope of reaping any benefits.
From the Black fighters that fought with George Washington in Yorktown, Va. forcing the surrender of Cornwalis and thereby helping in the very birth of this nation, to the Black troops that helped stopped Robert E. Lee in Appomatox, Va., forcing his surrender and thereby reuniting this country.

Everything from inventions to just awesome examples of the will of the human spirit to survive such degredation as slavery and racism to this day, is exemplified by Black Americans.

Thanks Witt for your participation. Thank you Petro for your contribution, but I'm still curious to have my question answered.
And thank you RG for the encouragement to go forward  with these posts.

This brings these proceedings to a close.
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Offline cafeRg

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Re: Black History
« Reply #27 on: February 28, 2005, 08:56 AM »
Thank you Earl for leading Black History Month. Its was very interesting and enlightening. History brings understanding to the present. We need to do more history on cultures.

 ':bnik'
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